近代史とアジャイル / Modern History and Agile

近代史とアジャイル / Modern History and Agile

XP祭り 2020

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Fumihiko Kinoshita

September 19, 2020
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  1. ۙ୅࢙ͱΞδϟΠ ϧ ໦Լ࢙඙ Ӭ࿨γεςϜϚωδϝϯτ "HJMF4UVEJPݕఆࡁڭՊॻ ೔ຊ91Ϣʔβάϧʔϓ༻ 91 ࡇΓ  ৄઆ

  2. ೥ΠΪϦε https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB:View_of_the_manufactory_of_Boulton_%26_Fothergill_in_Birmingham_by_Francis_Eginton_1773.jpg#file

  3. δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SteamEngine_Boulton%26Watt_1784.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Watt_James_von_Breda.jpg ൃ໌Ոɺػցٕज़ऀ ೥ৠؾػؔ鲗վྑ (1736ʙ1819)

  4. ࢈ۀֵ໋ ೥ʙੈل຤ wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢ wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑΔٕज़ͷ஀ੜ w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม ࢈ۀࣾձ https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114

  5. ΞμϜɾεϛε https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SteamEngine_Boulton%26Watt_1784.png ఩ֶऀɺྙཧֶऀɺܦࡁֶऀ ೥ʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ 鲰鲟鱅鳘鲲ɾ鳧鲻鳀鱑鲨鳡鲱鲬鱅େֶߏ಺鱬࣮ݧث۩੡଄ɾमཧళ 鲗։ۀ鱞鲐鱳鲗खॿ鱖 (1723ʙ1790)

  6. ࢈ۀֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ

    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ࣾձ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
  7. ໰୊ɿͲ͕ͬͪlΞδϟΠϧzʁ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eug%C3%A8ne_Delacroix_-_La_libert%C3%A9_guidant_le_peuple.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Declaration_of_Independence_(1819),_by_John_Trumbull.jpg A B

  8. ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ೥࡞੒ɺ೥ൃޮ ݱࡏ鲇ػೳ鱜鱫鱉鲐ੈք࠷ݹ鱳੒จݑ๏ Կ鲇ܾ鲆鱫鱉鱯鱉 鲔鱟鱐৚ 鱉鱔鱩鱐鱳جຊཧ೦ɺ੍౓ɺ؆୯鱯खଓ鱒鲗ఆ鲆鱤鱥鱖 ޙੈ鲗റ鲏鱤鱔鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋ॊೈ鱯ൃ૝ ݶ鲏鱇鲐ਓ鱳਎鱭鱜鱫鱴ਅཧ鱴鱯鱐鱯鱐鱩鱐鲆鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋 ߟ鱍ํ मਖ਼खଓ鱒鱑ఆ鲆鲎鲑鱤།Ұ鱳ݑ๏

    վਖ਼鱬鱴鱯鱉 ݑ๏৚߲鱴׬݁鱜鱫鱉鲐鱳鱬ɺมߋෆՄೳ ৽鱜鱉৚߲鲗௥Ճ鱞鲐ํ๏鱬मਖ਼鱞鲐鱳鱬ɺओݖऀ鱳ݖར 鲉ࣗ༝֦େ鱜鱐鱬鱒鱯鱉 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:United_States_Constitution.jpg ΠϯΫϦϝϯλϧ ΞδϟΠϧ ϚχϑΣετ ͷਫ਼ਆ
  9. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ੈل຤ʙ೥ wςΠϥʔͷՊֶత؅ཧ๏͕஀ੜ w࢓ࣄʢ೑ମ࿑ಇʣʹ஌ࣝΛ׆༻ wੜ࢈ੑ͕ඈ༂తʹ޲্ʢഒʹʣ ޻ۀࣾձ ࢈ۀֵ໋ ೥ʙੈل຤ wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢ wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑΔٕज़ͷ஀ੜ

    w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม ࢈ۀࣾձ https://gazoo.com/article/car_history/140919_1.html https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114
  10. ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔ ٕज़ऀɺܦӦֶऀ 鲾鲜鳡鱅Ҏલ 鲍鲏ଟ鱔鲗ੜ࢈鱞鲐鱤鲆鱳།Ұ鱳ํ๏鱴ɺ鲍鲏௕鱔ಇ鱐鱠鲐鱐ɺ 鲍鲏ܹ鱜鱔ಇ鱐鱠鲐鱘鱭鱥鱨鱤ɻ 鲾鲜鳡鱅鱳ޭ੷ ࢓ࣄ鱢鱳鲇鱳鱳ݚڀɺ෼ੳɺ鲠鳫鲰鳃鲚鳢鳫鲨鱰஌ࣝ鲗Ԡ༻ ੈل鱳ܦࡁൃల鱳ૅ鲗ங鱉鱤ɻ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_L._Gantt.jpg ΨϯτνϟʔτΛൃ໌

    ͨ͠ϔϯϦʔɾΨϯτ ͸ςΠϥʔͷఋࢠ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frederick_Winslow_Taylor.JPG (1856ʙ1915)
  11. Պֶత؅ཧ๏ʢ՝ۀ؅ཧ΍࡞ۀͷඪ४ԽͳͲʹΑΔ࿑ಇऀ؅ཧͷํ๏࿦ʣ ࢓ࣄ鲗୯७࡞ۀʢ୯७൓෮ಈ࡞ʣ鱰෼ղ鱜ɺ૊鲄௚鱞鱘鱭鱬ੜ࢈ੑ鲗ߴ 鲆鲐ํ๏ Պֶత؅ཧ鱳ݪଇ ࡞ۀ鱳֤ཁૉ鱰鱩鱉鱫Պֶత鱰෼ੳ鱜ɺ࢓ࣄ鲗࠷鲇ೳ཰త鱰਱ߦ鱬鱒鲐࠷ળ鱳ํ๏鲗ߟҊ鱞鲐ɻ ࡞ۀऀ鱴ߟҊ鱚鲑鱤௨鲏鱳鲉鲏ํ鱬࢓ࣄ鲗਱ߦ鱞鲐鲍鱋ڭҭ鱜鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ࡞ۀऀ鱢鲑鱣鲑鱑ɺ鱮鱳 ࢓ࣄ鱰ద鱜鱫鱉鲐鱐鲗ݟ鱩鱖鱫ɺҰྲྀ鱰鱯鲐鲃鱬܇࿅鱞鲐鱳鱴؅ཧऀ鱳໾ׂ鱬鱇鲐ɻ ؅ཧऀ鱴࢓ࣄ鲗ୡ੒鱞鲐鱤鲆鱰ɺ࡞ۀऀ鱭ڠྗ鱜鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ ؅ཧऀ鱳੹೚鱴ܭըཱҊ鱭؂ಜ鱰ܞ鲔鲏ɺ࡞ۀऀ鱴鱢鲑鲗਱ߦ鱞鲐ɻ 鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱽鱳൷൑

    ಇ鱔ਓؒ鲗ࣗಈԽ鱚鲑ඪ४Խ鱚鲑鱤ػց鱭鱜鱫ݟ鱤ɻ࿑ಇऀ鲗ࣾձత鱯Ґஔ鲉໾ׂɺݸੑ鲗鲇鱤鱯鱉࿑ಇ ྗɺඪ४Խ鱚鲑ަ׵ࣗ༝鱯ࣃं鱭鱜鱫ݟ鱤ɻ ख़࿅鲗൱ఆɻ鱢鲑鲃鱬鱴ɺຊ෺鱳࿑ಇऀ鱭鱴ɺٕज़ऀ鲉৬ਓ鱭鱜鱫鱳ތ鲏ɺ࢓ࣄ鱳த਎鱳ཧղɺඞཁ鱭鱚鲑 鲐ٕೳɺ鱢鱜鱫ࣾձత鱯鱜鱐鲐鱾鱒Ґஔ鱭໾ׂ鲗鲇鱩ਓʑ鱥鱨鱤ɻ
  12. γϟϕϧ͍͘͢ͷ࣮ݧ Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash 鳕鳫鳁鱐鲎鳕鳫鳁鲃鱬鳕鳫鳁ࠁ鲄鱬鲱鳀鲻鳏鲞鲡鲻鲹鱬࣌ؒ 鲗ܭଌ ᶃ鱞鱔鱋࣌ؒ

    ᶄ鱯鱗鲐࣌ؒ 鱷鱭鱞鱔鱉鱳ྔ鳕鳫鳁ʢ໿LHʣ鱑鲇鱨鱭鲇ർ࿑ 鱑গ鱯鱔ɺ࠷େ鱳࡞ۀྔʢੜ࢈ੑʣ鲗ಘ鲎鲑鲐 γϟϕϧͻͱ͍͘͢ͷॏ͞ʹద੾ͳॏ͕͋͞Δ w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鱳ฑ鱳ଠ鱚ɺ௕鱚ɺ࣋鱦ํ w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鲗ࠩ鱜ࠐ鲅鱭鱒鱳֯౓ɺྗ w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鱬鱞鱔鱉औ鱨鱤෺鲗౤鱗ग़鱞ڑ཭ 鲉ߴ鱚 鱰鱩鱉鱫鲇࣮ݧ鲗ߦ鱨鱤ɻ ੜ࢈ੑ͸ഒʹ
  13. ໰୊ɿͲΕ͘Β͍ࣅ͍ͯΔʁ Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/

  14. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ੈل຤ʙ೥ wςΠϥʔͷՊֶత؅ཧ๏͕஀ੜ w࢓ࣄʢ೑ମ࿑ಇʣʹ஌ࣝΛ׆༻ wੜ࢈ੑ͕ඈ༂తʹ޲্ʢഒʹʣ wੜ࢈ཁૉ͸౔஍ɺ࿑ಇɺࢿຊ wϘεͱ෦Լͷ૊৫ wϚωδϝϯτͷ࢓ࣄ͸ࢦش໋ྩ w࢓ࣄ͸ॴ༩Ͱ͋Γɺͦͷ಺༰͸ҰఆͰ͋Δ ޻ۀࣾձ

    ࢈ۀֵ໋ ೥ʙੈل຤ wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢ wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑ͏Δٕज़ͷ஀ੜ w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม ࢈ۀࣾձ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋ ೥ʙ w஌ࣝ࿑ಇʹ͓͚Δ஌ࣝͷ׆༻ w஌ࣝ࿑ಇͷੜ࢈ੑΛ޲্ w஌͚͕ࣝͩҙຯ͋ΔࢿݯͰ͋Γɺ౔஍ɺ࿑ಇɺࢿຊ ͸ೋٛతͳཁૉ w྅༑ʹΑΔνʔϜ wϚωδϝϯτͷ࢓ࣄ͸ํ޲෇͚ w࢓ࣄ͸ॴ༩Ͱ͸ͳ͍ɻܾΊ͍͔ͯͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ ஌ࣝࣾձ https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/ https://gazoo.com/article/car_history/140919_1.html https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114
  15. ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ

  16. ܽ఺୯७Խ鱚鲑鱤Ծఆ ςΠϥʔओٛ ܭըཱҊ鱭࣮ߦ࡞ۀ鱳෼཭ ಠཱ鱜鱤඼࣭෦໳鱳ઃஔ 鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱰鲍鲐鲵鱅鲯鳛鳣鲠鳫鲰鳃鲚鳢鳫鲨 鱳खॱ ௨ৗɺ෺ࣄ鱴ܭը鱮鱏鲏鱰ਐ鲅ɻ ہॴ࠷దԽ鱴શମ࠷దԽ鱰鱩鱯鱑鲐ɻ ਓ鱴鲀鲁୅ସՄೳ鱬鱇鲏ɺԿ鲗鱞鱾鱒鱐鲗ࢦࣔ鱞鲐ඞཁ鱑 鱇鲐ɻ

    ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ
  17. ໰୊ɿͲΕ͘Β͍ࣅ͍ͯΔʁ Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash 鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱬໰୊鱭鱯鲐鱳鱴ɺ鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱰൐鱋࢓ࣄ鱳ࣾձߏ଄鱥ɻ 鲾鲜鳡鱅鱑ఏএ鱜鱤ʮ࣌ؒɾಈ࡞ݚڀʯ鱳ّࣜ鲉ಓ۩鱘鱢鱯鱔鱯鱨鱫鱉鲐鱑ɺ զʑ鱴ແҙࣝ鱰鱘鱳ࣾձߏ଄鲗ܧঝ鱜鱫鱉鲐鱳鱬鱇鲐ɻ

    鱢鱳ࣾձߏ଄鱴ɺ鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱰鲃鱨鱤鱔ద鱜鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/
  18. ࢈ۀֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ڞ࢈ओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ ✦

    δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ ࣾձ
  19. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ࢈ۀֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ڞ࢈ओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ

    ޻ۀࣾձ ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏ ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ 5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ ࣾձ
  20. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ڞ࢈ओٛ

    ϙετࢿຊओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏ ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ 5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋ ✦ ι࿈่յ ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ ✦ "31"/&5 ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ ࣾձ
  21. ϧωɾσΧϧτ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frans_Hals_-_Portret_van_Ren%C3%A9_Descartes.jpg ఩ֶऀɺزԿֶऀ ೥ʰํ๏ংઆʱ 鱤鱥鱷鱭鱩鱳࣮֬鱯鲇鱳鱑༩鱍鲎鲑鲐鱯鲎鱵ɺ鲇鱋鱷鱭鱩 ࣮֬鱯鲇鱳鲗ࣔ鱠鲐 鱞鱾鱫鱳鲇鱳鱴ҼՌؔ܎鱬໌鲎鱐鱰鱯鲐 ࿦ཧ鱳ྗ鱰鲍鱨鱫ਆ鱳ଘࡏ鲃鱬આ໌鱬鱒鲐 ۙ୅߹ཧओٛʢʮ鳚鲸鳫ʯʣ鱭ݴ鲔鲑鲐ߟ鱍ํ ҙຯ鱳鱇鲐鲇鱳鱴ҼՌؔ܎鱭ఆྔԽ鱬鱇鲐

    ػցతੈք؍ શମ鱴෦෼鱳࿨ɺ鱢鲑鱮鱘鲒鱐෦෼鱰鲍鱨鱫نఆ鱚鲑鲐 (1596ʙ1650)
  22. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ڞ࢈ओٛ

    ϙετࢿຊओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏ ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ 5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋ ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʰஅઈͷ࣌୅ʱ ✦ ι࿈่յ ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ ✦ "31"/&5 ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ ࣾձ
  23. ػցతੈք؍ ෼ղੑ ෦෼࠷ద ఆྔԽ ୯७ੑ ࣮֬ੑ ࿦ཧ ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ܭը Ξηεϝϯτ

    ສೳༀ ཧ࿦ ճ౴ ʰ̥ɽ̛ɽυϥοΧʔɹ׬શϒοΫΨΠυʱΑΓൈਮͯ͠Ҿ༻ ੜ෺తੈք؍ ඇ෼ղੑ શମ࠷ద ఆੑԽ ෳࡶੑ ෆ࣮֬ੑ ஌֮ ΞϝϦΧಠཱ Πϊϕʔγϣϯ ϞχλϦϯά ॲํᝦ έʔε ໰୊ A B ໰୊ɿͲ͕ͬͪlΞδϟΠϧzʁ
  24. Ϟμϯ ػցతੈք؍ ෼ղੑ ෦෼࠷ద ఆྔԽ ୯७ੑ ࣮֬ੑ ࿦ཧ ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ܭը

    Ξηεϝϯτ ສೳༀ ཧ࿦ ճ౴ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛͱ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ϙετϞμϯ ੜ෺తੈք؍ ඇ෼ղੑ શମ࠷ద ఆੑԽ ෳࡶੑ ෆ࣮֬ੑ ஌֮ ΞϝϦΧಠཱ Πϊϕʔγϣϯ ϞχλϦϯά ॲํᝦ έʔε ໰୊ ʰ̥ɽ̛ɽυϥοΧʔɹ׬શϒοΫΨΠυʱΑΓൈਮͯ͠Ҿ༻
  25. ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ ࣾձੜଶֶऀ ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱳ੜ࢈ੑ鲗޲্鱚鱠鲐鱤鲆鱳৚݅  ࢓ࣄ鱳໨త鲗ߟ鱍鲐ɻ  ಇ鱔ऀࣗ਎鱑ੜ࢈ੑ޲্鱳੹೚鲗ෛ鱋ɻࣗ鲎鲗鳖鳅鲰鳙鳫鳀 鱞鲐ɻࣗ཯ੑ鲗࣋鱩ɻ  ܧଓ鱜鱫鲜鳆鳑鱅鲯鳟鳫鲗ߦ鱋ɻ

     ࣗ鲎ܧଓ鱜鱫ֶ鱸ɺਓ鱰ڭ鱍鲐ɻ  ஌ࣝ࿑ಇ鱳ੜ࢈ੑ鱴ɺྔ鲍鲏鲇࣭鱳໰୊鱬鱇鲐鱘鱭鲗ཧղ鱞 鲐ɻ  ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ɺ૊৫鱰鱭鱨鱫鲫鲱鳀鱬鱴鱯鱔ɺࢿຊࡒ鱬鱇鲐 鱘鱭鲗ཧղ鱞鲐ɻ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀࣗ਎鱑૊৫鱳鱤鲆鱰ಇ鱔鱘鱭 鲗ཉ鱞鲐ɻ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drucker5789.jpg (1909ʙ2005)
  26. ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ࣗ෼鱑Կ鱬鱇鲐鱐ɺ鱉鱐鱯鲐࢓ࣄ鱰޲鱉鱫鱉鲐 鱐ɺ鱉鱐鱰鱞鲑鱵࠷鲇鲍鱔ಇ鱔鱘鱭鱑鱬鱒鲐鱐鲗஌鲎鱯鱉鱐鱓 鲏ɺੜ࢈త鱭鱴鱯鲏鱍鱯鱉鱘鱭鱑ɺࠓ೔鱇鲃鲏鱰鲇໌鲎鱐鱰鱯 鱨鱫鱉鲐鱐鲎鱬鱇鲐ɻ׵ݴ鱞鲐鱯鲎鱵ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇ鱰鱏鱉鱫鱴ɺ ܭը鱑࣮ߦ鱐鲎੾鲏཭鱚鲑鲐鱘鱭鱴鱇鲏鱍鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋鱘鱭鱬鱇 鲐ɻ鱢鲑鱮鱘鲒鱐ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ɺࣗ鲎࢓ࣄ鲗ܭը鱞鲐鱘鱭鱑 鱬鱒鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ ʰ鱞鱬鱰ى鱘鱨鱤ະདྷʱʢ鳌鱅鲷鱅ɾ鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅ʣ ݱ୅鱳૊৫鱴ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱰鲍鲐૊৫鱬鱇鲐ɻ鱜鱤鱑鱨鱫ɺ鱢

    鲑鱴ಉ౳鱳ऀɺಉ྅ɺ྅༑鱰鲍鲐૊৫鱬鱇鲐ɻ鱉鱐鱯鲐஌ࣝ 鲇ɺଞ鱳্Ґ鱰དྷ鲐鱘鱭鱴鱯鱉ɻ஌ࣝ鱳Ґஔ鱪鱖鱴ɺ鱢鲑鱣鲑 鱳஌ࣝ鱰ݻ༗鱳༏Ґੑ鲉ྼҐੑ鱰鲍鱨鱫鱬鱴鱯鱔ɺڞ௨鱳೚຿ 鱰ର鱞鲐ߩݙ౓鱰鲍鱨鱫نఆ鱚鲑鲐ɻݱ୅鱳૊৫鱴্࢘鱭෦Լ 鱳૊৫鱬鱴鱯鱉ɻ鱢鲑鱴鲹鱅鳘鱬鱇鲐ɻ ʰ鳏鳥鳍鲟鲻鲯鳟鳂鳣鱳৚݅ʱʢ鳌鱅鲷鱅ɾ鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅ʣ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drucker5789.jpg (1909ʙ2005)
  27. 959 鲔鲑鲔鲑鱴ɺڭ鱍ɺֶ鱸ɺॆ࣮鱜ɺվળ鱜鱫鱉 鱔鱘鱭鱳鱬鱒鲐鳖鳅鲰鳙鳫鳀鱳ମܥ鲗ඞཁ鱭鱜 鱫鱉鲐ɻ鱢鲑鱴鳕鲱鳀鳚鲸鳫鱳ੈք؍鱰鲍鲐ମ ܥ鱬鱇鲐ɻෆՄٯ鱳鳏鳥鲳鲱鱭鱜鱫鱳ମܥɺ໨ త཯鲗಺ࡏ鱞鲐ମܥ鱬鱇鲐ɻ 鱢鱘鱰ݱ鲑鲐鲇鱳鱴ɺมԽɺ鲜鳆鳑鱅鲯鳟鳫ɺ 鳢鲱鲧ɺ൑அɺ੒௕ɺ௠෗Խɺݙ਎ɺ鳋鲰鳟 鳫ɺใঈɺಈػ鱯鱮ɺ鱤鱭鱍ఆྔԽ鱬鱒鱤鱭鱜 鱫鲇ɺ鱢鱳ຊ࣭鱴ఆੑత鱯鲇鱳鱵鱐鲏鱬鱇鲐ɻ

    鱜鱐鲇ɺ鲔鲑鲔鲑鱑鱢鱘鱐鲎ಘ鲐鱾鱒஌ࣝ鱴ɺ Ұਓ鱷鱭鲏鱳ਓؒ鱭ࣾձ鱰௚઀鱳ؔ鲔鲏鲗鲇鱩 ҙࢤܾఆ鱳鱤鲆鱳鲇鱳鱬鱇鲐ɻ ΞδϟΠϧ ʰม๴͢Δ࢈ۀࣾձʱʢϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʣ
  28. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋ ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋ ࢈ۀ ܦࡁ 2000 1900 1800 ࢿຊओٛ ڞ࢈ओٛ

    ϙετࢿຊओٛ ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ ৠؾػؔΛվྑ ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏ ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ 5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈ ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏ ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋ ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋ ✦ ΞδϟΠϧ ϚχϑΣετ ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʰஅઈͷ࣌୅ʱ ✦ ι࿈่յ ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ ✦ "31"/&5 ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ ࣾձ
  29. ·ͱΊ 鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱴鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱰鱴鲃鱨鱤鱔ద鱜鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ 鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣鳘鱅鳎鳙鳫鳀鱴஌ࣝࣾձɺ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ鱑ੜ鲘鱥࣌୅鱳ඞવ鱬鱇 鲐ɻ 鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅鱑೥୅鱰l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱳ग़ݱ鲗༧ݴ鱜鱤ʁʁʁ 鲿鲣鳣鳀తɺ鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛత鱯鲇鱳鱳ݟํ鱬l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鲗ཧղ鱞鲐鱘鱭鱴 ෆՄೳɻ ࢒೦鱯鱑鲎ɺݱ୅鱳஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ະ鱥鲿鲣鳣鳀鱭鲾鲜鳡鱅鱳ढറ鱐鲎鱴ಀ鲑鲐鱘鱭鱑鱬鱒鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ 鱘鲑鱑l໊鱵鱐鲏鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱑ੜ鲃鲑鱫鱜鲃鱋ݪҼ鱬鱇鲐ɻ l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱑鲿鲣鳣鳀తՁ஋؍鲗ஔ鱒׵鱍鲐鲇鱳鱥鱭鱞鲐鱭ɺ੢ྐྵ೥

    ࠒ鲃鱬ਓྨ鱰鱭鱨鱫༗ޮ鱯Ձ஋ମܥ鱤鲏ಘ鲐ɻ l鲠鲧鲱鳀鳢鱅鳘鳏鳥鲨鳡鳗鳫鲨鱴鲵鱅鲯鳛鳣鲹鲟鳫鲰鱬鱇鲐ɻz