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近代史とアジャイル / Modern History and Agile

近代史とアジャイル / Modern History and Agile

XP祭り 2020

Fumihiko Kinoshita

September 19, 2020
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  1. ۙ୅࢙ͱΞδϟΠ
    ϧ
    ໦Լ࢙඙
    Ӭ࿨γεςϜϚωδϝϯτ
    "HJMF4UVEJPݕఆࡁڭՊॻ
    ೔ຊ91Ϣʔβάϧʔϓ༻
    91 ࡇΓ
    ৄઆ

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  2. ೥ΠΪϦε
    https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB:View_of_the_manufactory_of_Boulton_%26_Fothergill_in_Birmingham_by_Francis_Eginton_1773.jpg#file

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  3. δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SteamEngine_Boulton%26Watt_1784.png
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Watt_James_von_Breda.jpg
    ൃ໌Ոɺػցٕज़ऀ
    ೥ৠؾػؔ鲗վྑ
    (1736ʙ1819)

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  4. ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ೥ʙੈل຤
    wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢
    wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑΔٕज़ͷ஀ੜ
    w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ
    wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ
    w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม
    ࢈ۀࣾձ
    https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114

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  5. ΞμϜɾεϛε
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SteamEngine_Boulton%26Watt_1784.png
    ఩ֶऀɺྙཧֶऀɺܦࡁֶऀ
    ೥ʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    鲰鲟鱅鳘鲲ɾ鳧鲻鳀鱑鲨鳡鲱鲬鱅େֶߏ಺鱬࣮ݧث۩੡଄ɾमཧళ
    鲗։ۀ鱞鲐鱳鲗खॿ鱖
    (1723ʙ1790)

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  6. ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ࣾձ
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ

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  7. ໰୊ɿͲ͕ͬͪlΞδϟΠϧzʁ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eug%C3%A8ne_Delacroix_-_La_libert%C3%A9_guidant_le_peuple.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Declaration_of_Independence_(1819),_by_John_Trumbull.jpg
    A B

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  8. ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ೥࡞੒ɺ೥ൃޮ
    ݱࡏ鲇ػೳ鱜鱫鱉鲐ੈք࠷ݹ鱳੒จݑ๏
    Կ鲇ܾ鲆鱫鱉鱯鱉
    鲔鱟鱐৚
    鱉鱔鱩鱐鱳جຊཧ೦ɺ੍౓ɺ؆୯鱯खଓ鱒鲗ఆ鲆鱤鱥鱖
    ޙੈ鲗റ鲏鱤鱔鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋ॊೈ鱯ൃ૝
    ݶ鲏鱇鲐ਓ鱳਎鱭鱜鱫鱴ਅཧ鱴鱯鱐鱯鱐鱩鱐鲆鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋
    ߟ鱍ํ
    मਖ਼खଓ鱒鱑ఆ鲆鲎鲑鱤།Ұ鱳ݑ๏
    վਖ਼鱬鱴鱯鱉
    ݑ๏৚߲鱴׬݁鱜鱫鱉鲐鱳鱬ɺมߋෆՄೳ
    ৽鱜鱉৚߲鲗௥Ճ鱞鲐ํ๏鱬मਖ਼鱞鲐鱳鱬ɺओݖऀ鱳ݖར
    鲉ࣗ༝֦େ鱜鱐鱬鱒鱯鱉
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:United_States_Constitution.jpg
    ΠϯΫϦϝϯλϧ
    ΞδϟΠϧ
    ϚχϑΣετ
    ͷਫ਼ਆ

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  9. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ੈل຤ʙ೥
    wςΠϥʔͷՊֶత؅ཧ๏͕஀ੜ
    w࢓ࣄʢ೑ମ࿑ಇʣʹ஌ࣝΛ׆༻
    wੜ࢈ੑ͕ඈ༂తʹ޲্ʢഒʹʣ
    ޻ۀࣾձ
    ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ೥ʙੈل຤
    wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢
    wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑΔٕज़ͷ஀ੜ
    w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ
    wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ
    w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม
    ࢈ۀࣾձ
    https://gazoo.com/article/car_history/140919_1.html
    https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114

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  10. ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔ
    ٕज़ऀɺܦӦֶऀ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅Ҏલ
    鲍鲏ଟ鱔鲗ੜ࢈鱞鲐鱤鲆鱳།Ұ鱳ํ๏鱴ɺ鲍鲏௕鱔ಇ鱐鱠鲐鱐ɺ
    鲍鲏ܹ鱜鱔ಇ鱐鱠鲐鱘鱭鱥鱨鱤ɻ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅鱳ޭ੷
    ࢓ࣄ鱢鱳鲇鱳鱳ݚڀɺ෼ੳɺ鲠鳫鲰鳃鲚鳢鳫鲨鱰஌ࣝ鲗Ԡ༻
    ੈل鱳ܦࡁൃల鱳ૅ鲗ங鱉鱤ɻ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_L._Gantt.jpg
    ΨϯτνϟʔτΛൃ໌
    ͨ͠ϔϯϦʔɾΨϯτ
    ͸ςΠϥʔͷఋࢠ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frederick_Winslow_Taylor.JPG
    (1856ʙ1915)

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  11. Պֶత؅ཧ๏ʢ՝ۀ؅ཧ΍࡞ۀͷඪ४ԽͳͲʹΑΔ࿑ಇऀ؅ཧͷํ๏࿦ʣ
    ࢓ࣄ鲗୯७࡞ۀʢ୯७൓෮ಈ࡞ʣ鱰෼ղ鱜ɺ૊鲄௚鱞鱘鱭鱬ੜ࢈ੑ鲗ߴ
    鲆鲐ํ๏
    Պֶత؅ཧ鱳ݪଇ
    ࡞ۀ鱳֤ཁૉ鱰鱩鱉鱫Պֶత鱰෼ੳ鱜ɺ࢓ࣄ鲗࠷鲇ೳ཰త鱰਱ߦ鱬鱒鲐࠷ળ鱳ํ๏鲗ߟҊ鱞鲐ɻ
    ࡞ۀऀ鱴ߟҊ鱚鲑鱤௨鲏鱳鲉鲏ํ鱬࢓ࣄ鲗਱ߦ鱞鲐鲍鱋ڭҭ鱜鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ࡞ۀऀ鱢鲑鱣鲑鱑ɺ鱮鱳
    ࢓ࣄ鱰ద鱜鱫鱉鲐鱐鲗ݟ鱩鱖鱫ɺҰྲྀ鱰鱯鲐鲃鱬܇࿅鱞鲐鱳鱴؅ཧऀ鱳໾ׂ鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    ؅ཧऀ鱴࢓ࣄ鲗ୡ੒鱞鲐鱤鲆鱰ɺ࡞ۀऀ鱭ڠྗ鱜鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ
    ؅ཧऀ鱳੹೚鱴ܭըཱҊ鱭؂ಜ鱰ܞ鲔鲏ɺ࡞ۀऀ鱴鱢鲑鲗਱ߦ鱞鲐ɻ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱽鱳൷൑
    ಇ鱔ਓؒ鲗ࣗಈԽ鱚鲑ඪ४Խ鱚鲑鱤ػց鱭鱜鱫ݟ鱤ɻ࿑ಇऀ鲗ࣾձత鱯Ґஔ鲉໾ׂɺݸੑ鲗鲇鱤鱯鱉࿑ಇ
    ྗɺඪ४Խ鱚鲑ަ׵ࣗ༝鱯ࣃं鱭鱜鱫ݟ鱤ɻ
    ख़࿅鲗൱ఆɻ鱢鲑鲃鱬鱴ɺຊ෺鱳࿑ಇऀ鱭鱴ɺٕज़ऀ鲉৬ਓ鱭鱜鱫鱳ތ鲏ɺ࢓ࣄ鱳த਎鱳ཧղɺඞཁ鱭鱚鲑
    鲐ٕೳɺ鱢鱜鱫ࣾձత鱯鱜鱐鲐鱾鱒Ґஔ鱭໾ׂ鲗鲇鱩ਓʑ鱥鱨鱤ɻ

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  12. γϟϕϧ͍͘͢ͷ࣮ݧ
    Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash
    鳕鳫鳁鱐鲎鳕鳫鳁鲃鱬鳕鳫鳁ࠁ鲄鱬鲱鳀鲻鳏鲞鲡鲻鲹鱬࣌ؒ
    鲗ܭଌ
    ᶃ鱞鱔鱋࣌ؒ
    ᶄ鱯鱗鲐࣌ؒ
    鱷鱭鱞鱔鱉鱳ྔ鳕鳫鳁ʢ໿LHʣ鱑鲇鱨鱭鲇ർ࿑
    鱑গ鱯鱔ɺ࠷େ鱳࡞ۀྔʢੜ࢈ੑʣ鲗ಘ鲎鲑鲐
    γϟϕϧͻͱ͍͘͢ͷॏ͞ʹద੾ͳॏ͕͋͞Δ
    w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鱳ฑ鱳ଠ鱚ɺ௕鱚ɺ࣋鱦ํ
    w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鲗ࠩ鱜ࠐ鲅鱭鱒鱳֯౓ɺྗ
    w 鲯鳛鳑鳣鱬鱞鱔鱉औ鱨鱤෺鲗౤鱗ग़鱞ڑ཭
    鲉ߴ鱚
    鱰鱩鱉鱫鲇࣮ݧ鲗ߦ鱨鱤ɻ
    ੜ࢈ੑ͸ഒʹ

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  13. ໰୊ɿͲΕ͘Β͍ࣅ͍ͯΔʁ
    Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/

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  14. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ੈل຤ʙ೥
    wςΠϥʔͷՊֶత؅ཧ๏͕஀ੜ
    w࢓ࣄʢ೑ମ࿑ಇʣʹ஌ࣝΛ׆༻
    wੜ࢈ੑ͕ඈ༂తʹ޲্ʢഒʹʣ
    wੜ࢈ཁૉ͸౔஍ɺ࿑ಇɺࢿຊ
    wϘεͱ෦Լͷ૊৫
    wϚωδϝϯτͷ࢓ࣄ͸ࢦش໋ྩ
    w࢓ࣄ͸ॴ༩Ͱ͋Γɺͦͷ಺༰͸ҰఆͰ͋Δ
    ޻ۀࣾձ
    ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ೥ʙੈل຤
    wٕೳʹ஌ࣝΛ׆͔͢
    wٕೳͷମܥԽʹΑ͏Δٕज़ͷ஀ੜ
    w࠷ॳͷ೥ؒ͸Ҏલ͔Βଘࡏ͍ͯͨ͠੡඼ͷػցԽ
    wੜ࢈ੑ͸޲্͠ͳ͔ͬͨ
    w೥ͷమಓग़ݱΛܖػʹ༷૬͕Ұม
    ࢈ۀࣾձ
    Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋
    ೥ʙ
    w஌ࣝ࿑ಇʹ͓͚Δ஌ࣝͷ׆༻
    w஌ࣝ࿑ಇͷੜ࢈ੑΛ޲্
    w஌͚͕ࣝͩҙຯ͋ΔࢿݯͰ͋Γɺ౔஍ɺ࿑ಇɺࢿຊ
    ͸ೋٛతͳཁૉ
    w྅༑ʹΑΔνʔϜ
    wϚωδϝϯτͷ࢓ࣄ͸ํ޲෇͚
    w࢓ࣄ͸ॴ༩Ͱ͸ͳ͍ɻܾΊ͍͔ͯͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍
    ஌ࣝࣾձ
    https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/
    https://gazoo.com/article/car_history/140919_1.html
    https://www.sangyo-kakumei.com/description/post-114

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  15. ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ

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  16. ܽ఺୯७Խ鱚鲑鱤Ծఆ
    ςΠϥʔओٛ
    ܭըཱҊ鱭࣮ߦ࡞ۀ鱳෼཭
    ಠཱ鱜鱤඼࣭෦໳鱳ઃஔ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱰鲍鲐鲵鱅鲯鳛鳣鲠鳫鲰鳃鲚鳢鳫鲨
    鱳खॱ
    ௨ৗɺ෺ࣄ鱴ܭը鱮鱏鲏鱰ਐ鲅ɻ
    ہॴ࠷దԽ鱴શମ࠷దԽ鱰鱩鱯鱑鲐ɻ
    ਓ鱴鲀鲁୅ସՄೳ鱬鱇鲏ɺԿ鲗鱞鱾鱒鱐鲗ࢦࣔ鱞鲐ඞཁ鱑
    鱇鲐ɻ
    ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ

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  17. ໰୊ɿͲΕ͘Β͍ࣅ͍ͯΔʁ
    Photo by Andrey Metelev on Unsplash
    鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱬໰୊鱭鱯鲐鱳鱴ɺ鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱰൐鱋࢓ࣄ鱳ࣾձߏ଄鱥ɻ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅鱑ఏএ鱜鱤ʮ࣌ؒɾಈ࡞ݚڀʯ鱳ّࣜ鲉ಓ۩鱘鱢鱯鱔鱯鱨鱫鱉鲐鱑ɺ
    զʑ鱴ແҙࣝ鱰鱘鱳ࣾձߏ଄鲗ܧঝ鱜鱫鱉鲐鱳鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    鱢鱳ࣾձߏ଄鱴ɺ鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱰鲃鱨鱤鱔ద鱜鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ
    ʰΤΫετϦʔϜϓϩάϥϛϯάʱʢέϯτɾϕοΫʣ
    https://gds.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/01/using-mob-programming-to-solve-a-problem/

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  18. ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ڞ࢈ओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
    ࣾձ

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  19. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ࢈ۀֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ڞ࢈ओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏
    ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ
    5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
    ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ
    ࣾձ

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  20. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ڞ࢈ओٛ
    ϙετࢿຊओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ
    Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏
    ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ
    5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ
    ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋ ✦ ι࿈่յ
    ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
    ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ
    ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU
    %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ
    ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ
    ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ
    ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ
    ✦ "31"/&5
    ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ
    ࣾձ

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  21. ϧωɾσΧϧτ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frans_Hals_-_Portret_van_Ren%C3%A9_Descartes.jpg
    ఩ֶऀɺزԿֶऀ
    ೥ʰํ๏ংઆʱ
    鱤鱥鱷鱭鱩鱳࣮֬鱯鲇鱳鱑༩鱍鲎鲑鲐鱯鲎鱵ɺ鲇鱋鱷鱭鱩
    ࣮֬鱯鲇鱳鲗ࣔ鱠鲐
    鱞鱾鱫鱳鲇鱳鱴ҼՌؔ܎鱬໌鲎鱐鱰鱯鲐
    ࿦ཧ鱳ྗ鱰鲍鱨鱫ਆ鱳ଘࡏ鲃鱬આ໌鱬鱒鲐
    ۙ୅߹ཧओٛʢʮ鳚鲸鳫ʯʣ鱭ݴ鲔鲑鲐ߟ鱍ํ
    ҙຯ鱳鱇鲐鲇鱳鱴ҼՌؔ܎鱭ఆྔԽ鱬鱇鲐
    ػցతੈք؍
    શମ鱴෦෼鱳࿨ɺ鱢鲑鱮鱘鲒鱐෦෼鱰鲍鱨鱫نఆ鱚鲑鲐
    (1596ʙ1650)

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  22. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ڞ࢈ओٛ
    ϙετࢿຊओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ
    Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏
    ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ
    5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ
    ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋
    ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʰஅઈͷ࣌୅ʱ
    ✦ ι࿈่յ
    ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
    ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ
    ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU
    %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ
    ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ
    ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ
    ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ
    ✦ "31"/&5
    ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ
    ࣾձ

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  23. ػցతੈք؍
    ෼ղੑ
    ෦෼࠷ద
    ఆྔԽ
    ୯७ੑ
    ࣮֬ੑ
    ࿦ཧ
    ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ܭը
    Ξηεϝϯτ
    ສೳༀ
    ཧ࿦
    ճ౴
    ʰ̥ɽ̛ɽυϥοΧʔɹ׬શϒοΫΨΠυʱΑΓൈਮͯ͠Ҿ༻
    ੜ෺తੈք؍
    ඇ෼ղੑ
    શମ࠷ద
    ఆੑԽ
    ෳࡶੑ
    ෆ࣮֬ੑ
    ஌֮
    ΞϝϦΧಠཱ
    Πϊϕʔγϣϯ
    ϞχλϦϯά
    ॲํᝦ
    έʔε
    ໰୊
    A B
    ໰୊ɿͲ͕ͬͪlΞδϟΠϧzʁ

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  24. Ϟμϯ
    ػցతੈք؍
    ෼ղੑ
    ෦෼࠷ద
    ఆྔԽ
    ୯७ੑ
    ࣮֬ੑ
    ࿦ཧ
    ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ܭը
    Ξηεϝϯτ
    ສೳༀ
    ཧ࿦
    ճ౴
    ۙ୅߹ཧओٛͱ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ
    ϙετϞμϯ
    ੜ෺తੈք؍
    ඇ෼ղੑ
    શମ࠷ద
    ఆੑԽ
    ෳࡶੑ
    ෆ࣮֬ੑ
    ஌֮
    ΞϝϦΧಠཱ
    Πϊϕʔγϣϯ
    ϞχλϦϯά
    ॲํᝦ
    έʔε
    ໰୊
    ʰ̥ɽ̛ɽυϥοΧʔɹ׬શϒοΫΨΠυʱΑΓൈਮͯ͠Ҿ༻

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  25. ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ
    ࣾձੜଶֶऀ
    ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱳ੜ࢈ੑ鲗޲্鱚鱠鲐鱤鲆鱳৚݅

    ࢓ࣄ鱳໨త鲗ߟ鱍鲐ɻ

    ಇ鱔ऀࣗ਎鱑ੜ࢈ੑ޲্鱳੹೚鲗ෛ鱋ɻࣗ鲎鲗鳖鳅鲰鳙鳫鳀
    鱞鲐ɻࣗ཯ੑ鲗࣋鱩ɻ

    ܧଓ鱜鱫鲜鳆鳑鱅鲯鳟鳫鲗ߦ鱋ɻ

    ࣗ鲎ܧଓ鱜鱫ֶ鱸ɺਓ鱰ڭ鱍鲐ɻ

    ஌ࣝ࿑ಇ鱳ੜ࢈ੑ鱴ɺྔ鲍鲏鲇࣭鱳໰୊鱬鱇鲐鱘鱭鲗ཧղ鱞
    鲐ɻ

    ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ɺ૊৫鱰鱭鱨鱫鲫鲱鳀鱬鱴鱯鱔ɺࢿຊࡒ鱬鱇鲐
    鱘鱭鲗ཧղ鱞鲐ɻ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀࣗ਎鱑૊৫鱳鱤鲆鱰ಇ鱔鱘鱭
    鲗ཉ鱞鲐ɻ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drucker5789.jpg
    (1909ʙ2005)

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  26. ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ
    ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ࣗ෼鱑Կ鱬鱇鲐鱐ɺ鱉鱐鱯鲐࢓ࣄ鱰޲鱉鱫鱉鲐
    鱐ɺ鱉鱐鱰鱞鲑鱵࠷鲇鲍鱔ಇ鱔鱘鱭鱑鱬鱒鲐鱐鲗஌鲎鱯鱉鱐鱓
    鲏ɺੜ࢈త鱭鱴鱯鲏鱍鱯鱉鱘鱭鱑ɺࠓ೔鱇鲃鲏鱰鲇໌鲎鱐鱰鱯
    鱨鱫鱉鲐鱐鲎鱬鱇鲐ɻ׵ݴ鱞鲐鱯鲎鱵ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇ鱰鱏鱉鱫鱴ɺ
    ܭը鱑࣮ߦ鱐鲎੾鲏཭鱚鲑鲐鱘鱭鱴鱇鲏鱍鱯鱉鱭鱉鱋鱘鱭鱬鱇
    鲐ɻ鱢鲑鱮鱘鲒鱐ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ɺࣗ鲎࢓ࣄ鲗ܭը鱞鲐鱘鱭鱑
    鱬鱒鱯鱖鲑鱵鱯鲎鱯鱉ɻ
    ʰ鱞鱬鱰ى鱘鱨鱤ະདྷʱʢ鳌鱅鲷鱅ɾ鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅ʣ
    ݱ୅鱳૊৫鱴ɺ஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱰鲍鲐૊৫鱬鱇鲐ɻ鱜鱤鱑鱨鱫ɺ鱢
    鲑鱴ಉ౳鱳ऀɺಉ྅ɺ྅༑鱰鲍鲐૊৫鱬鱇鲐ɻ鱉鱐鱯鲐஌ࣝ
    鲇ɺଞ鱳্Ґ鱰དྷ鲐鱘鱭鱴鱯鱉ɻ஌ࣝ鱳Ґஔ鱪鱖鱴ɺ鱢鲑鱣鲑
    鱳஌ࣝ鱰ݻ༗鱳༏Ґੑ鲉ྼҐੑ鱰鲍鱨鱫鱬鱴鱯鱔ɺڞ௨鱳೚຿
    鱰ର鱞鲐ߩݙ౓鱰鲍鱨鱫نఆ鱚鲑鲐ɻݱ୅鱳૊৫鱴্࢘鱭෦Լ
    鱳૊৫鱬鱴鱯鱉ɻ鱢鲑鱴鲹鱅鳘鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    ʰ鳏鳥鳍鲟鲻鲯鳟鳂鳣鱳৚݅ʱʢ鳌鱅鲷鱅ɾ鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅ʣ
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drucker5789.jpg
    (1909ʙ2005)

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  27. 959
    鲔鲑鲔鲑鱴ɺڭ鱍ɺֶ鱸ɺॆ࣮鱜ɺվળ鱜鱫鱉
    鱔鱘鱭鱳鱬鱒鲐鳖鳅鲰鳙鳫鳀鱳ମܥ鲗ඞཁ鱭鱜
    鱫鱉鲐ɻ鱢鲑鱴鳕鲱鳀鳚鲸鳫鱳ੈք؍鱰鲍鲐ମ
    ܥ鱬鱇鲐ɻෆՄٯ鱳鳏鳥鲳鲱鱭鱜鱫鱳ମܥɺ໨
    త཯鲗಺ࡏ鱞鲐ମܥ鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    鱢鱘鱰ݱ鲑鲐鲇鱳鱴ɺมԽɺ鲜鳆鳑鱅鲯鳟鳫ɺ
    鳢鲱鲧ɺ൑அɺ੒௕ɺ௠෗Խɺݙ਎ɺ鳋鲰鳟
    鳫ɺใঈɺಈػ鱯鱮ɺ鱤鱭鱍ఆྔԽ鱬鱒鱤鱭鱜
    鱫鲇ɺ鱢鱳ຊ࣭鱴ఆੑత鱯鲇鱳鱵鱐鲏鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    鱜鱐鲇ɺ鲔鲑鲔鲑鱑鱢鱘鱐鲎ಘ鲐鱾鱒஌ࣝ鱴ɺ
    Ұਓ鱷鱭鲏鱳ਓؒ鱭ࣾձ鱰௚઀鱳ؔ鲔鲏鲗鲇鱩
    ҙࢤܾఆ鱳鱤鲆鱳鲇鱳鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    ΞδϟΠϧ
    ʰม๴͢Δ࢈ۀࣾձʱʢϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʣ

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  28. ੜ࢈ੑֵ໋
    ࢈ۀֵ໋ Ϛωδϝϯτֵ໋
    ࢈ۀ
    ܦࡁ
    2000
    1900
    1800
    ࢿຊओٛ
    ڞ࢈ओٛ
    ϙετࢿຊओٛ
    ࢈ۀࣾձ ޻ۀࣾձ ஌ࣝࣾձ
    Ձ஋؍ ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ
    ✦ δΣʔϜζɾϫοτ
    ৠؾػؔΛվྑ
    ✦ ϑϨσϦοΫɾςΠϥʔՊֶత؅ཧ๏
    ✦ ϔϯϦʔɾϑΥʔυ
    5ܕϑΥʔυͷϥΠϯੜ࢈
    ✦ ΞμϜɾεϛεʰࠃ෋࿦ʱ
    ✦ ΧʔϧɾϚϧΫεʰࢿຊ࿦ʱ
    ✦ ϧωɾσΧϧτʰํ๏ংઆʱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧͷಠཱ
    ✦ ΞϝϦΧ߹ऺࠃݑ๏
    ✦ϑϥϯεֵ໋
    ✦ ϩγΞֵ໋
    ✦ ΞδϟΠϧ
    ϚχϑΣετ
    ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔʰஅઈͷ࣌୅ʱ
    ✦ ι࿈่յ
    ✦ େ໺଱ҰʰτϤλੜ࢈ํࣜʱ
    ✦ ϦόϓʔϧɾΞϯυɾ
    ϚϯνΣελʔమಓ։ۀ
    ✦ ໺தҮ࣍࿠ɺ஛಺߂ߴ
    ʰ5IF/FX/FX1SPEVDU
    %FWFMPQNFOU(BNFʱ
    ✦ ϐʔλʔɾυϥοΧʔ
    ʰϙετࢿຊओٛࣾձʱ
    ✦ ୈೋ࣍ੈքେઓຄൃ
    ✦ "31"/&5
    ✦ ϊΠϚϯܕίϯϐϡʔλ
    ࣾձ

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  29. ·ͱΊ
    鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛ鱴鲵鳍鳀鲞鲟鲚։ൃ鱰鱴鲃鱨鱤鱔ద鱜鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ
    鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣鳘鱅鳎鳙鳫鳀鱴஌ࣝࣾձɺ୤ۙ୅߹ཧओٛ鱑ੜ鲘鱥࣌୅鱳ඞવ鱬鱇
    鲐ɻ
    鳁鳡鲻鲣鱅鱑೥୅鱰l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱳ग़ݱ鲗༧ݴ鱜鱤ʁʁʁ
    鲿鲣鳣鳀తɺ鲾鲜鳡鱅ओٛత鱯鲇鱳鱳ݟํ鱬l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鲗ཧղ鱞鲐鱘鱭鱴
    ෆՄೳɻ
    ࢒೦鱯鱑鲎ɺݱ୅鱳஌ࣝ࿑ಇऀ鱴ະ鱥鲿鲣鳣鳀鱭鲾鲜鳡鱅鱳ढറ鱐鲎鱴ಀ鲑鲐鱘鱭鱑鱬鱒鱫鱉鱯鱉ɻ
    鱘鲑鱑l໊鱵鱐鲏鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱑ੜ鲃鲑鱫鱜鲃鱋ݪҼ鱬鱇鲐ɻ
    l鲚鲰鳛鲜鳣z鱑鲿鲣鳣鳀తՁ஋؍鲗ஔ鱒׵鱍鲐鲇鱳鱥鱭鱞鲐鱭ɺ੢ྐྵ೥
    ࠒ鲃鱬ਓྨ鱰鱭鱨鱫༗ޮ鱯Ձ஋ମܥ鱤鲏ಘ鲐ɻ
    l鲠鲧鲱鳀鳢鱅鳘鳏鳥鲨鳡鳗鳫鲨鱴鲵鱅鲯鳛鳣鲹鲟鳫鲰鱬鱇鲐ɻz

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