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ビットコインの技術 / Bitcoin Technology

ビットコインの技術 / Bitcoin Technology

2022年7月13日(水)、ブロックチェーンハブ主催のブロックチェーンアカデミーにて使用したスライドです。

Kenji Saito
PRO

July 13, 2022
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  1. Chief Science Officer / ks91@blockchainhub.co.jp — — 2022-01-26 – p.1/41

  2. https://speakerdeck.com/ks91 — — 2022-01-26 – p.2/41

  3. ( ) SFC ( ) CSO (Chief Science Officer) 1993

    ( ) 2006 ( ) SFC 21 P2P (Peer-to-Peer) 2011 ( ) 2018 2019 VR 2021.7 VR 2021.8 “ALL THESE WORLDS ARE YOURS” VR 2021.9 & VR 2021.12 VR 2022.3 VR 2022.5 → ( ) — — 2022-01-26 – p.3/41
  4. ( ) : Kalle Rosenbaum , , — (2020) :

    1 — — 2022-01-26 – p.4/41
  5. Proof of Work SegWit Taproot — — 2022-01-26 – p.5/41

  6. — — 2022-01-26 – p.6/41

  7. (1) = ( ) ⇒ P2P ⇒ ( ) —

    — 2022-01-26 – p.7/41
  8. (2) (double spending) ( ) ⇒ ⇒ ( ) →

    ( ) ( ) ( ) ⇒ → → ⇒ → — — 2022-01-26 – p.8/41
  9. / — — 2022-01-26 – p.9/41

  10. / (1) 2,100 cm3 (cc) 1 1cm3 10 6.25cm3 ⇒

    ⇒ ( ) — — 2022-01-26 – p.10/41
  11. / (2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

    ( ) ( ) → ( ) — — 2022-01-26 – p.11/41
  12. ∼ UTXO (= ) → — — 2022-01-26 – p.12/41

  13. ∼ ท൪߸O ท൪߸O  ท൪߸O  લทͷμΠδΣετ λʔήοτҎԼͰͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍ ͸Έͩ͠ίʔφʔ μΠδΣετ͕λʔήοτҎԼʹͳΔΑ͏ʹೖΕΔద౰ͳ಺༰

    ( ) → — — 2022-01-26 – p.13/41
  14. ∼ ϖʔδ൪߸O ϖʔδ൪߸O  ϖʔδ൪߸O  ϖʔδ൪߸O  ϖʔδ൪߸O 

    ϖʔδ൪߸O  ϖʔδ൪߸O  ϖʔδ൪߸O  ͬͪ͜ͷྺ࢙͕༗ޮ ( (= ) ) — — 2022-01-26 – p.14/41
  15. = (virtually) = = = : → ( ) —

    — 2022-01-26 – p.15/41
  16. — — 2022-01-26 – p.16/41

  17. ϏοτίΠϯωοτϫʔΫ ɾ ճͷʮ࠾۷ʯྔ͸໿  ೥ຖʹ൒ݮ ɾ߹ܭ໿   ສ #5$

    ·Ͱ औҾͷొ࿥ ख਺ྉ ख਺ྉ औҾͷঝೝ ϚΠχϯά࣌ ϚΠχϯά ࠾۷ ͸ ֬཰తաఔ ฏۉ  ෼͓͖ʹ੒ޭ ૹۚࢦࣔ͸֤͕ࣗ΋ͭ ϓϥΠϕʔτΩʔͰ ແͨ͘͠Β࠶ൃߦෆՄ ϚΠφʔ ࠾۷ऀ ࢧ෷͍ɾ྆ସ ͳͲͷܦࡁ׆ಈ ར༻ऀ ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ ݩா Πϯλʔωοτ্ͷԾ૝ωοτϫʔΫ ʜ ˞#5$ϏοτίΠϯͷ୯Ґ #5$ ରԠ ϒϩοΫ ϒϩοΫ ϒϩοΫ औҾ ૹۚ औҾͷه࿥ ΞυϨε Ѽઌ ϓϥΠϕʔτΩʔ ຊਓͷূ໌ — — 2022-01-26 – p.17/41
  18. — — 2022-01-26 – p.18/41

  19. μΠδΣετ ϒϩοΫ O ϚΠχϯάใु ݻఆ஋  ख਺ྉ ೖྗͷ߹ܭͱग़ྗͷ߹ܭͷࠩ .FSLMF໦Λܭࢉͯ͠ ͦͷϧʔτ஋Λ֨ೲ

    ͍ͣΕऔҾه࿥͕औΓग़͞Εɺ ͦͷ࣌఺ͷਖ਼࢙ʹೖ͍ͬͯͳ͍΋ͷͳΒ ৽ͨͳϒϩοΫͷதʹ֨ೲ͞ΕΔ ᶃਖ਼౰ੑͷอূ ϏοτίΠϯͰ͸ 6590 ߏ଄ ᶄଘࡏੑͷূ໌ ϏοτίΠϯͰ͸࡞ۀূ໌෇͖ϋογϡνΣʔϯ ᶅ།Ұੑͷ߹ҙ ϏοτίΠϯͰ͸ φΧϞτɾίϯηϯαε ϒϩοΫ O  ϒϩοΫ O  ϒϩοΫ O  ϒϩοΫ O  ϒϩοΫ O  ϒϩοΫ O  μΠδΣετ μΠδΣετ μΠδΣετ μΠδΣετ μΠδΣετ μΠδΣετ #5$ ੜ੒ औҾ औҾ औҾ औҾ ʜʜ ΑΓ௕͍ ࡞ۀূ໌ ͷίετ͕ΑΓ෷Θ Ε͍ͯΔ νΣʔϯ ͕༗ޮͱͳΔ μΠδΣετ㱡λʔήοτ 1SPPG0G8PSL ࡞ۀূ໌ աڈͷऔҾग़ྗ΁ͷࢀর σδλϧॺ໊ ެ։ݤ Ѽઌͱྔ ίΠϯ λʔήοτ ϊϯε ೖྗ ೖྗ ग़ྗ ग़ྗ 1. 10 ( ) 2. 3. 1 — — 2022-01-26 – p.19/41
  20. /DLT ਖ਼౰ੑͷอূ ྫ6590ߏ଄ͱσδλϧॺ໊ ଘࡏੑͷূ໌ ྫ࡞ۀূ໌෇͖ϋογϡνΣʔϯ །Ұੑͷ߹ҙ ྫφΧϞτɾίϯηϯαε ϧʔϧͷهड़ ྫ#5$ͷҠస ɾ

    τϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ಺༰͕վ͟ΜͰ͖ͣɺ ɾ ͦͷΞηοτʹؔ͢ΔաڈͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯྻʹরΒͯ͠ໃ६͕ͳ͘ɺ ɾ ͔ͭɺਖ਼౰ͳϢʔβʹΑΓ౤ೖ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͜ͱΛอূ͢Δ ɾաڈʹ͋ͬͨτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷূڌΛຣফͰ͖ͣɺ ɾ ͔ͭɺաڈʹͳ͔ͬͨτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷূڌΛ፻଄Ͱ͖ͳ͍ ɾໃ६͢Δ;ͨͭͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯ͕౤ೖ͞Εͨ৔߹ɺ ɹ ͍ͣΕ ؔ༩͢Δશһ͕ಉ͡ยํΛબΜͰྺ࢙ͷதʹҐஔ͚ͮΔ ɾΞϓϦέʔγϣϯϩδοΫ Կ͕ਖ਼͍͠τϥϯβΫγϣϯ͔ΛܾΊΔ — — 2022-01-26 – p.20/41
  21. - https://blockchain.com/ — — 2022-01-26 – p.21/41

  22. 0 and/or “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second

    bailout for banks” 2009 1 3 2 https://www.blockchain.com/explorer 0 BTC Block “Hex to ASCII Text Converter” — — 2022-01-26 – p.22/41
  23. (1) (= ) → — — 2022-01-26 – p.23/41

  24. (2) M A 60BTC ( ) SegWit (2017) — —

    2022-01-26 – p.24/41
  25. SegWit (Segregated Witness; ) (witness) ( ) ( TX )

    — — 2022-01-26 – p.25/41
  26. SegWit (malleability) https://bitcoincore.org/en/2016/01/26/segwit-benefits/ cf. Taproot ( )(2021) — — 2022-01-26

    – p.26/41
  27. — — 2022-01-26 – p.27/41

  28. Merkle ( ) Digest = SHA-256 × SHA-256 TX (

    ) — — 2022-01-26 – p.28/41
  29. Block Header Data Structure Field Description Size (bytes) Version 4

    Digest Double SHA-256 value 32 Merkle root Double SHA-256 value 32 Time Seconds (since 1970-01-01T00:00 UTC) 4 Target Compressed format 4 Nonce Appropriate value 4 Merkle root is the digest of all TXs — — 2022-01-26 – p.29/41
  30. OP_RETURN PUSH 0xaa21a9ed 4 (witness) SHA-256 32 Merkle — —

    2022-01-26 – p.30/41
  31. Proof of Work ( ) ( ) . . .

    : Hashcash (1997) SHA-1 20 ( ) 0 1 1 / — — 2022-01-26 – p.31/41
  32. — — 2022-01-26 – p.32/41

  33. CPU → GPU → FPGA → ASIC ( ) →

    → ( ) ⇒ BTC BTC — — 2022-01-26 – p.33/41
  34. — — 2022-01-26 – p.34/41

  35. POW ( ) Proof Of Work . . . —

    — 2022-01-26 – p.35/41
  36. (2009 1 ∼2022 7 ) 2 → 2 2 →

    → — — 2022-01-26 – p.36/41
  37. https://bitcoin.org/en/developer-reference — — 2022-01-26 – p.37/41

  38. 1 1 ∼ 2 — — 2022-01-26 – p.38/41

  39. A-B — — 2022-01-26 – p.39/41

  40. 2 2 ( ) Ripple Path — — 2022-01-26 –

    p.40/41
  41. — — 2022-01-26 – p.41/41