FinTech - Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1)

847a328633b1df6b11cc2f72430025e6?s=47 Kenji Saito
September 25, 2020

FinTech - Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1)

These slides were used in the lecture 1 of FinTech - Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall at the Graduate School of Business and Finance, Waseda University, on September 25, 2020.

847a328633b1df6b11cc2f72430025e6?s=128

Kenji Saito

September 25, 2020
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  1. QIPUPCZ0MJWFS) FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall

    Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) Kenji Saito Professor, Graduate School of Business and Finance, Waseda University Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.1/27
  2. This class is recorded Camera ON is recommended, but not

    required You do need to speak often (we are going to have a lot of dialogue) We will use breakout rooms a lot, but those won’t be recorded unless you do it yourselves (need to be allowed) Keep your Zoom client updated! We might use latest features The recordings could be used for research on online learning Transcribed for use and anonymized Will let you know when the necessity arises Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.2/27
  3. The lecture slides can be found at : https://speakerdeck.com/ks91 Recording

    and chat text will be posted at Moodle and Discord Trial automatic transcription of the lecturer’s part will be posted at Discord Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.3/27
  4. Brief Self Introduction Kenji Saito (Google Scholar citations) Professor, Graduate

    School of Business and Finance, Waseda University Senior Researcher / Lecturer, SFC (Shonan Fujisawa Campus) / KMD, Keio University Chief Science Officer, BlockchainHub Inc. Representative Director, Beyond Blockchain Representative Director, Academy Camp Bio M.Eng in Computer Science from Cornell University, 1993 Ph.D. in Media and Governance from Keio University, 2006 (on digital currency research) Researcher of P2P (Peer-to-Peer) and digital currency for 20 years at Keio and Waseda universities (started my career at Waseda last year) Holding Academy Camp for children in Fukushima with friends since summer 2011 2018smr “OK Google, Do My Homework!” 2019wint “Automation for Girls” 2019smr “REINVENT THE WORLD” 2020spg “Zoom in!! Aca-Camp!” 2020smr-fa “Serious Research” → Inter-connected in my mind (society hereafter needs to be designed with children) Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.4/27
  5. Before I forget . . . Please call me either

    “Kenji” or “Saito-san” I’m more used to them Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.5/27
  6. Books (one example) “NEO in Wonderland — A Tale of

    Money That Changed Our Future” (2009) Genre : SciFi Monetary Fantasy Digital currency technology that overthrows today’s monetary economy A drama as its consequence NEO : New Economic Order English version is freely available http://grsj.jp/neo.pdf (CC-BY-SA 3.0) Science Fiction Prototyping : a research method (1) Depicts future reality with new technology (2) Extracts problems and search for a path Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.6/27
  7. Other Classes (in Japanese language) At WBS, Waseda University “Managing

    NPOs” (in 2019 Fall only) “FinTech – Financial Innovation and the Internet” (in alternate years) “Cybersecurity” (in alternate years) “Blockchain and Decentralized Finance” (seminar) https://speakerdeck.com/ks91 (just slides) At KMD (Graduate School of Media Design), Keio University “Service Design Seminar B - Implementation to Information Environments” (2020 Fall) → Inter-connected in my mind, too (society hereafter needs to be designed . . . how?) Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.7/27
  8. In Academy Camp . . . (Do we live in

    the same era?) In 2018smr, we did Academy Camp 2018 Summer - “OK Google, Do My Homework!” term 1 and 2 Children say “OK Google, do my homework” and Google Assistant answers “I do your homework”, generates math drills, answers all questions correctly, and prints the answered sheet Automates not only students but also teachers (provoking a fight against the whole school system) We said “Automate the boring homework with Python” and “That’s not what a human being should be doing” a lot Picture (left) is a university student succeeded in automating math drills (finished last) Begun, the age of automation has Handwritten kanjis and calculations ∈ common future skills From “floor mopping” to “Roomba” From “lighter (person)” to “Alexa, turn on the lights” Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.8/27
  9. From “Lighter (person) ” to “Alexa, turn on the lights”

    19th - 20th century Social system Social environment Machines Technology Human Automated system 21st century and onward Turn on the light OK OK (under this condition) Turn on the light Technology and social environment ˠ Nature Human ⇒ For humans, the technological social environment is semantically transforming into something similar to the natural environment The emergence of a future “super-automated distributed social environment” = “extended natural environment” (meta nature) Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.9/27
  10. According to the Mild-mannered Mad Scientist From “WIRED” Japanese Ed.

    Vol.36 Within the next 30 years, machines and algorithms will replace many of the intellectual activities that used to be considered essential to human beings, and with the expansion of automation, we will see the emergence of a new “natural environment” where “a pencil grows on a tree” instead of the old “social environment” where “even a single pencil is produced by a number of people working in a division of labor” We call this “meta nature” Meta nature operates automatically and autonomously, and humans care for it, work with it, get resources from it, and live creatively Money will have no role there It is like a hunter-gatherer society where there is no money Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.10/27
  11. Let’s Discuss We will randomly form breakout rooms First, introduce

    youselves to others in the room Second, talk about your perceptions of digital transformation (DX) I have just talked about perhaps the most radical form of DX But what have you been hearing or seeing about DX? Feel free to look up on the web Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.11/27
  12. Today’s Topics Orientation Objectives, overview and schedule What’s FinTech? Backgrounds

    and meanings Examples Information innovation and society (perhaps next week) Towards future history of finance Discussion : Does FinTech free people? (perhaps next week) Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.12/27
  13. Objectives and Goals In this class, FinTech, the fusion of

    finance and ICT (Information Communication Technology), is explained mainly from the technological viewpoint, and its impact on the society, applications and their governance are considered together with the students This class aims for non-engineers to understand the technological background of FinTech, and to discover their own problems in the social domain related to finance and the management and utilization of assets in a broad sense, and to plan the solutions as applications of the new technology, without being swayed by easy sales talks from the industry Students of this class last year said “it is too technical (or technological)” I don’t think so (← not a reliable source, I know) We talk about technology to the extent that management should also know about it in order to be able to talk to engineers, and I will make an effort to describe the technology in simple bites Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.13/27
  14. Schedule (provisional) Lecture 1 9/25 Overview of FinTech (1) •

    Lecture 2 10/2 Overview of FinTech (2) Lecture 3 10/9 Internet Technology and Governance (1) Lecture 4 10/16 Internet Technology and Governance (2) Lecture 5 10/23 The World of Apps (1) Lecture 6 10/30 The World of Apps (2) Lecture 7 11/13 Blockchain (1) Lecture 8 11/20 Blockchain (2) Lecture 9 11/27 Other Ledger Technology and Applications (1) Lecture 10 12/4 Other Ledger Technology and Applications (2) Lecture 11 12/11 Cyber-Physical Society and Future of Finance (1) Lecture 12 12/18 Cyber-Physical Society and Future of Finance (2) Lecture 13 1/8 FinTech Ideathon (1) Lecture 14 1/15 FinTech Ideathon (2) Lecture 15 1/22 Presentations and Conclusions Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.14/27
  15. Structure of Lectures (2 consecutive lectures on 1 theme) Assignment

    and Review (10∼20min.) Homework is assigned for each theme At beginning of each theme, reviews some of your reports Q & A (90∼100min.) Explains the theme where students need more explanations Material (slides) will be announced prior to each lecture (a couple of days before) Questions are welcome at any time during the lecture Also some short discussions Discussion (60∼80min.) Let’s talk about problems on and surrounding the theme Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.15/27
  16. Assignments Submit your reports through Moodle (and Discord if you

    wish for sharing) No physical paper of any kind ← if you give me one, I will lose it ↑ I don’t need to mention this this year Deadline is not very exactly handled Participation is checked by the reports (and speaking), not by your physical logical presence in the classroom Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.16/27
  17. Evaluation Reports You get points if your reports are picked

    up for the review Only some of the picked-up reports are actually reviewed in the class Active class participation Questions and comments Providing topics Commenting on reports by other students (more easily done on Discord) Overall, performance is evaluated by contributions and reports In addition, group work (yes, group work) and presentations Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.17/27
  18. Lecture Materials Slides There is no textbook In addition to

    the references listed below, other references will be provided and instructed as needed References (some interesting readings) S. Nakamoto, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf (2008). V. Buterin, A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform, https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper (2014-). Libra Association, Libra White Paper, https://libra.org/en-US/white-paper/?noredirect=en-US (2019-). Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.18/27
  19. What’s FinTech? Financial Technology (the name doesn’t explain much) What

    kind of technology? If we don’t ask, then coins, pencils, account books, clay tablets, languages, are all technology “The use of human technology began with making things in nature into simple tools” (automatically translated from Japanese Wikipedia) Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.19/27
  20. Industrial Tools, and Media and Governance B. Fuller, “Operating Manual

    for Spaceship Earth”, 1969 Industrial Tool = “all the tools that cannot be produced by one man person” ⇒ Media (tools/extensions of human) and Governance (cannot be produced by one person) “Language” was the first industrial tool Today, technology is a system of industrial tools So, the language is technology anyways, Meaningful to this class when we think about communication-technology aspect of languages People naturally imagine, when they hear the word “technology”, the latest system of industrial tools of the era they live in Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.20/27
  21. Background : Digital Technology Processing power of computers and network

    is improved, Cost is reduced at the same time ⇒ Time has come where individuals always carry network computers with them A personal network computer = A smartphone Can you imagine lives and work styles 30 years ago? Showa era . . . In a way, it hasn’t changed at all in Japan ;) Superficially, it has changed a lot Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.21/27
  22. IDEA of FinTech Financial Inclusion Growing customer base (including those

    who have not) Financial Democracy Expansion of business entities (with the emergence of non-banks) User Experience Customers can easily leave if they are not satisfied Architecture as Law There is always an option to break the law, but it is impossible to do what the architecture does not allow As long as you can’t use hacking techniques Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.22/27
  23. Business Areas of FinTech Payments e-Money, credit/debit cards, mobile payments,

    digital currencies Asset Management Automatic asset management, robo-advisor Deposits and Loans P2P lending, pre-paid Financing Crowdfunding, ICO (problematic), STO, COE (Cause-Oriented Economy)(word coined by lecturer) Insurance Use of IoT, smart contracts (automation) Capital Market Securities trading system with LT Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.23/27
  24. FinTech Intrinsically “Destroys” It’s possible to maximize profits through an

    engineering approach under the current rules of financial capitalism (cf. financial engineering) But FinTech is inherently a game-changer, changing rules and creating changes that make traditional financial capitalistic society obsolete Blows the foundation itself New technology allows us to bypass the old ways The impact of this on “the foundation” is immeasurable Ex1 : YouTube, Uber, Airbnb Separation from ownership of broadcasting stations, vehicles or real estates Ex2 : Visa ↔ AMEX brand holder, issuer, acquirer Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.24/27
  25. Examples Let’s see if you can come up with examples

    of FinTech through a breakout room discussion Introduce yourselves first Then talk about what you have heard, seen or used with respect to FinTech Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.25/27
  26. Alibaba Group and Yahoo! JAPAN Group China’s largest e-commerce service

    (with 500 million buyers) ⇔ “Problem solving engine” to solve all problems in Japan using the Internet Alipay ( ) (Payment platform) Payment by mobile phones using QR code Large amount of accumulated funds (more than 10 trillion yen) → Asset management service to deposit in MMF ( ) ⇔ PayPay Zhima Credit ( ) Analyze 500 million people’s data to quantify credit scores Quality of service you receive depends on your score ⇔ Yahoo! Score Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.26/27
  27. See You Next Week! Lecture 1 : Overview of FinTech

    (1) — FinTech — Financial Innovation and the Internet 2020 Fall — 2020-09-25 – p.27/27