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3D Printing Focused Peer Production

3D Printing Focused Peer Production

Presented at Lahti University of Applied Sciences seminar on Additive manufacturing

Jarkko Moilanen, PhD

September 28, 2017
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  1. 3D Printing Focused Peer Production
    Revolution in design, development and manufacturing
    Jarkko Moilanen (PhD)
    Business and community developer at APInf Oy
    Twitter: @kyyberi

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  2. 3D printing – why it is valuable?
    Time-to-Market Fail fast, Fail cheap
    Save Money Prototyping injection mold tools are expensive
    Clear Communication There is no ambiguity with representation of the
    product.
    Feedback verify the product has market potential.
    Personalize It tweak a part to uniquely fit their needs
    Square Holes? Overcome the limitations of standard machining
    Distributed, cheap & scalable production
    Business oriented viewpoints

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  3. From laboratory to desktop
    Not the focus

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  4. Early Golden age of 3D Printing Cathedrals
    3D Printing started already early 80’s
    Prototyping, focused on business needs (B2B)
    Knowledge and skills in ”cathedrals” - patented and held by
    ”priests” in companies
    3D printer costs high – tens of thousands

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  5. From laboratory to desktop
    Focus - How did this happen?

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  6. 3D Printing Gold Rush
    Or more like plastic rush...
    About a decade ago began

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  7. Low-cost 3D printers
    Plethora of low-cost 3D
    Printers emerged around
    2010, some survived
    Consumer market

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  8. Revolution - Freedom of creation
    Easy to use low-cost 3D printers
    Professional quality & affordable 3D printing
    services
    Millions of 3D printable & modifiable
    designs available online + design markets
    Easy to use 3D design tools in browser

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  9. Why?
    What happened?
    Who are the people behind the phenomenon?
    What has changed since the 80’s?
    What is 3D printing used for?
    What are the practices of 3D printing community?

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  10. It all began from Hackerspaces...
    Research about hackerspaces; motivation
    and practices
    Ignited Tampere Hacklab 2009. Now over 300
    members
    – Selfish purposes, hacker mindset, open source
    believer/practitioner
    Discovered the low-cost 3D printing
    phenomenon inside hacklab movement
    – ”This is interesting, it must have something
    special, lets do some research!”
    Did not know this became vital to understand the emerging 3D printing movement
    http://tampere.hacklab.fi/

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  11. Hackerspace mass
    According to the survey results the typical hackerspace member is a
    27-31 (35%) years old male (90%) with college level or higher
    education
    Altruism, community commitment, meeting other hackers in
    the real world and having fun seem to be the most important
    factors of motivation.
    Women seem to have found peer-production communities albeit
    in minority

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  12. 2006 - RepRap is about making
    self-replicating machines, and
    making them freely available for
    the benefit of everyone.

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  13. Necessary early innovator & adopter mass
    During early days of low-cost 3D printing learning curve was
    high
    Hacklabs – more than 1500 spaces globally, over 300 000
    members
    Small market
    DIY culture
    Skilled people

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  14. Around 2010
    People want to buy out of the box ready 3D printers!
    Lets package it!
    How to cross
    the chasm?
    Small market
    DIY culture
    Skilled people
    Big market
    ….

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  15. Three of the organisers of the NYC Hackerspace in Brooklyn:
    Drop the self-replication
    Requirement and focus on
    developing a consumer-friendly
    (out of the box) 3D printer.

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  16. Replicator 3D printer
    Thingiverse
    Started open source
    Closed source product
    Sold to Stratasys

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  17. 3D Printer Gold Rush 2010 >
    Open source / open source HW driven
    Consumer market targeted
    Low-cost
    Easy to use

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  18. Layman use cases for 3D printers
    Functional models Artistic items Spare parts
    Educational purposes Direct part production

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  19. InMoov is the first
    Open Source 3D
    printed life-size
    robot
    Global efforts

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  20. Motivation
    factors of the
    3D printing
    community
    members
    Survey 2012,
    358 respondents

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  21. New hacker generation – Peer Production
    Diverse community of hackers and
    makers built on top of

    The values of the open source
    culture with focus on open design,

    tinkering and production of physical
    objects,

    designs of which are shared
    publicly under open licenses.
    Popularized name is
    Maker culture

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  22. 3D printable object sharing platforms
    Shared publicly, free to reproduce and modify
    Thingiverse.com – more than 1 500 000 objects

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  23. Thingiverse (2014)
    42%
    of designs
    NOT
    shared
    90%
    of shared were
    CC licensed
    Sticky licenses such as CC BY-SA are used
    more often with finalized designs

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  24. Design process - Possibility-driven spins
    Four phase design process was identified:
    1) ideation phase
    2) opportunity seeking
    3) sketching and sharing of working designs
    4) prototyping
    Tamminen & Moilanen

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  25. Revolution - Freedom of creation
    Easy to use low-cost 3D printers
    Professional quality & affordable 3D printing
    services
    Millions of 3D printable & modifiable
    designs available online + design markets
    Easy to use 3D design tools in browser
    Without hackerspaces movement
    this would not have happened

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