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【潔能講堂】 氫能應用的安全規範

learnenergy2
November 12, 2023

【潔能講堂】 氫能應用的安全規範

learnenergy2

November 12, 2023
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  1. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    氫能應用的安全規範
    工業技術研究院 量測技術發展中心
    標準與工程計量技術組 吳鴻森
    2022/11/18

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  2. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Why Hydrogen? The Way to Net Zero by 2050
    2
    Source: Net Zero by 2050. A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector, IEA
    Sector
    Efficiency
    Electrification
    Hydrogen+
    Renwables
    CCUS

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  3. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Global hydrogen demand in the
    Net Zero Scenario, 2020-2030
    3
    Production technology
    Sector
    Source: https://www.iea.org/reports/hydrogen
    Mt Mt

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  4. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    International Hydrogen Supply Chain
    Source: METI/IEEJ
    4

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  5. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    英國低碳與氫能相關策略
    • 2020/11/18 英國首相宣布「綠色工業革命十項計劃」
    – 該計畫涵蓋清潔能源、運輸、自然和創新技術,將使英國在2050年達到對抗氣候變遷的目
    標。其中氫能的目標:與工業界合作,以期到2030年實現5GW的低碳氫生產能力,用於工
    業、交通、電力和家庭,並在本世紀末發展出第一個完全由氫加熱的城鎮。
    • 2021/8/17 英國宣布推動具低碳排放性質的氫產業策略
    – 概述支持多種技術,如透過電解技術產生之綠氫,以及透過碳捕捉技術的藍氫。
    – 與產業合作制定英國低碳氫氣的標準,使英國生產的氫氣確實與淨零目標一致,同時支持
    國內氫氣生產佈局。
    – 支持必要基礎建設發展,如碳捕捉和封存設施。
    – 與產業合作研究將20%的氫氣混入現供應的氣體之安全性、可行性及成本效益等。估計可
    減少7 %的天然氣碳排放量。
    5

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  6. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    英國達到2030氫經濟目標的策略圖
    1. Scale up
    2. Hydrogen
    production
    3. Hydrogen networks
    and storage
    4. Use of hydrogen
    Source: UK Hydrogen Strategy.pdf
    6

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  7. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    六個氫能計量上需優先重視與克服的挑戰
    1. 燃料電池和電解槽的材料開發:商業化的關鍵是降低成本和評估關鍵降
    解機制,以延長使用壽命和耐用性。
    2. 氫氣中添加嗅味劑以幫助洩漏檢測的影響評估:在管道運輸和最終應用
    的洩漏檢測上,需建立與提供不會影響燃料電池使用壽命與耐用性的量
    測技術。 [安全]
    3. 氫氣與天然氣在供氣網中的混合比例確定:需要準確的流量計量及經過
    驗證的計量方法,以確保交易公平性。
    4. 氫氣燃燒特性的量測:包括火焰檢測、傳播、溫度和氮氧化物 (NOx)
    排放量測,並確保現有和新設備可適用於氫氣的使用環境。
    5. 評估現有氣體基礎設施和材料對氫氣運輸的適用性:了解可能需要進行
    哪些調整以避免像是空氣滲透、金屬脆化和氫洩漏等問題。 [安全]
    6. 儲氫驗證技術:需要量測氫氣在生產、運輸、儲存等階段的特性量測技
    術,包括計量、洩漏檢測和純度分析,以確保這些技術針對氫氣儲存進
    行最佳化。 [安全]
    Source: Energy transition: Measurement needs within the hydrogen industry.pdf, NPL
    7

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  8. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    歐洲混氫體積比例規範要求及示範驗證現況說明
    Source:The role of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Future
    Energy Systems, H2FC Supergen, March 2017
    歐洲各國法規要求混氫體積比例皆在12 %以下,美國英國為0.1 %。
    歐洲示範驗證專案目前最多為德國的30 %。
    8

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  9. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Fuelling Stations -1
    9
    • On-site hydrogen production unit (PEM electrolyzer);
    • Hydrogen delivery system;
    • Compressors;
    • Storage;
    • Piping connections (non-welded);
    • Dispensers.
    CONTAINER 1: PEM electrolyzer
    Chiller with
    dispenser
    CONTAINER 2:Compression and storage of H2
    High pressure
    Storage
    Low pressure
    Storage
    Low pressure
    Compressor
    High pressure
    Compressor
    Source: Veres J., Ochodek T., Kolonicny J., 2022,
    Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Fuelling Stations,
    Chemical Engineering Transactions, 91, 49-54
    DOI:10.3303/CET2291009

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  10. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Fuelling Stations -2
    Source: Veres J., Ochodek T., Kolonicny J., 2022, Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Fuelling
    Stations, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 91, 49-54 DOI:10.3303/CET2291009
    Field Characteristics values
    Mark Hydrogen
    CAS number 1333-74-0
    Chemical formula H2
    Density 0,084 kg/m3
    Boiling point -253°C
    Melting point -259°C
    Auto-ignition temperature 560°C
    Explosion range (4.7-77) vol%
    • Risk of burning, ignition, explosion,
    • Risk of overpressure,
    • Low temperature risk,
    • Hydrogen embrittlement,
    • The action of hydrogen on the human body
    through direct contact or exposure.
    10

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  11. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Hydrogen Standardization Organization
    • ISO TC 197 Technical Committee of Hydrogen Technologies
    – standardization in the field of systems and devices for the production,
    storage, transport, measurement and use of hydrogen [3].
    – Technical Committee of Surface coatings (ISO/TC 2/SC 4),
    – Methods of testing (ISO/TC 17/SC 7),
    – Copper and copper alloys (ISO/TC 26),
    – Gas cylinders (ISO/TC 58),
    – Corrosion of metals and alloys (ISO/TC 156) are specialized in preparing
    standards for hydrogen embrittlement.
    • IEC TC105 Fuel cell technologies
    – For all FC types and various associated applications, such as stationary
    FC power systems
    11

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  12. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Hydrogen Standardization Organization
    • American organizations (are all specialized in preparing standards for
    hydrogen storage and transportation)
    – American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
    – Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
    – National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    – American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
    • European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
    – CEN/TC 23 (Transportable gas cylinders) covers standardization of transportable gas
    cylinders, their fittings, and requirements relating to their design,
    – CEN/TC 133 (Copper and copper alloys), CEN/TC 185 (Fasteners), CEN/TC 262
    (Metallic and other inorganic coatings, including for corrosion protection and corrosion
    testing of metals and alloys), and CEN/TC 459/SC 1 (Test methods for steel (other than
    chemical analysis)) are technical bodies which prepare standards for hydrogen embrittlement.
    • JISC The Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
    – covering a wide range of products and technologies
    12

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  13. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Timeline of code and standards development and code
    and standards hireachy
    Fire and
    building
    codes
    Hydrogen-
    specific codes
    Example: NFPA 2
    Component standards and
    equipment design codes
    Example: CGA G-5.5 or
    ASME B31.12
    Source: Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide
    C. Rivkin, R. Burgess, and W. Buttner
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    13

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  14. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Overview of Regulations, Codes, and Standards Related
    to Hydrogen Infrastructure Safety
    14
    Federal Regulations
    OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H Safe storage, use, and handling of hydrogen in the workplace
    DOT Regulations 49 CFR 171-179 Safe transport of hydrogen in commerce
    U.S. National Codes
    International Building Code (IBC) General construction requirements for building based on occupancy class
    International Fire Code (IFC)/NFPA 1 Uniform Fire
    Code
    Requirements for hydrogen fueling stations, flammable gas, and cryogenic fluid storage
    International Mechanical Code (IMC) Requirements for ventilation for hydrogen usage in indoor locations
    International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) Requirements for flammable gas piping
    Hydrogen Technologies Specific Fire Codes and Standards
    NFPA 2 Hydrogen Technologies Code
    Comprehensive code for hydrogen technologies constructed of extract material from
    documents such as NFPA 55 and 853 and original material
    NFPA 55 Compressed Gas and Cryogenic Fluids
    Code
    Comprehensive gas safety code that addresses flammable gases as a class of
    hazardous materials and also contains hydrogen-specific requirements
    NFPA 853 Standard for the Installation of Stationary
    Fuel Cell Power Systems
    Covers installation of all commercial fuel cells including hydrogen PEM fuel cells
    Hydrogen Technologies Component, Performance, and Installation Standards
    ASME B31.3 and B31.12 Piping and Pipelines Piping design and installation codes that also cover material selection
    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code Addresses design of steel alloy and composite pressure vessels
    CGA S series Addresses requirements for pressure relief devices for containers
    CGA H Series Components and systems
    UL 2075 Sensors
    CSA H series of hydrogen component standards
    CSA FC1 Stationary fuel cells
    SAE J2601/SAE J2600 Dispensing and dispenser nozzles
    Source: Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide
    C. Rivkin, R. Burgess, and W. Buttner
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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  15. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Overview of Hydrogen Standards (By Function)
    H2
    Generation
    Hydrogen
    Generator :safety
    ISO 16110-1:2007
    Hydrogen
    Generator: water
    electrolysis
    ISO 22734:2019
    Hydrogen
    separation &
    purification ISO/TS
    19883:2017
    Hydrogen
    Generator: Grid
    services ISO/TR
    22734-2
    H2
    Distribution
    & Storage
    Stationary
    Containers,
    Cylinders and Tanks
    NFPA 2 & NFPA 55
    Pipeline ASME B31
    series & B31.12
    Hydrogen detection
    apparatus
    ISO 26142:2010
    GH2-Cylinders &
    tubes for stationary
    storage.
    ISO 19884
    H2 Quality
    H2 Fuel Quality
    ISO 14687:2019
    H2 Fuel Quality-
    PEM FC EN
    17124:2018
    H2 Fuel Quality for
    FC SAE
    J2719B:2020
    H2 fuel analysis for
    PEM FC of road
    vehicles
    ISO 21087:2019
    H2 Fueling
    Light-duty vehicle
    SAE J2601:2020
    Heavy-duty vehicle
    SAE J2601/2:2014
    Fork-lift vehicle
    SAE J2601/3:2013
    Filling protocols
    EN 17127:2020
    Design of protocol
    ISO 19885-1
    Vehicle & HRS ISO
    19885-2/ -3
    HRS connection
    device ISO
    17268:2020
    H2 Fueling
    Station
    General
    ISO 19880-1:2020
    Valve
    ISO 19880-3:2020
    Wire and Hose
    ISO 19880-5:2020
    Fuel Quality
    ISO 19880-8:2019
    Sampling
    ISO 19880-9
    Fittings
    ISO 19880-6
    HDTA
    CSA HGV 4.3
    FC Vehicle
    TPRD
    ISO 19882:2018
    Fuel Container
    ISO 19881:2018
    System components
    ISO 19887
    Vehicle Inspection
    UN ECE R134
    UN ECE R140
    15
    Note: published standards noted in black, and draft standards in red

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  16. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    都市瓦斯或天然氣
    煉油廠或化學產業
    副產氫
    加氫機:
    • ISO 19880-3閥件
    • ISO 19880-5軟管及其組合
    • ISO 19880-6 配件
    • ISO 17268 連接裝置
    • SAE J2601系列 加氫協定
    • SAE J2799通訊硬體及軟體
    • CSA HGV 4.3 HSTD
    • CSA HGV ˋ4.4 拉斷裝置
    • ISO 22734 水電解
    • ISO 16110-1重組製氫
    • ISO 19883 PSA純化
    定置儲氫:
    • ISO 19884(制定中)
    • 公共危險物品及可燃性高壓氣
    體製造儲存處理場所設置標準
    暨安全管理辦法
    壓縮機:
    • CSA HGV 4.8
    • ISO 19880-4
    (ISO/TC197 WG21規劃中)
    預冷設備:
    • 勞工安全衛法(壓力設備)
    車載運輸氫氣:
    • 高壓氣體勞工安全規則
    現場
    製氫
    加氫站:
    • ISO 19880-1一般要求
    • ISO 19880-8 氫氣品質
    • ISO 14687 氫氣品質標準
    車載儲氫裝置:
    • ISO 19881儲氫桶
    • ISO 19883 TPRD
    • ISO 17268連接裝置
    • SAE J2601系列 加氫協定
    • SAE J2799通訊硬體及軟體
    On-site
    Off-site
    • ASME B31.12氫氣配管
    • ISO 21087 氫氣分析法
    • 經營公共危險物品及高壓氣體
    各類事業之分類及安全管理辦法
    • ISO 26142 氫氣偵測裝置-定置型
    氫氣相關標準(以加氫站場域為例)
    資料來源:2022工研院氫能應用研究計畫
    16

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  17. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Overview of Hydrogen standards
    Household application
    17
    資料來源:2022工研院氫能應用研究計畫

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  18. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Overview of Hydrogen standards
    Power generation and mobility
    18
    資料來源:2022工研院氫能應用研究計畫

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  19. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Hydrogen Standards (for hydrogen storage materials)
    • JIS H 7003:2007, Glossary of terms used in hydrogen absorbing alloys
    • JIS H 7201:2007, Method for measurement of pressure-composition-
    temperature(PCT) relations of hydrogen absorbing alloys
    • JIS H 7202:2007, Method for measurement of hydrogen
    absorption/desorption reaction rate of hydrogen absorbing alloys
    • JIS H 7203:2007, Method for measurement of hydrogen
    absorption/desorption cycle characteristic of hydrogen absorbing alloys
    • JIS H 7204:1995, Method for measuring the heat of hydrating reaction of
    hydrogen absorbing alloys
    19

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  20. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    Hydrogen Standards (for hydrogen storage materials)
    • ISO 2626:1973 Copper - Hydrogen embrittlement test
    • ISO/TR 20491:2019 Fasteners - Fundamentals of hydrogen embrittlement in steel fasteners
    • ISO 15330:1999 Fasteners - Preloading test for the detection of hydrogen embrittlement - parallel
    bearing surface method
    • ISO 16573:2015 Steel - Measurement method for the evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement resistance
    of high strength steels
    • ISO 9587:2007 Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Pretreatment of iron or steel to reduce the risk of
    hydrogen embrittlement
    • ISO 9588:2007 Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Post-coating treatments of iron or steel to reduce
    the risk of hydrogen embrittlement
    • ISO 7539-11:2013 Corrosion of metals and alloys - Stress corrosion testing - Part 11: Guidelines for
    testing the resistance of metals and alloys to hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen-assisted cracking
    • ISO 10587:2000 Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Test for residual embrittlement in both metallic-
    coated and uncoated externally-threaded articles and rods - Inclined wedge method
    • ISO 11114-4:2017 Transportable gas cylinders - Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas
    contents - Part 4: Test methods for selecting steels resistant to hydrogen embrittlement
    20

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  21. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作 21
    Species
    Maximum Concentration
    (µmol/mol) (ppm)
    Impact Level
    影響等級
    Water(水) 5 Severe 嚴重
    Total hydrocarbons(碳氫化合物總量) 2
    非關鍵(≦ C7
    )
    Severe 嚴重(> C7
    )
    Oxygen(氧) 5 Severe 嚴重
    Helium(氦) 300 Not Severe 非關鍵
    Nitrogen/Argon(氮/氬) 100 Not Severe 非關鍵
    Carbon Dioxide(二氧化碳) 2 Not Severe 非關鍵
    Carbon Monoxide(一氧化碳) 0.2 Severe 嚴重
    Total sulphur compounds(含硫量) 0.0004
    Very Severe
    非常嚴重
    Formaldehyde(甲醛) 0.01
    Very Severe
    非常嚴重
    Formic acid(甲酸) 0.2
    Very Severe
    非常嚴重
    Ammonia(氨) 0.1
    Very Severe
    非常嚴重
    Total halogenated compounds(鹵化物) 0.05
    Very Severe
    非常嚴重
    Note: Severe: issues of adsorption and stability. Very severe: reactive impurity. Not Severe: no real effect under evaluation;
    Hydrogen Fuel Quality: ISO 14687:2019

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  22. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作
    結論
    ➢氫能相關安全規範是研發及應用擴散的基石。
    ➢我國氫能法規及標準正持續規劃及研擬中。
    ➢可以及早導入相關安全設計技術於產品或系統中,確保整
    體應用安全。
    22

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  23. © ITRI. 工業技術研究院著作 23
    報告完畢

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