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Clean Architectures in Python

Clean Architectures in Python

Architectural considerations are often overlooked by developers or completely delegated to a framework. We should start once again discussing how applications are structured, how components are connected and how to lower coupling between different parts of a system, to avoid creating software that cannot easily be maintained or changed.

The “clean architecture” model predates Robert Martin, who recently brought it back to the attention of the community, and is a way of structuring applications that leverages layers separation and internal APIs to achieve a very tidy, fully-tested, and loosely coupled system. The talk introduces the main ideas of the architecture, showing how the layers can be implemented in Python, following the content of the book “Clean Architectures in Python” edited by Leanpub. The book recently reached 8,000 downloads and many readers found it useful to start learning how to test software and how to structure an application without relying entirely on the framework.

Leonardo Giordani

June 16, 2019
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  1. Clean Architectures in Python
    A tale of durability, utility, and beauty

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  2. “Who wrote this code?”
    L E O N A R D O G I O R D A N I
    S O F T W A R E D E V E L O P E R A N D B L O G G E R
    W W W. T H E D I G I T A L C AT O N L I N E . C O M
    @TW_LGIORDANI - @THEDIGICAT

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  3. WHAT IS THE DEFINITION
    OF ARCHITECTURE?

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  4. F I R M I T A S , U T I L I T A S , V E N U S T A S
    Vitruvius, De architectura

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  5. D U R A B I L I T Y, U T I L I T Y, B E A U T Y
    Vitruvius, De architectura

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  6. T H E A R T A N D S C I E N C E I N W H I C H T H E C O M P O N E N T S O F A
    C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M A R E O R G A N I S E D A N D I N T E G R AT E D

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  7. D O W E N E E D A R C H I T E C T U R E ?

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  8. Ivar Jacobson (1992)
    Object Oriented Software Engineering:
    A Use-Case Driven Approach
    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides (1994)
    Design Patterns
    Robert Martin (2000)
    Design Principles and Design Patterns
    Eric Evans (2003)
    Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity
    in the Heart of Software
    H. Hohpe, B. Woolf (2003)
    Enterprise Integration Patterns: Designing,
    Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions

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  9. What is the meaning of clean?

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  10. You know
    where things are,
    why components are there,
    what something is.

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  11. Clean Architectures in Python
    A practical approach to better software design
    bit.ly/getpycabook
    Leonardo Giordani

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  12. The Clean Architecture
    A layered approach for a more
    civilized age

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  13. The golden rule
    Talk inward with simple structures,
    talk outwards through interfaces.

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  14. class Item:
    def __init__(self, code, price):
    self.code = code
    self.price = price
    Entities: simple models

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  15. Use case: retrieve a list of items
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase()
    use_case.execute()

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  16. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    pass
    We want to build a web application

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  17. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase()
    use_case.execute(request.args)
    Incoming HTTP requests become
    a call and simple structures

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  18. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase()
    use_case.execute(request.args)
    The use case extracts data from
    a repository, which can be any
    source of data

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  19. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase()
    use_case.execute(request.args)
    And the repository can be
    accessed through an interface

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  20. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    repo = PostgresRepo(CONNECTION_STRING)
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase(repo)
    use_case.execute(request.args)
    The use case receives the
    repository interface as an
    argument of the call

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  21. class ItemsListUseCase:
    def __init__(self, repo):
    self.repo = repo
    def execute(self, params):
    # BUSINESS LOGIC HERE
    result = self.repo.list(params)
    # BUSINESS LOGIC HERE
    return result
    The use case queries the
    repository interface with simple
    structures

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  22. class PostgresRepo:
    def __init__(self, CONNECTION_STRING):
    self.ng = create_engine(
    CONNECTION_STRING)
    Base.metadata.bind = self.ng
    def list(self, filters):
    DBSession = sessionmaker(bind=self.ng)
    session = DBSession()
    query = ...
    The database interface and the
    database exchange data in a
    specific language

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  23. The database interface translates
    the specific language into simple
    structures and entities
    class PostgresRepo:
    def __init__(self, CONNECTION_STRING):
    self.ng = create_engine(
    CONNECTION_STRING)
    Base.metadata.bind = self.ng
    def _create_items(self, results):
    return [Item(code=q.code, price=q.price)
    for q in results]
    def list(self, filters):
    DBSession = sessionmaker(bind=self.ng)
    session = DBSession()
    query = ...
    return self._create_items(query.all())

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  24. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    repo = PostgresRepo(CONNECTION_STRING)
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase(repo)
    result = use_case.execute(request.args)
    The use case returns the result of
    the business logic: entities and
    simple structures

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  25. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    repo = PostgresRepo(CONNECTION_STRING)
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase(repo)
    result = use_case.execute(request.args)
    return Response(
    json.dumps(result),
    mimetype='application/json',
    status=200)
    The web framework converts
    entities and simple structures
    into HTTP responses

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  26. class ItemsListUseCase:
    def __init__(self, repo):
    self.repo = repo
    def execute(self, params):
    # BUSINESS LOGIC HERE
    result = self.repo.list(params)
    # BUSINESS LOGIC HERE
    return result
    Testing the use case

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  27. @blueprint.route('/items', methods=['GET'])
    def items():
    repo = PostgresRepo(CONNECTION_STRING)
    use_case = uc.ItemsListUseCase(repo)
    result = use_case.execute(request.args)
    return Response(
    json.dumps(result),
    mimetype='application/json',
    status=200)
    Testing the HTTP endpoint

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  28. Testing the repository interface:
    integration test
    class PostgresRepo:
    def __init__(self, CONNECTION_STRING):
    self.ng = create_engine(
    CONNECTION_STRING)
    Base.metadata.bind = self.ng
    def _create_items(self, results):
    return [Item(code=q.code, price=q.price)
    for q in results]
    def list(self, filters):
    DBSession = sessionmaker(bind=self.ng)
    session = DBSession()
    query = ...
    return self._create_items(query.all())

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  29. Is it possible to migrate an existing system?

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  30. Is this the definitive architecture?

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  31. Clean Architectures in Python
    A practical approach to better software design
    bit.ly/getpycabook
    Leonardo Giordani

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  32. Harry Percival, Bob Gregory
    www.cosmicpython.com
    Architecture Patterns with Python

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  33. Thank you!
    @tw_lgiordani - @thedigicat
    bit.ly/getpycabook - thedigitalcatonline.com

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