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Handling word formation in historical-comparative linguistics

Handling word formation in historical-comparative linguistics

Talk held at the Workshop on Kiranti Languages (CRLAO, Paris).

Johann-Mattis List

December 01, 2016
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  1. Handling word formation in historical-comparative
    linguistics
    Annotation and Analysis
    Johann-Mattis List
    DFG Research Fellow
    Centre des recherches linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale
    Team Adaptation, Integration, Reticulation, Evolution
    EHESS and UPMC, Paris
    2016/12/01
    1 / 38

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  2. Preliminaries
    Preliminaries
    2 / 38

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  3. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    Frucht, ferner fruchten, befruchten, Befruchtung,
    fruchtbar, fruchtig
    Frucht f. ‘der Fortpflanzung der eigenen Art dienendes
    Produkt einer Pflanze’, auch ‘ungeborenes Lebewesen’,
    übertragen ‘Ertrag’, ahd. fruht (9. Jh.), mhd. vruht,
    asächs. fruht, mnd. mnl. nl. vrucht beruhen auf einer
    frühen Entlehnung von gleichbed. lat. frūctus,
    abgeleitet vom Verb lat. fruī (frūctus sum) ‘genießen,
    Nutzen ziehen’ (verwandt mit brauchen, s. d.). Das
    Deminutiv Früchtchen hat die spezielle Bedeutung
    [...]
    German "Frucht" in Pfei�er (1993, also at http://dwds.de)
    3 / 38

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  4. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    Frucht, ferner fruchten, befruchten, Befruchtung,
    fruchtbar, fruchtig
    Frucht f. ‘der Fortpflanzung der eigenen Art dienendes
    Produkt einer Pflanze’, auch ‘ungeborenes Lebewesen’,
    übertragen ‘Ertrag’, ahd. fruht (9. Jh.), mhd. vruht,
    asächs. fruht, mnd. mnl. nl. vrucht beruhen auf einer
    frühen Entlehnung von gleichbed. lat. frūctus,
    abgeleitet vom Verb lat. fruī (frūctus sum) ‘genießen,
    Nutzen ziehen’ (verwandt mit brauchen, s. d.). Das
    Deminutiv Früchtchen hat die spezielle Bedeutung
    [...]
    German "Frucht" in Pfei�er (1993,
    also at http://dwds.de
    3 / 38

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  5. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    Frucht, ferner fruchten, befruchten, Befruchtung,
    fruchtbar, fruchtig
    Frucht f. ‘der Fortpflanzung der eigenen Art dienendes
    Produkt einer Pflanze’, auch ‘ungeborenes Lebewesen’,
    übertragen ‘Ertrag’, ahd. fruht (9. Jh.), mhd. vruht,
    asächs. fruht, mnd. mnl. nl. vrucht beruhen auf einer
    frühen Entlehnung von gleichbed. lat. frūctus,
    abgeleitet vom Verb lat. fruī (frūctus sum) ‘genießen,
    Nutzen ziehen’ (verwandt mit brauchen, s. d.). Das
    Deminutiv Früchtchen hat die spezielle Bedeutung
    [...]
    inherited from
    borrowed from
    derived from
    PIE *bhreu◌◌̯
    Hg◌

    ̑
    -
    “to use”
    PIE *bhruHg◌

    ̑
    -ié-
    “to use” (present tense)
    PGM *ƀrūkan-
    “to use”
    OHG brūhhan
    “to use”
    G brauchen
    “to use”
    G Brauch
    “custom”
    OHG fruht
    “profit, fruit”
    G frugal
    “modest (food)”
    Fr fruit
    “profit,fruit”
    Fr frugal
    “modest (food)”
    Lt fruor, fruī
    “I enjoy”
    Lt frūctus
    “profit”
    Lt frux
    “fruit, grain”
    Lt frugalis
    “bring profit”
    Adapted from an Illustration by Hans Geisler (University Düsseldorf)
    German "Frucht" in Pfei�er (1993,
    also at http://dwds.de
    3 / 38

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  6. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    While etymological dictionaries provide us with
    very detailed scenarios on processes in lan-
    guage change, including processes of inheri-
    tance, contact, and word formation, they present
    the knowledge in a prosaic fashion that resists
    quantification and makes it also very difficult to
    comprehend, especially for those who are not
    experts in the given language family.
    3 / 38

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  7. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    SUN
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    SUN
    suːl
    Swedish
    4 / 38

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  8. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    4 / 38

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  9. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    4 / 38

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  10. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    4 / 38

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  11. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    Romance
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    4 / 38

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  12. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    4 / 38

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  13. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    4 / 38

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  14. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    'soh₂-wl◌◌̩
    - sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    SEM
    ANTIC
    SHIFT
    M
    O
    RPH
    O
    LO
    G
    ICAL
    CH
    AN
    G
    E
    M
    O
    R
    PH
    O
    LO
    G
    ICA
    L
    CH
    A
    N
    G
    E
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    4 / 38

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  15. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    The Word Formation Problem
    Computational phylogenetic approaches, on the
    other hand, usually ignore word formation, mak-
    ing it difficult to study language change in all its
    complexity.
    4 / 38

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  16. Preliminaries The Word Formation Problem
    Reconciling Etymology with Computers
    Can we find a way to increase the consis-
    tency of classical etymological accounts and the
    complexity of computational approaches to han-
    dle word formation processes in comparative-
    historical linguistics in a more reliable and more
    transparent way?
    5 / 38

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  17. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation
    The first step in linguistic reconstruction, during which we
    assemble our evidence and identify related words and mor-
    phemes in and outside languages.
    Analysis
    The second, crucial step of linguistic reconstruction, dur-
    ing which we present our hypotheses in form of historical
    scenarios that explain how the relations that we annotated
    evolved into their current shape.
    6 / 38

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  18. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation and Analysis
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    SUN
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    SUN
    suːl
    7 / 38

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  19. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation and Analysis
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    SUN
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    SUN
    suːl
    7 / 38

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  20. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation and Analysis
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    SUN
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    SUN
    suːl
    7 / 38

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  21. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation and Analysis
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    SUN
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    SUN
    suːl
    7 / 38

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  22. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Annotation
    Descriptive Annotation
    The first step of annotation in which we only state which
    relations hold between the entities we analyse and does
    not make specific assumptions regarding the historical pro-
    cesses which they result from.
    Etymological Annotation
    An interpretive step in the annotation in which certain parts of
    the reconstruction are already carried out and certain basic
    processes are postulated.
    8 / 38

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  23. Preliminaries Annotation and Analysis
    Analysis
    Linguistic Reconstruction
    Postulating a classical proto-form which is supposed to have
    been fulfilling a certain function in the proto-language.
    Etymological Analysis
    A complete account on a given proto-form, providing the best
    explanations available to account for the development of the
    form in the descendant languages (including idiosyncratic
    processes).
    9 / 38

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  24. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Data Representation
    Multilingual Word List
    A list of words from various languages, in which each row
    corresponds to one word form in one language, marked by a
    unique identifier in the first column, with additional informa-
    tion regarding the word (meaning, pronunciation, cognacy,
    etc.) placed in additional columns.
    Word List Format
    Given the very abstract and lightweight character of this word
    list structure, it can be stored in all computer formats which
    allow for this kind of data, such as CSV (comma-separated
    values, pure text file) or more specific spreadsheet formats
    (Excel, LibreOffice, GoogleSheets, etc.).
    10 / 38

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  25. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Data Representation
    ID CONCEPT ORTHOGRAPHY VALUE DOCULECT COGNACY
    1 hand Hand hant German 1
    2 hand hand hænd English 1
    3 hand рука ruka Russian 2
    4 hand рука ruka Ukrainian 2
    5 leg Bein bain German 3
    6 leg leg lɛg English 4
    7 leg нога noga Russian 5
    8 leg нога noha Ukrainian 5
    9 Woldemort Waldemar valdemar German 6
    10 Woldemort Woldemort wɔldemɔrt English 6
    11 Woldemort Владимир vladimir Russian 6
    12 Woldemort Володимир volodimir Ukrainian 6
    13 Harry Harald haralt German 7
    14 Harry Harry hæri English 7
    15 Harry Гарри gari Russian 7
    16 Harry Гаррi hari Ukrainian 7
    11 / 38

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  26. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Data Representation
    11 / 38

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  27. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Data Representation
    EDICTOR
    Version 0.1 (List 2016)
    http://edictor.digling.org
    11 / 38

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  28. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Examples for Basic Fields
    DOCULECT The name of the language variety (EDICTOR
    prefers a simple name, without special charac-
    ters and whitespace).
    CONCEPT The gloss for the concept expressed by the word
    (content arbitrary, as long as different concepts
    are given different glosses).
    TOKENS Machine-readable representation of phonetic
    transcription. Space-segmented, that is, pho-
    netic/phonological units (“sounds”) are sepa-
    rated by spaces.
    12 / 38

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  29. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Relations
    COGNACY The identifier for cognate sets by which words
    which have the same identifier are grouped into
    the same cognate set.
    ALIGNMENT The aligned representation of the word when be-
    ing aligned with cognate words.
    13 / 38

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  30. Preliminaries Technical Aspects
    Relations
    14 / 38

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  31. Compounding
    Compounding
    15 / 38

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  32. Compounding Preliminaries
    Handling Compounding in SEA Languages
    The following is common work with Nathan Hill
    (SOAS, London). We developed the ideas for
    handling and analysing word formation in a
    project on the history of the Burmish language
    family.
    16 / 38

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  33. Compounding Preliminaries
    Compounding in SEA Languages
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    17 / 38

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  34. Compounding Preliminaries
    Compounding in SEA Languages
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    Fúzhōu ŋ u o ʔ ⁵ - - - - - - - - - -
    Měixiàn ŋ i a t ⁵ - - - - - k u o ŋ ⁴⁴
    Guǎngzhōu j - y t ² l - œ ŋ ²² - - - - -
    Běijīng - y ɛ - ⁵¹ l i ɑ ŋ - - - - - -
    17 / 38

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  35. Compounding Preliminaries
    Compounding in SEA Languages
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    Fúzhōu ŋ u o ʔ ⁵ - - - - - - - - - -
    Měixiàn ŋ i a t ⁵ - - - - - k u o ŋ ⁴⁴
    Guǎngzhōu j - y t ² l - œ ŋ ²² - - - - -
    Běijīng - y ɛ - ⁵¹ l i ɑ ŋ - - - - - -
    1 2 3 4
    number of morphemes per word
    0.0
    0.2
    0.4
    0.6
    0.8
    1.0
    relative frequency
    all words
    nouns
    Compounds in the basic vocabulary (Swadesh1952) across
    23 Chinese dialects (data by Hamed and Wang 2006)
    30%
    50%
    17 / 38

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  36. Compounding Preliminaries
    Partial Cognacy
    ‘Cognacy is not a binary relation which is either present or
    not. Instead, we can distinguish different subtypes of cog-
    nacy, just as biologists can identify specific types of homol-
    ogy between genes.’ (List 2016: 133)
    18 / 38

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  37. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    TOKENS (SEGMENTS)
    Our phonetic transcriptions are expanded by adding a
    layer of morphological segmentation in which different mor-
    phemes in the same word form are separated with a mor-
    pheme separation character (usually a +).
    PARTIAL_COGNATES
    Partial cognate relations are indicated with help of partial
    cognate identifiers which are separated by a space in the
    partial-cognate column.
    PARTIAL_ALIGNMENTS
    When aligning the words, we still write all alignments in only
    one column, but we align each morpheme in the word only
    for the partial cognate set to which it belongs.
    19 / 38

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  38. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    Partial cognates which are annotated in this way
    can be directly converted into the “normal” cog-
    nate sets we know from the quantitative phy-
    logenetic analyses. Partial cognate annotation
    would be extremely tedious in spreadsheets or
    other formats. The EDICTOR tool, however,
    supports partial cognate annotation, and LingPy
    offers tools for partial cognate identification and
    alignment (List et al. 2016).
    19 / 38

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  39. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  40. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  41. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  42. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  43. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  44. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-External Annotation
    20 / 38

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  45. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-Internal Annotation
    MORPHEMES
    We can annotate the morpheme-separated word forms fur-
    ther by using a very straightforward space-segmented for-
    mat of “word-form-glossing”, in which we use the same iden-
    tifier (a brief gloss for a concept) to gloss the structure of
    word forms. In this way, we can annotate the semantic
    structure of multi-morphemic compounds (compare Chinese
    shùpí 树皮 ‘bark’ tree skin), and at the same time anno-
    tate language-internal cognates (word families or “allofams”)
    in a transparent way.
    21 / 38

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  46. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-Internal Annotation
    Morpheme annotation using word-form-glossing
    is supported by the EDICTOR tool and will be
    supported in form of partial colexification analy-
    ses in future versions of LingPy.
    21 / 38

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  47. Compounding Annotation of Compounds
    Language-Internal Annotation
    21 / 38

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  48. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Bějīng
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu

    ŋiat⁵ kuoŋ⁴⁴
    jyt²
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    liɑŋ¹
    lœŋ²²
    yɛ⁵¹


    B G M F B G M F
    22 / 38

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  49. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Bějīng
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu

    ŋiat⁵ kuoŋ⁴⁴
    jyt²
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    liɑŋ¹
    lœŋ²²
    yɛ⁵¹


    B G M F B G M F
    22 / 38

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  50. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Bějīng
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu

    ŋiat⁵ kuoŋ⁴⁴
    jyt²
    ŋuoʔ⁵
    liɑŋ¹
    lœŋ²²
    yɛ⁵¹


    B G
    LOSS
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    BORROWING
    M F
    22 / 38

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  51. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Once we have annotated the compounds in lexical data for
    partial cognacy, we can use various methods to infer how
    the data can be best explained by assuming different pro-
    cesses of change in compounding. Currently, only proto-
    types are available (see e.g., List 2016), but evolutionary
    biology offers with the framework of tree reconciliation meth-
    ods already a rich arsenal of methods which we can adapt
    to our linguistic needs in the future. Given that compound-
    ing is treated carelessly in most etymological dictionaries of
    SEA languages, the development of new quantitative analy-
    ses inspired from biological techniques may turn out as very
    fruitful for our discipline.
    22 / 38

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  52. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  53. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  54. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  55. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  56. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  57. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  58. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
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  59. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
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  60. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  61. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  62. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Ancestral State Reconstruction
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    23 / 38

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  63. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Pattern Analysis
    Pattern Freq. Note
    82 Mostly a-prefix followed by non-cognate items, e.g. Bola [a³¹ + thaʔ⁵⁵]
    vs. Achang [a31 + lum31[ ‘above’.
    58 Mostly one plain noun vs. one with an additional part, e.g. Bola
    [tʃa◌̱
    m⁵⁵] vs. Lashi [tsɔ◌̱
    m⁵⁵ + mou⁵⁵] {cloud + sky} ‘cloud’.
    53 Mostly one plain noun vs. one with an additional part in front, often
    simply the a-suffix, e.g., Atsi [siŋ²¹] vs. Achang [a³¹ + ʂəŋ³¹] ‘liver’.
    36 Common main noun, but different preceding noun, e.g., Bola [mjaŋ⁵⁵
    + kʰui³⁵] {thunder + dog} vs. Lashi [wɔm³¹ + kʰui⁵⁵] {bear + dog}
    ‘wolf’.
    34 The common part is prefixed in one word and suffixed in the other,
    e.g., Atsi [u²¹ + tsham⁵¹] {head + hair} vs. Rangoon [shɑ◌̃
    ²² + pĩ²²] {hair
    + ?} ‘hair (of head)’.
    remaining 77 30 unique patterns are remaining, 15 only occuring once
    Partial Cognate Patterns in Burmish Languages (Hill & List WIP)
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  64. Compounding Analysis of Compounds
    Pattern Analysis
    To our knowledge, partial cognate pattern anal-
    ysis has not been carried out in linguistics so
    far. It may, however, turn out to provide us
    with important evidence on the directionality of
    certain patterns. Regardless of directionality, it
    may also be interesting to see to which degree
    language families in which compounding is fre-
    quent differ in their major patterns.
    25 / 38

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  65. Derivation
    Derivation
    26 / 38

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  66. Derivation Preliminaries
    Handling Derivation in Sino-Tibetan Languages
    The following is common work with Guillaume
    Jacques (CRLAO, Paris), who provided a first
    explicit annotation of verbal derivation in Kiranti
    languages (an annotated version of Jacques
    forthcoming, A reconstruction of Proto-Kiranti
    verb roots, Folia Linguistica Historica). We de-
    veloped the ideas for handling and preliminary
    ideas for analysing derivation in several discus-
    sions during the last months.
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  67. Derivation Preliminaries
    Derivation in SEA Languages
    *rib
    rab.rib
    srib
    sa.srib
    grib
    grib.ma
    sgrib
    ɴgrib
    Exemplary derivations of word forms from the
    Tibetan root *rib 'to be dark', as proposed by
    Jacques (2016, Une famille de mot en Tibétain,
    URL: https://panchr.hypotheses.org/1273),
    visualized as a derivation tree. The form itself
    is not attested, but it can be supposed based on
    the semantic relations between the members of
    the word family.
    28 / 38

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  68. Derivation Preliminaries
    Levels of Annotation
    Hierarchical Aspect
    The hierarchical aspect plays a much more crucial role in
    derivations than in plain transparent compounds. Instead of
    a simple morpheme segmentation, an annotation of deriva-
    tions needs to account for this aspect.
    Paradigmatic Aspect
    While compounds are syntagmatic structures, derivations
    may further show paradigmatic variation. If derivation is
    expressed by a voicing contrast, as, for example, the anti-
    causative in some Kiranti languages (Jacques forthcoming),
    this is a paradigmatic change which cannot be modeled with
    help of alignments. A transparent annotation of derivations
    also needs to account for this.
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  69. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-Internal Annotation
    Basic Principle of Annotation
    As a general idea for annotation, we can model syntagmatic
    derivation in a similar way in which we propose to model
    compounding. As a rule, the machine-readable transcription
    of words is provided in morpheme-segmented form.
    Hierarchical Annotation
    In most cases, the hierarchical aspect can be modeled by
    annotating that one element attaches to another element.
    Bantawa sakt ‘to weed’, an applicative derivation of an in-
    transitive verb, can thus be written as "s a k ← t", indi-
    cating that the applicative-marker "t" attaches as suffix to
    the main morpheme (Jacques forthcoming).
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  70. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-Internal Annotation
    Paradigmatic Annotation
    Paradigmatic annotation requires two additional layers, to al-
    low for a sufficiently abstract handling. Each word form is
    linked to a root in a separate ROOT column, and a stem in
    a separate STEM column. The syntagmatic derivations can
    be placed in a DERIVATION column, in which derivation is
    annotated in a similar form, as we used for the word-form-
    glossing.
    The hierarchical relations underlying the derivations need to
    be handled independently of the word list and can be passed
    in form of directed networks to the word list.
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  71. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-Internal Annotation
    Cognate Annotation
    Cognate annotation follows the partial cognate annotation
    principle, but word forms with paradigm variation in their
    stems are assigned different identifiers, reflecting the fact
    that they cannot be aligned. An additional cognate identifier
    is needed to make sure that different stems can be assigned
    to the same root.
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  72. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    We can use the language-internal annotation also for
    language-external annotation, with the difference, that our
    root and stem cells will now serve for the proto-form of the
    proposed proto-language. Problems we cannot yet suffi-
    ciently handle are those where the actual derivation cannot
    be traced back to the proto-language, as this will require to
    introduce intermediate ancestral forms. More examples are
    needed to handle these cases.
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  73. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    DOCULECT SEGMENTS ROOT STEM DERIVATION
    French sol←ej *soh₂wl- *soh₂wl + ? REKTUS DIM
    Spanish sol *soh₂wl- *soh₂wl REKTUS
    German zɔnɛ *soh₂wl- *sh₂en OBLIQUUS
    Swedish suːl *soh₂wl- *soh₂wl REKTUS
    Annotating words for ‘sun’ in the four Indo-European languages.
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  74. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    32 / 38

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  75. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    32 / 38

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  76. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    32 / 38

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  77. Derivation Annotation of Derivation
    Language-External Annotation
    Given the derivation patterns as provided by G. Jacques, the
    data structure in the demo application could be generated
    automatically. The same applies to the stems, which were
    derived by applying the conversion rules proposed for each
    derivation process. Already in this preliminary form, the data
    provides a much larger degree of transparency than the clas-
    sical etymological dictionaries, and further analyses can be
    easily carried out.
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  78. Derivation Analysis of Derivation
    Phylogenetic Reconstruction (?)
    Since the direction in compounding processes is really hard
    to estimate (and may well be highly language-specific or
    even show no preference at all), we need a reference phy-
    logeny to get initial insights into the major processes. In
    derivation, however, we usually have a clear idea regarding
    the direction of the processes. Since directional processes
    are very useful for phylogenetic estimation, we suppose that
    a larger dataset annotated in this form, may be very suitable
    for phylogenetic reconstruction methods. For this, however,
    more languages need to be added to G. Jacques’ Kiranti
    database.
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  79. Derivation Analysis of Derivation
    Pattern Analysis
    18
    4
    8
    4
    14
    2
    2
    70
    3
    9
    10
    9
    causative
    reflexive
    deponent
    applicative
    anticausative
    intransitive
    transitive
    Frequency of derivational transitions in G. Jacques’ Kiranti data.
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  80. Outlook
    Ausblick
    Outlook
    35 / 38

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  81. Outlook
    Challenges for the Future
    Analogy
    So far, we cannot handle analogy, but we need to handle it
    at some point, both in annotation and analysis.
    Software and Tools
    We need better heuristics to produce proper data and
    the tools to correct computational preprocessing within the
    frameworks for annotation which we define.
    Complexity and Comparability
    We surely do not cover all what is possible in languages at
    the moment, be it in synchrony or diachrony, so we need to
    develop more and more examples to enhance our specifica-
    tion.
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  82. Outlook
    Linguists, and I myself, often complain about the insuffi-
    ciency of the new biological methods applied to linguistic
    data. But if we, as linguists, fail to annotate our data in
    such a way that it can be easily compared across languages
    and applications, if we do not work harder to make our data
    transparent enough so that it can be read by humans and
    machines, we should not complain that computational lin-
    guists use lousy data and lousy algorithms. Better and suf-
    ficient algorithms will come, if only we manage to increase
    the comparability of our linguistic data.
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  83. Outlook
    Merci pour votre attention!
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