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Statewide Comprehensive IPV Training Round 2-DAY 3

Statewide Comprehensive IPV Training Round 2-DAY 3

This Statewide Comprehensive Training provides professionals with in-depth information about working in the field of domestic violence. The training emphasizes victim safety, victim empowerment, abuser accountability, and a comprehensive system’s response to intimate partner violence. MNADV emphasizes partnering with local domestic violence programs and utilizes local experts to present throughout the training. MNADV developed this training for professionals from a variety of different fields who encounter domestic violence in their work.


lucane lafortune

May 07, 2021


  1. MNADV’s 5-Day Comprehensive Intimate Partner Violence Training Day 3: Reproductive

    Coercion, States of Changes, Advocacy, & Ethical Consideration
  2. Meet the Team Angel Campbell Training & Technical Assistant Darrell

    Holly LAP Administrator Jenn Pollitt Hill Interim Executive Director K-Tony Korol Evans Statewide Trainer Lucane LaFortune Deputy Director Chimere Jackson Communications Specialist Mariesa Robinson Prevention Coordinator Melanie Shapiro Policy Director Renee Wells Operations Manager Lina Jaramillo Prevention Coordinator
  3. Housekeeping • Certificates and CEUs • Cancellations • Attendance •

    Accessing Materials • All attendees will be MUTED except during breakout sessions. • Use the chat box to ask questions or engage in dialogue • Evaluations
  4. Day Three Agenda Review/Debrief of Day 2 Trauma BREAK Trauma

    Continued Break Stages of Change LUNCH Foundations of Advocacy BREAK Safety Planning BREAK Lethality Self Care Evaluations
  5. Our Workshop Agreements • Active listening • Be open •

    Be present: silence that internal chatter • Push through growing edge • Respectfully challenge each other • Continue to have these conversations • Remember why we’re all here
  6. Day One Review and Debrief • What were your overall

    thoughts on the day? • What did you learn? • What surprised you? • What do you want to learn more about? • How will you do your work differently?
  7. Trauma Instead of asking “What’s wrong with you?” let’s ask,

    “What happened to you?”
  8. Menti: What words come to your mind when you hear

    “Neurobiology of Trauma?
  9. Types of Stress

  10. Menti: What are examples of toxic stress?

  11. Trauma results from: An event, series of events, or set

    of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual's functioning and physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being. - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  12. Survivors Experience Multiple Types of Trauma • Individual trauma •

    Collective trauma • Historical • Cumulative • Polyvictimization Giller 1999; NCDVTMH: Packard/NIWRC 2012; Moss 2013; Cave and Curley 2015 • All can increase risk for victimization • Coping strategies can increase risk for harm • Not learning one has the right to protect oneself can increase risk for being harmed • Social conditions, discrimination and lack of human rights protections increase the risk of being harmed • Abusive partners exploit these experiences.
  13. Possible Traumatic Impact of DV These interrelated factors can increase

    or protect against the traumatic impact of DV: • Age and developmental stage • Individual characteristics • Nature of the event, ongoing exposure • Community and culture • Other stressors, adversities Pynoos, et. al. 1999
  14. Clip: The Three Main Parts of the Brain

  15. The Brain

  16. Clip: Trauma and the Brain

  17. Normal Stress Response Stimulus Thalamus Sensory Relay Station Amygdala Alarm

    Cortex Thinking & Planning Hippocampus Memory Very Fast Slower Response LeDoux, 1996, Bassuk 2007
  18. Traumatic Stress Response Stimulus Thalamus Sensory Relay Station Amygdala Alarm

    Cortex Thinking & Planning Hippocampus Memory Response Very Fast Slower Response Response Sensitized Nervous System: Under- modulation of Fear Pathways LeDoux, 1996, Bassuk 2007
  19. Clip: Rebecca Campbell – The World's Messiest Desk

  20. Trauma Reactions • Emotional reactions • Psychological and cognitive reactions

    • Behavioral reactions • Physical reactions “An individual body expresses what cannot be said or verbalized. And so, traumatic memories are often transformed into physical outcomes.” – Van der Kolk
  21. Always remember: Traumatic reactions are NORMAL responses to ABNORMAL situations.

  22. Trauma in the Context of DV • Trauma is not

    “post” • Appropriate response to ongoing danger • Stress Response: Fight, Flight, or Freeze • “Overreaction” to minor stimuli or acute social awareness? Warshaw, 2009
  23. Trauma Can Affect Our Capacity to: • Feel internally connected

    to caring others • Experience ourselves as deserving and worthwhile • Manage and share feelings • Stay present and connected; maintain self- awareness • Comfort ourselves; be comforted by others Saakvitne et. al, 2000
  24. Trauma Can Affect Our Capacity to Trust Trust other people

    • Reach out for or respond to help Trust ourselves • Solve problems, exercise judgment • Process information, screen out distractions • Take initiative, thoughtfully plan Saakvitne et. al., 2000, Harris & Fallot 2001
  25. None
  26. Coping and Survival in the Context of Ongoing IPV Attempts

    to stop the abuse • Reach out for help • Trying to improve the relationship • Appear ‘passive’/compliant • Reasoning with, trying to placate abusive partner Attempts to manage the impact • Dissociation, denial • Avoidance • Self-medication/Substance use • Self-injury Attempts to escape • Suicide • Homicide Warshaw, 2001
  27. Trauma Affects Survivors’ Experience of Programs • Authority, rules, and

    controlling practices • Lack of cultural awareness and accessibility • Neutral requests, stimuli, and interactions So, what can we do differently?
  28. Menti: What can we do differently?

  29. Knowing About Trauma Helps Survivors • Normalizes and makes sense

    of responses • Offers alternative coping strategies • Acknowledges importance and challenges of connection • Prepares for trauma responses • Ensures choice; optimizes control NCDVTMH, 2012
  30. Knowing about Trauma Helps Advocates • Understand survivors’ responses in

    context • Respond in more helpful and empathic ways • Offer more effective interventions • Understand our own responses, their potential impact & need for organizational support
  31. Examples of Trauma-Informed Models • Addiction and Trauma Recovery Integration

    Model (ATRIUM) • Essence of Being Real • Risking Connection • Sanctuary Model • Seeking Safety • Trauma, Addictions, Mental Health, and Recovery (TAMAR) Model • Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) • Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM and M-TREM)
  32. Clip: Neuroplasticity

  33. Protective and Resiliency Factors • Innate individual resources • Temperament,

    personality, intelligence • Sense of self-agency • “I can be effective…” • Beliefs, values, practices • Traditions, spiritual rituals • Stability and responsiveness of systems and social supports • Specifically for children, a secure, safe attachment to the non- offending parent is crucial
  34. Resiliency is a Critical Ingredient to Recovery and Healing “I

    have come to the conclusion that human beings are born with an innate capacity to triumph over trauma. I believe not only that trauma is curable, but that the healing process can be a catalyst for profound awakening - a portal opening to emotional and genuine spiritual transformation." -Dr. Peter Levine
  35. What is Resilience? McLewin & Muller 2006; Waller 2001; Bell

    2006 Capacity for successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances.
  36. Menti: What resiliency skills have you seen with survivors?

  37. Menti: Share any success stories of perseverance and success.

  38. Autobiography in Five Short Chapters by Portia Nelson

  39. References Bassuk, E., Konnath, K., Volk, K. (2007). Understanding Traumatic

    Stress in Children. Newton, MA: National Center on Family Homelessness. Giller, Esther. (1999). Proceedings from the Annual Conference of the Maryland mental Hygiene Administration, Passages to Prevention: Prevention across Life’s Spectrum: What is psychological trauma? Harris, M., & Fallot, R. D. (Eds.). (2001). New directions for mental health services. Using trauma theory to design service systems. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass. Ledoux JE. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster. National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health. 2012. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Coercion Tipsheet. Retrieved from http://nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/Mental- Health-and-Substance-AbuseCoercion.pdf
  40. References National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma, and Mental Health.

    (2011 and 2012). “A Trauma-Informed Approach to Domestic Violence Advocacy.” Retrieved from http://nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/01/Tipsheet_TI-DV-Advocacy_NCDVTMH_Aug2011.pdf National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma, and Mental Health. (Revised August 2014). Core Curriculum on Trauma-Informed Domestic Violence Services. Packard, Gwendolyn and the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center. (2012). “What is Trauma Informed Work and Why Should We Care?” Retrieved from http://www.niwrc.org/resources/what-trauma-informed-work-and-why- should-we-care Pynoos, et. al. (1999). “A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders.” Biological Psychiatry. Dec 1;46(11):1542-54.
  41. References Saakvitne, K. W., et. al. (2000). Risking connection: A

    training curriculum for working with survivors of childhood abuse. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Foundation and Press. Warshaw, Carole, et. al. (2001). Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. Warshaw, Carole, et. al. (2013). “A Systematic Review of Trauma-Focused Interventions for Domestic Violence Survivors.” Retrieved from http://www.nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org
  42. Break

  43. Stages of Change

  44. Stages of Change • Transtheoretical Model of Change (1986) •

    Adapted in 2003, to better support someone who is experiencing abuse and considering implementing a change in their lives such as leaving the abusive relationship, or changing the dynamics of the relationship Remember: Change is a non-linear process
  45. Pre-Contemplation • Unaware that there is a problem • Excuses

    abusive partner’s behavior • Blame is strictly on victim/self • Isolation is common • No plans to change Thought process What we may hear “This is just how relationships are” “They didn’t mean to hurt me. They just love me so much” “This wouldn’t happen if I were a better partner” “Things are fine. Everyone has relationship issues” 45
  46. How to Respond • Validate the person’s experience and listen

    respectfully to their story • Provide education and awareness • Discuss power and control dynamics • Explore potential concerns and risks • Acknowledge possible feelings of pressure
  47. Contemplation • Realizes there is a problem, but doesn’t know

    what to do. No commitment yet. • Start trying to gain back some control • Begin to see abusive partner as responsible • Begin to seek out support and reduce isolation “I think there’s something wrong with my relationship.” “I don’t think my relationship is healthy.” “Things aren’t getting any better. Instead, things are getting worse.” “I don’t like how my partner treats me.” Thought process What we may hear
  48. How to Respond • Provide education and awareness • What

    domestic violence is • Resources and support available • Reflect observations of abusive partner’s behavior • Link the behaviors to power and control • Encourage further self-exploration • Introduce and explore safety planning • Reiterate that you are there for support but that the decision to leave or not is up to them
  49. Preparation • Things can be different • Abuse is abuser’s

    fault • Makes plans for increasing support network • Acquires additional knowledge and resources “I think I need to talk to somebody.” “I don’t think I want to be in this relationship anymore.” “Maybe I should stay with my parents for a few days.” “Maybe I should get a protective order.” Thought process What we may hear
  50. How to Respond • Encourage making and following through on

    action steps • Break down plans into smaller, more manageable steps • Safety plan and discuss potential consequences of action steps • Identify gaps in resources • Offer options, support, and referrals
  51. Action • Things will be different • Survivor knows they

    cannot control their abuser’s actions and need to focus on their own life • Commitment to change • Action plan steps are completed • Attempt to strengthen support networks “I called the helpline.” “I went to my counseling appointment.” “I went to the shelter.” “I packed a bag for when I am able to leave.” “I bought the train tickets to go to my brother’s.” Thought process What we may hear
  52. How to Respond • Emphasize progress made • Use trauma-informed,

    empowerment-based language • Suggestions of options (not opinions or advice!) • Additional, continuous, and individualized safety planning • Provide support and additional resources
  53. Maintenance • Things are different • Abusive relationship is over

    • Working through grief and loss • Support network is in place, available, and consistently used as needed • Awareness of “red flags” for future relationships “I’ve become aware of what to look for when I start dating again.” “I’ve continued attending the support group.” “I know its ok to call my friends whenever I need to talk through things again.” “I feel like I have people that understand what I’m going through.” Thought process What we may hear
  54. How to Respond • Continual safety planning as needed •

    Support through grief and loss • Resources for additional support when needed • Reminders of success and progress • Acknowledge potential barriers and the possibility of relapse
  55. Relapse • Partner has changed • Things will be better

    • No support • Not enough resources • Returning will just be temporary • Fear “They’ve changed and promise to do better.” “I can’t do this on my own.” “What happens when this stipend ends? I’ll be worse off.” “I have a job now, so if I go back I can save up to leave for good.” “They won’t stop. At least if I go back, I’ll know what they are up to.” Thought process What we may hear
  56. How to Respond • Validate their experience • Accept their

    choice to return • Encourage re-evaluation of self and barriers • Explore alternative solutions • Safety plan for their return and for the possibility of leaving again in the future • Acknowledge the process
  57. Tips and Guiding Principles • Consider trauma. • Believe them.

    • Respect their choices. • Empathize with their emotional strain, stress and disappointment. • Acknowledge the difficulty of the situation. • React to what they tell you with compassion. • Be prepared for any reaction. • Take it slow. Break things down into smaller steps. • Keep the conversation open.
  58. A Change is Gonna Come-Sam Cooke

  59. Break into groups to discuss and create a list of

    obstacles survivors might face when they are in the Contemplation Stage.
  60. Autobiography in Five Short Chapters by Portia Nelson

  61. Lunch Lunch Time!!

  62. Foundations of Advocacy

  63. Menti: What are some sources of trauma?

  64. Potential Sources of Trauma • Childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse

    neglect, abandonment • Sexual violence, assault, coercion, trafficking, stalking • Domestic Violence • Other violent crime • Injury, illness, death, loss, and grief • Institutional abuse, neglect • Secondary Trauma • Dislocation, homelessness • War, terrorism, combat, deployment • Chronic stressors like racism, poverty, sexism • Natural disasters • Community and school violence, bullying • Hate crimes • Abuse through religion • Collective historical and generational targeted violence • Healthcare interactions, medical procedures • Any misuse of power by one person/group over another
  65. • Employment discrimination • Experiencing ridicule and mistreatment • Family

    rejection • Fear of losing services/receiving substandard care • Unequal access to safe restroom facilities • Lack of/unequal access to legal protections Institutional Oppression as Source of Trauma • Fear of coming out/being outed: -Around sexual orientation -Gender identity -HIV status, -Substance use -Immigration status, or other factors
  66. Consequences of Oppression • People do not get the care

    they want/need • People may not feel comfortable sharing their full history • Providers may misinterpret vagueness and gaps; (e.g. labeling people as substance abusers, “uncooperative,” “non-compliant”) • Stereotypes may lead a provider to miss family related issues • Providers may not offer appropriate safety planning • People may not feel that the communication with their provider is adequate and may thus not follow provider suggestions
  67. Oppressed groups are frequently placed in the situation of being

    listened to only if we frame our ideas in the language that is familiar to and comfortable for a dominant group. This requirement often changes the meaning of our ideas and works to elevate the ideas of dominant groups. “ ” -Patricia Hill Collins
  68. What is Polyvictimization? Polyvictimization refers to having experienced multiple victimizations

    such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, bullying, and exposure to family violence (OJJDP). Remember: The definition emphasizes experiencing different kinds of victimization, rather than multiple episodes of the same kind of victimization (OJJDP).
  69. Linking Polyvictimization and IPV • Nearly 5 million children in

    the U.S. are exposed to domestic violence in the home, each year. • Roughly 13.6 million children will be exposed to DV over their lifetimes. • 1 in 3 children who report witnessing DV also report being physically abused. • Almost half of children who witness DV will attempt to intervene in some way.
  70. • Witnessing domestic violence during the preschool years was related

    to behavioral problems by age 16, for both sexes. • A national survey of youth found that more than half of dating violence victims and statutory rape/sexual misconduct victims had witnessed DV in the home. Linking Polyvictimization and IPV
  71. Clip: Recovery Conversations Tonier Cain

  72. Menti: Reflections on Tonier Cain Video

  73. Power Dynamics: Victims & Advocates Remember: Although we go into

    domestic violence work with best intentions, we still operate from a place of privilege and power when working with survivors. The power dynamics that comes with being deemed an authority is something to pay attention to. You cannot exert power and expect to empower.
  74. Empowerment Advocacy What is Advocacy? • Goals of Advocacy •

    Empowerment Model • Role of Victim Advocates
  75. 3 Components of Empowerment Counseling • Supportive Counseling • Advocacy

    • Educational Counseling
  76. Styles of Advocacy Not Empowering to Victims • Rescuer •

    Aggressive advocacy • “Smile and be nice” advocacy • Passive, surrendering advocacy • Do-gooder, bleeding heart advocacy
  77. Tips for Talking with a Victim • Consider trauma. •

    Believe them. • Respect their choices. • Empathize with their emotional strain, stress and disappointment. • Acknowledge the difficulty of the situation. • React to what s/he tells you with compassion. • Be prepared for anything from a short, unrevealing answer to the flood gates opening. • Take it slow and break it down into manageable steps. • Try again if s/he is reluctant to or won’t confide in you.
  78. Motivational Interviewing (MI)… is a “goal-directed, client-centered counseling style for

    eliciting behavioral change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence.” AND is “designed to strengthen personal motivation for and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion.”
  79. 4 Core Principles of MI 1. Empress empathy 2. Roll

    with resistance 3. Develop discrepancy 4. Support self-efficacy
  80. Express Empathy • Listen actively with the goal of understanding

    • Skillful reflective listening is fundamental. • Acceptance facilitates change • Ambivalence is normal.
  81. Clip: Brené Brown on Empathy

  82. Roll with Resistance • Listen • Avoid arguing • Reflect/reframe

    • Forward and backward movement • Ambivalence is normal • New perspectives are invited • Survivor is the expert • Resistance is a signal
  83. Develop Discrepancy • Motivation for change occurs when people perceive

    a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be want to be. • Values and beliefs are key factors • The survivor makes the arguments for change A Z
  84. Support Self-Efficacy • A survivors' belief in the possibility of

    change is an important motivator. • The survivor, not the advocate, is responsible for choosing and carrying out change. • Look for opportunities for empowerment; what are they able to do for themselves? • Help survivor develop values if they cannot identify their own values.
  85. Techniques for MI Core Skills of Motivational Interviewing 1. Open-ended

    questions 2. Affirmations 3. Reflections 4. Summary
  86. MI as a Tool for Trauma-Informed Care • Helps us

    to support survivors in evaluating their safety, choices and resources • Allows us to be advocates with survivors instead of advocates for survivors • Keeps us from making assumptions about what the survivor needs • Allows us to help them build motivation and skills to make the best choices for themselves
  87. Case Scenario: Maria and Victoria Maria is a 32-year-old, Mexican

    woman and mother of three young boys. She married her husband at age 18, and they moved to Silver Spring, MD soon after. As soon as they arrived in MD, her husband became abusive. Maria works full-time as a waitress, carpools the kids to their charter school every day, and goes to church with the kids every Sunday. Maria’s husband often tells her that if she doesn’t listen to him, that he will leave and take the children to live with his brother back in Mexico. After an especially violent incident last week, Maria left the home with just her children and a few of their things and entered emergency shelter. Victoria is Maria’s case manager. She is bi-lingual in Spanish and English, is a light-skinned Cuban-American woman, and has worked in the domestic violence field for almost 10 years. She prides herself in being able to relate to her Latina clients but just can’t seem to connect with Maria. She feels like Maria must be hiding something because every time they meet for case management, Maria refuses to sign any consent forms or talk much about her husband. Really, the only time that she wants to talk is when she needs bus tokens or something for the kids. Victoria is quickly becoming annoyed that Maria won’t accept all of the help that she needs.
  88. None
  89. Menti: Where do you see privilege & a greater need

    for cultural sensitivity?
  90. Menti: What could Victoria do better to improve rapport?

  91. Menti: What are areas where Maria could use power she

    has to further empower herself?
  92. Break

  93. Safety Planning

  94. A Safety Plan is… an individualized set of strategies that

    survivors develop to reduce risks to themselves and their loved ones. Remember… Leaving does not reduce threat of violence. Staying does not mean acceptance of or participation in the violence in the home.
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  96. Basic Safety Planning Considerations • In an emergency, where can

    they go for a few days? • Do they know how to contact their local comprehensive DV program’s hotline? • Would calling the police be helpful? • Would a protective or peace order be helpful? • Is it possible to set up a signal with someone they trust? • Do they have a transportation plan? • Do they have technology privacy settings? • Can they store an extra set of clothes and documents somewhere? https://www.thehotline.org/create- a-safety-plan/
  97. Specific Considerations when Safety Planning • What does the survivor

    do when the abusive partner gets violent? • What won’t they try again? • What is their main worry right now? • Who do they see as helpful? • What part of their culture is a resource for them? • Does getting involved with the justice or legal system feel like a safe option? • What else is important for you to know about their partner, the abuse, or other relationships in their life? Davies and Lyon, 1998 and 2013

  99. Strengthening Survivor’s Safety Plans Survivor’s Resources • Knowledge, skills, training

    • Life experience • Family, friends, neighbors • Home, $$, financial assets • Job, employer • Religious institution, faith • Current safety plan • Partner (?) Common Services • DV programs • Legal remedies • Housing programs • Job training, employment • Government benefits • Health, mental health & substance use programs • Programs for immigrants, children, persons w/disabilities
  100. Safety Planning Resources • https://www.thehotline.org/create-a-safety-plan/ • You can create an

    online, customizable safety plan. Having a physical written copy can put the survivor at greater risk, so virtual copies are a great resource. • MyPlan App • Another great tech tool, which allows you to create a safety plan through the MyPlan app. • Aspire News App • Particularly excellent because it is designed as a news app, so survivors still in contact with their abuser have added privacy and therefore safety, and it will send a message/voice recording to trusted contacts when prompted
  101. Safety Planning Scenarios BREAKOUT ROOM • Break up into groups

    • Read scenario as a group • Safety plan as a group • Write answers to provided questions onto sheet • Select one volunteer to report back to full group • Review as full group
  102. Questions to Consider • What is their main worry right

    now? (survivor-centered advocacy) • What are the risks to the survivor? (partner and life generated risks) • What has the survivor already done to stay safe? What wont they try again? (previous safety plan) • Who do they see as helpful? (survivor provides resource) • What else is important for you to know about their partner, the abuse, or other relationships in their life? (motivational interviewing) • What resources/options would you offer for this survivor? (resources/advocacy) Davies and Lyon, 1998 and 2013
  103. None
  104. Risk & Lethality

  105. Factors to Consider • Has used or threatened the victim

    with a weapon • Has threatened to kill victim and/or children • Has possession of or access to a firearm • Has previously or previously attempted to strangle the victim • Employs stalking behaviors to closely monitor the daily activities of the victim • Is consistently and violently jealous • Abusive partner’s unemployment status • Abusive partner has threatened suicide • Knows that the victim’s children are not biologically theirs • The victim has attempted to separate or leave the relationship • Uses sexual violence as a means of control • Is violent towards or kills family pets
  106. Risk & Lethality • The most dangerous abusive partners are

    those who: • Engage in actual pursuit of the victim • Possess or are interested in weapons • Commit other crimes such as vandalism or arson • Are prone to emotional outbursts and rage • Have a history of violating protection orders, substance abuse, mental illness and/or violence, especially toward the victim • Have made threats of suicide or murder-suicide • The most dangerous times for a victim are when: • The victim has separated from the abusive partner • The abusive partner has been arrested or served with a protection order • The abusive partner has a major negative life event, such as the loss of a job or being evicted • The behaviors increase in frequency or escalate in severity
  107. Risk & Lethality… • The most dangerous abusive partners are

    those who: • Engage in actual pursuit of the victim • Possess or are interested in weapons • Commit other crimes such as vandalism or arson • Are prone to emotional outbursts and rage • Have a history of violating protection orders, substance abuse, mental illness and/or violence, especially toward the victim • Have made threats of suicide or murder-suicide
  108. Rape + Domestic Violence • Homicide • Woman forced to

    have sex when not wanted was the 5th most predictive item on risk assessment table.5 • A physically-abused woman also experiencing forced sex was more than 7x more likely than other abused women to be killed. 5 • Suicide • Those who experienced sexual assault were 5.3 times more likely to report threatening or attempting suicide compared with women who experienced physical abuse only.7 5 Campbell, et al., 2003 6 Adams 2007 7 McFarlane et al 2005 6
  109. Stalking + Domestic Violence Intimate Partner Stalkers: • More separation

    attempts than victims of intimate partner violence alone1 • More likely to assault third parties than non-intimate stalkers2 • More likely to physically approach victim3 • More insulting, interfering and threatening3 • More likely to use weapons3 • Behaviors more likely to escalate quickly3 • More likely to re-offend3 1 Logan et al, Stalking victimization on the context of intimate partner violence (2007) 2 Sheridan and Davies Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, (2001) 3 The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006) = Increased risk for victims
  110. Stalking + Domestic Violence • Stalking by an intimate partner

    without physical violence can still be life- threatening. • A partner who is overly jealous AND/OR controls daily activities are evidence-based factors of lethality. • Greater likelihood of attempted/actual murder: • 2x: Following and spying: • 4x: Threatening messages on car • 9x: Threats to harm children Jackie Campbell. 2003.“Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results From a Multisite Case Control Study”
  111. Stalking turned lethal • Shana Grice, 19 - ex-boyfriend was

    stalking her • Reported the stalking to police 5 times in 6 months: • Following • Installing GPS on her car • Deflating her tires • Sending unwanted flowers • Threatening text messages • Breaking into her house to watch her sleep • Was fined for wasting police time and making a false report. • “He stalked her. That obsession with her translated into killing her. He would not allow anyone else to be with her.“
  112. Physical Abuse + Stalking • Lethality Risk: • 76% of

    femicide by intimate partner victims had AT LEAST 1 episode of stalking within year prior to murder • 85% of attempted femicide by intimate partner had AT LEAST 1 episode of stalking within year prior to attempted murder McFarlane et al. Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide, (1999) Physical Abuse Stalking Greater indicator of potential lethality than either behavior alone
  113. Violence/Homicide In 1/3 of homicides related to DV, the homicide

    itself was the first act of physical violence. Jackie Campbell. 2003.“Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results From a Multisite Case Control Study”
  114. Escalation of Threats 3/1/21 3/6/21 3/10/21 3/12/21 3/13/21 3/14/21 9

    text messages in 1 night Threatening call Called victim’s workplace repeatedly Sent picture of dead roses to victim on Snapchat Parked across street all night Slashed tires
  115. 9 text messages in 1 night Threatening call Called victim’s

    workplace repeatedly Sent picture of dead roses to victim on Snapchat Parked across street all night Slashed tires
  116. “Just get a gun!” • Guns increase the probability of

    death in incidents of domestic violence.1 • Firearms were used to kill more than 2/3 of spouse and ex-spouse homicide victims from 1990-2005. 2 • DV assaults involving a firearm are 12x more likely to result in death than those involving other weapons or bodily force. 3 • Abused women are five times more likely to be killed by their abusive partner if the abusive partner has access to a firearm. 4 • Almost 37% of DV victims in one study reported having been threatened or harmed with a firearm. 5 • Laws that prohibit the purchase of a firearm by a person subject to a domestic violence restraining order are associated with a reduction in the number of intimate partner homicides. 6
  117. “Just get a gun!” A Montgomery, Alabama man arrested this

    weekend faces two domestic violence charges after allegedly breaking into his ex-girlfriend's home, beating her and stealing a firearm she tried to protect herself with. … The victim ran to a bedroom, attempting to get a handgun for protection, but court records state Ramos-Cornado was able to gain control of the weapon and turn it on the victim. Ramos-Cornado then allegedly "pistol- whipped" and strangled the victim until she lost consciousness. When she awoke, her gun and multiple credit cards were missing. Police arrested Ramos-Cornado this Saturday, and he was jailed on bonds totaling $60,000. He was slated to appear in court on Monday morning.
  118. Wrapping Up End-of-Day Self-Care Exercise Evaluations Questions

  119. Self-Care Moment: Post-Traumatic Growth

  120. Menti: I have a greater feeling of self-reliance.

  121. Menti: I know better that I can handle difficulties.

  122. Menti: I am better able to accept the way things

    work out.
  123. Menti: I discovered that I’m stronger than I thought I

  124. This Week: Complete the Inventory.

  125. Menti: What are you going to do for self-care this

  126. Evaluations Questions to think about: • What did you learn

    that you’re going to take with you back to your work? • Is there something you wanted to learn about that wasn’t addressed, or wanted more time spent on it? • Was there something that can be improved for next time? https://md.coalitionmanager.org/formmanager/formsubmission/create?formId=121
  127. Questions???

  128. Stay Connected

  129. None