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Echte Cross-Plattform-Anwendungen mit Angular, Cordova und Electron: Volle Power im Frontend

Echte Cross-Plattform-Anwendungen mit Angular, Cordova und Electron: Volle Power im Frontend

Mit Angular als Webanwendungsframework lassen sich komponentenorientierte Anwendungen entwickeln, wie wir es von Windows- und desktopähnlichen Programmiermustern bereits kennen. Dank TypeScript als Programmiersprachen erhalten wir Features, wie Generics, Lambda-Ausdrücke oder statische Typisierung, um uns auch in der Webwelt schnell wohlzufühlen. Durch Cordova können wir unsere Anwendung als native mobile App für Android, iOS und Windows verpacken und auf Plattformfeatures, wie die Kamera des mobilen Geräts, zugreifen. Electron erlaubt das Verpacken der Anwendung in eine echte native Desktopanwendung: .exe, .app und Co. In dieser Session zeigt Manuel Rauber von Thinktecture, wie mit dem Open-Source-Framework für Single-Page Applications von Google echte Cross-Plattform-Businessanwendungen entwickelt werden können und dabei das Web als zukunftsfähige Anwendungsplattform nutzt.

GitHub: https://github.com/thinktecture/jax-2018-angular-demo

Manuel Rauber

April 26, 2018

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  1. Single- vs. Multi- vs. Cross-Platform macOS Linux Windows iOS Windows

    Phone Android BlackBerry 10 FireOS Browser TV … Refrigerator
  2. • Lightweight service-based architecture • Functional services with dedicated interfaces

    • Use other services, like database or file system • (JSON-based) Web APIs • Secured by tokens • Consumable by every HTTPS speaking client • Application push services via WebSocket • SignalR • Socket.io Architecture HTTP HTTPS WebSocket Service A Service B Service C Web APIs (ASP.NET, Node.js, …) HTML5-Application (Single-Page Application) Web Cordova Electron
  3. • Designed by Andres Hejlsberg, who also designed C# •

    Typed superset of JavaScript that transpiles to plain JavaScript • Types are optional, but useful metadata for tooling • Static Code Analysis • Refactoring • Linting • IntelliSense TypeScript
  4. • Angular 2, 4, 5?! Just Angular! Semantic versioning, just

    like Google Chrome • Angular Universal: Client- and server-side-rendering possibilities • MV* architecture • Components, Views, View Models • Modules, Services, Dependency Injection • Data binding, Routing, HTTP, Animations, Unit-testable • First class IDE support • JetBrains WebStorm • Visual Studio Code • Build tooling via Angular CLI Angular Overview
  5. Classes with metadata and a view-defining template. Components, Components, Components,

    … @Component({ selector: 'hackathon-form', templateUrl: 'hackathonForm.html' }) export class HackathonFormComponent { @Input() public hackathon: HackathonModel; @Output() public onSubmitted: EventEmitter<HackathonModel>; } … <hackathon-form [hackathon]="currentHackathon" (onSubmitted)="saveHackathon($event)" ></hackathon-form> …
  6. Data flow Parent -> Child Application Hackathons Users Hackathon Hackathon

    [hackathons]=“someExp” [hackathon]=“someExp” Child-> Parent Application Hackathons Users Hackathon Hackathon (rate)=“onRate()” (rate)=“onRate()” via @Input() via @Output()
  7. • Change Detection is done “automagically” via a library named

    zone.js • Overwrites all asynchronous browser APIs with an own implementation • Implementation used to trigger an Angular change detection cycle • Asynchronous APIs like • Events: clicks, mouse movement, input, submit, … • XMLHttpRequest, fetch • setTimeout, setInterval Change Detection
  8. Directives are used to attach behavior to elements. Directives @Directive({

    selector: '[non-empty]', host: { '[class.non-empty]': 'nonEmpty' } }) export class NonEmptyDirective { public nonEmpty: boolean; constructor(@Host() ngModel: NgModel) { ngModel.valueChanges.subscribe(change => this.nonEmpty = !!change); } }
  9. Services are classes with metadata but without a view. Services

    are normally singletons but can be constructed on demand. Services @Injectable() export class HackathonService { constructor(private _http: HttpClient) { } public getHackathons(): Observable<HackathonModel[]> { return ...; } }
  10. Angular has an hierarchical constructor dependency injection system. All types

    are registered explicitly. Either globally (for singleton registrations) or on a component level (every component gets their own instance). Dependency Injection @Injectable() export class HackathonService { constructor(private _http: HttpClient) { } }
  11. Pipes are used to transform displayed values within a template.

    Pipes @Pipe({ name: 'date' }) export class DatePipe implements PipeTransform { public transform(value: Date, format?: string): string { if (!value) { return 'n/a'; } return Moment(value).format(format); } } <span>{{ model.date | date }}<span>
  12. Angular offers a unit-test-mockable HTTP service based on observables. Observables

    are built on top of RxJS and represent “an API for asynchronous programming with observable streams”. HTTP & Observables @Injectable() export class HackathonService { constructor(private _http: HttpClient, private _url: UrlService) { } public getHackathons(): Observable<Response> { return this._http.get(this._url.getEndpoint('hackathons')); } }
  13. Angular’s routing system interprets a browser URL to navigate to

    a view/component. It supports features like child routing or loading compete modules asynchronously. Routing export class CreateHackathonComponent { constructor(private _router: Router) { } public saveHackathon() { // Save the model... this._router.navigate(['/dashboard’]); } } const appRoutes: Routes = [{ path: 'dashboard', component: DashboardComponent }]; const AppRoutes = RouterModule .forRoot(appRoutes, { useHash: true });
  14. Angular uses modules to organize an application into related blocks

    of functionality. A decorator is used to define a module. Modules @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ], providers: [ HackathonService ] }) export class AppModule { }
  15. Angular can either be bootstrapped with Just-In-Time compilation or by

    using Ahead-Of-Time compilation. Bootstrap import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { AppModule } from './appModule'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule);
  16. • Native application shell with integrated web browser • Android:

    Android specific browser / CrossWalk • iOS: UIWebView / WKWebView • Windows Mobile: Internet Explorer / Edge • HTML5 app is hosted within an integrated web browser • Provides access to the underlying native platforms via plugins • Native SDKs to build the apps are needed Cordova
  17. • Allows creation of real desktop application (.exe, .app) •

    Combines a full-blown Chromium browser with Node.js • Does not rely on the target machine’s installed browsers • No need to install native SDKs for building • Access native platform APIs • Electron API • Node.js modules • Advanced features like auto updates & crash reporter Electron
  18. • Dockerize it! • Deployable via Docker containers on •

    Microsoft Azure: Container Registry, Container Services, Container Instances • IBM Bluemix Container Services • Amazon EC2 Container Services • Google Cloud Platform • Runnable via • Simple Azure Linux-based Web Apps • Docker Swarm • Kubernetes Deployment
  19. • Basic idea: Get rid of App Stores! • Bring

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  20. • Modern applications need a modern architecture • Web Technology

    Stack to achieve “real cross-platform” • Cordova & Electron for native platform integrations • Build tooling supports daily development and production workflow • Progressive Web Apps show an interesting future Summary
  21. • Angular: https://angular.io • Apache Cordova: https://cordova.apache.org/ • Electron: http://electron.atom.io/

    • Gulp: http://gulpjs.com/ • Webpack: https://webpack.github.io/ • Rollup: http://rollupjs.org/ • Angular CLI: https://cli.angular.io/ • PWA: https://developers.google.com/web/progressive-web-apps/ Resources