Selenium 2

Selenium 2

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Marc Philipp

May 09, 2011
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    What is Selenium? Testing framework for web applications, 3 variants:

    Selenium IDE Firefox add-on Record and playback user actions on a web site Not recommend for stable, long staying test suites © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 2
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    What is Selenium? (cont.) Selenium RC (Remote Control, Selenium 1)

    Java Server that controls various browsers Executes scripted user actions from a programming environment, typically JUnit Has a “string-based” programming API Supports a variety of browsers (Internet Explorer 6, 7, 8, Firefox 2, 3, Safari, Chrome, Opera) Selenium WebDriver (Selenium 2) Java Library, which controls the browser Has a object-oriented programming API Supports Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome and HtmlUnit as drivers We recommend using the WebDriver API! © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 3
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    Selenium WebDriver API An instance implementing the WebDriver interface allows

    access to the browser and to retrieve WebElements (input fields, buttons, etc.): get(String url) Loads new web page by URL. findElement(By locator) Finds WebElement or throws exception. findElements(By locator) Finds list of WebElements, possibly empty. . . . © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 4
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    Locating Elements on a Page Locators: instances of the By

    class identifying an element in the HTML page. By.id("okay-button") Selects an element by its HTML id attribute. By.name("okayButton") Selects an element by its HTML name attribute. By.xpath("//div[@class=’navi’]//a[text()=’click’]") Treats the HTML as XML and uses an XPath expression to select an element. © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 5
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    Locating Elements on a Page (cont.) By.className("mainMenu") Uses a CSS

    class name to select an element. By.cssSelector(".mainMenu a") Uses CSS selector syntax to select an element. By.linkText("click here") Finds a link by its text shown on the page. © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 6
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    Interacting With Elements on a Page element.click() Clicks on an

    element. element.sendKeys("some text") Enters text into text field. element.clear() Clears the contents of a text field. element.setSelected() Selects an option element. . . . © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 7
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    Coding Dojo I Task Write Selenium tests driven by JUnit

    that log in and out of a web application Dojo Rules 1. Two people are coding: 1 driver (has keyboard), 1 navigator. 2. They think aloud and comment their actions so the audience understands what’s going on. 3. After 3 minutes: driver leaves, navigator becomes driver. 4. Someone else joins as the new navigator. 5. Repeat. © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 8
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    Page Objects A page object is a Java class representing

    a web page holds a WebDriver instance knows about locators public class LoginPage extends PageObject { public void setUsername(String username) { WebElement usernameField = driver.findElement(By.id(" j_username")); usernameField.clear(); usernameField.sendKeys(username); } ... } © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 9
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    Web Element Annotations Web elements can additionally be found using

    annotations: public class LoginPage extends PageObject { @FindBy(id = "j_username") private WebElement usernameField; public void setUsername(String username) { usernameField.clear(); usernameField.sendKeys(username); } } This will instantiate the LoginPage class and create a proxy for each WebElement by evaluating the @FindBy annotation: PageFactory.initElements(driver, LoginPage.class) © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 10
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    Page Objects Actions A method that changes to another page

    returns a new page object public class LoginPage extends PageObject { @FindBy(id = "registration-link") private WebElement registrationLink; public LoginPage(WebDriver driver) { super(driver); } public RegistrationPage clickRegistrationLink() { registrationLink.click(); return PageFactory.initElements(driver, RegistrationPage. class); } } © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 11
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    Coding Dojo II Task Write Selenium tests driven by JUnit

    that log in and out of a web application using Page Objects! Dojo Rules 1. Two people are coding: 1 driver (has keyboard), 1 navigator. 2. They think aloud and comment their actions so the audience understands what’s going on. 3. After 3 minutes: driver leaves, navigator becomes driver. 4. Someone else joins as the new navigator. 5. Repeat. © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 12
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    Page Objects Benefits Page objects allow test code be separated

    from details about page structures Tests are written on a higher level of abstraction Structural knowledge is reused Reduces overall code size and development effort on page structure changes In summary, Page Objects help write Selenium tests which are More readable More maintainable Less fragile © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 13
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    Thank you! References and Further Reading: http://www.seleniumhq.org/ http://code.google.com/p/selenium/wiki/PageObjects Marc Philipp

    E-Mail marc@andrena.de Twitter @marcphilipp andrena objects ag Albert-Nestler-Straße 11 D-76131 Karlsruhe Tel. +49 (0) 721 6105-122 Büro Frankfurt Clemensstraße 8 D-60487 Frankfurt Tel. +49 (0) 69 977 860 38 © 2011 andrena objects ag. All rights reserved. 14