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Applying the Grammar of Greenkeeping

Micah Woods
December 02, 2019

Applying the Grammar of Greenkeeping

I discussed, in a seminar held at Copenhagen Golf Club, the principles described in my book A Short Grammar of Greenkeeping: https://leanpub.com/short_grammar_of_greenkeeping

Micah Woods

December 02, 2019
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  1. Applying the Grammar of Greenkeeping
    Micah Woods
    Chief Scientist
    Asian Turfgrass Center
    www.asianturfgrass.com
    2 December 2019

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  2. maintenance office, Toride Kokusai GC

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  3. korai (Zoysia) & bentgrass greens at Toride Kokusai GC

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  4. tee sign at Toride Kokusai GC

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  5. Old Course at St. Andrews

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  6. Golf Course Seminar magazine, Japan

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  7. “The BOOK”, photo by Jonathan Smith

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  8. available at https://leanpub.com/short_grammar_of_greenkeeping

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  9. Some chapters …

    Defining turfgrass management

    Two uncontrollable factors

    Water

    Air

    Soil organic matter

    Roots

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  10. Defining turfgrass management

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  11. Kashima Stadium, Japan

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  12. Royal Bangkok Sports Club, Thailand

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  13. creeping bentgrass, Japan

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  14. bermudagrass and seashore paspalum, Thailand

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  15. Greenkeeping is managing the growth rate of the grass to create
    the desired playing surface for golf.

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  16. manilagrass putting green, Thailand

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  17. seashore paspalum and bermudagrass, Thailand

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  18. Penn A-1 creeping bentgrass, K deficiency

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  19. creeping bentgrass, PGA Catalunya

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  20. Two uncontrollable factors

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  21. What affects growth?
    Growth is a function of photosynthetic light, plant water status,
    temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the
    environmental productivity index (EPI).
    1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the
    EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf
    N content.

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  22. What affects growth?
    Growth is a function of photosynthetic light, plant water status,
    temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the
    environmental productivity index (EPI).
    (light)(water)(temperature)(nutrient) = EPI
    1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the
    EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf
    N content.

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  23. Poa annua & kikuyugrass, Gran Canaria, November

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  24. storm approaching, Bangkok, September

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  25. Light — 3 terms
    1. PAR – photosynthetically active radiation
    2. PPFD – photosynthetic photon flux density, measured per
    second
    3. DLI – daily light integral, sum of PPFD from sunrise to sunset

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  26. creeping bentgrass 5 cm soil temperature, Japan, July

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  27. Festuca & Poa annua near Reykjavik, May 4

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  28. Simplified EPI

    XXXX
    (light)(water)((((((((
    (
    hhhhhhhh
    h
    (temperature)(nutrient) = EPI

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  29. Temperature-based growth potential
    PACE Turf developed the temperature-based GP to express the actual
    temperature in terms of its proximity to optimum temperatures for shoot
    growth.
    GP = e−0.5(t−to
    var
    )2
    where,
    GP = growth potential, on a scale of 0 to 1
    e = 2.71828, a mathematical constant
    t = average temperature for a location, in celsius
    to
    = optimum temperature, 20 for C3
    grass, 31 for C4
    grass
    var = adjusts the change in GP as temperature moves away from to
    ; I suggest 5.5
    for C3
    and 7 for C4

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  30. Implications and use of GP

    mowing frequency

    fungicide duration

    heat-related stress

    topdressing requirement

    nutrient use

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  31. Water in the soil

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  32. Air in the soil

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  33. Novotek bermudagrass, Thailand

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  34. The best playing surface will be produced when the soil has just
    enough water to keep the grass from wilting, and the remaining
    soil volume will be filled with air.

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  35. creeping bentgrass, Kunming, China

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  36. Managing soil organic matter

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  37. in the USGA Green Section Record, November 2019

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  38. Recommend records of …
    Key performance indicators
    ▶ Green speed
    ▶ Clipping volume
    Cultural inputs & conditions
    ▶ Nitrogen applications
    ▶ Sand topdressing
    applications
    ▶ Growth regulator
    applications
    ▶ Daily high & low
    temperature
    ▶ Daily precipitation
    Surface maintenance practices
    ▶ Mowing height
    ▶ Mowing frequency
    ▶ Vertical mowing
    ▶ Grooming
    ▶ Brushing
    ▶ Rolling

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  39. Keya GC, Fukuoka

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  40. Fuji Classic GC, Yamanashi

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  41. Keya GC, Fukuoka

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  42. Bangsai CC, Thailand

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  43. Bangsai CC, Thailand

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  44. at Brookside Labs, Ohio

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  45. Roots on putting greens

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  46. creeping bentgrass, Japan

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  47. Golf is played on the surface, not on the roots.

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  48. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens
    1. Mow the grass as high as possible

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  49. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens
    1. Mow the grass as high as possible
    2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time

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  50. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens
    1. Mow the grass as high as possible
    2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time
    3. Make sure there is plenty of air in the soil

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  51. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens
    1. Mow the grass as high as possible
    2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time
    3. Make sure there is plenty of air in the soil
    4. Make sure there is enough P in the soil

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  52. www.asianturfgrass.com

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