Fast & Functional

Fast & Functional

In this talk we are going to create a functional and blazingly fast microservice. We will use functional programming abstractions to quickly mix & match different HTTP libraries, state implementations and concurrency configurations. Each step will be followed by a performance analysis using different tools from JVM toolbox. This talk is for you if you want to see how cats IO monad, async-profiler, flame graphs and wrk are used together to create microseconds-fast Scala service for YouTube videos statistics.

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Michał Płachta

February 22, 2019
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  1. @miciek AST & UNCTIONAL F F In this talk we

    are going to create a functional and blazingly fast microservice in Scala. We will use f u n c t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g abstractions to quickly mix & match different HTTP libraries, state implementations and concurrency configurations. Each step will be followed by a performance analysis using different tools from JVM toolbox.
  2. @miciek λ Michał Płachta www.michalplachta.com @miciek AST & UNCTIONAL F

    F
  3. @miciek Hello, I’d like to hear a functional programming joke

  4. @miciek OK. Why did the chicken cross the road? functional

    programming joke
  5. @miciek cross the road? I don’t know. Why?

  6. @miciek It’s very simple really. I don’t know. Why?

  7. @miciek The best way to understand it comes from the

    idea of contravariant functor. It’s very simple really.
  8. @miciek As you probably know, a functor is just a

    mapping between categories that respects the category structure; a homomorphism, if you will. contravariant functor.
  9. @miciek Now, some constructions that we want to express look

    like functors but in some sense “turn morphisms around”. We call these contravariant functors. will.
  10. @miciek As you have probably noticed, we can indeed define

    a contravariant functor as simply a covariant functor on opposite categories, invoking the obvious correspondence. Of course you have already noticed the obvious connection this has with the category theoretic generalization of topological presheaves — a presheaf on a topology is just a contravariant functor from the…
  11. @miciek

  12. @miciek AST & UNCTIONAL F F

  13. @miciek UNCTIONAL F very modular plug & play using functional

    mechanics quickly replacing modules without affecting the logic simple real-world service in Scala
  14. @miciek F 1st meaning: PERFORMANCE AST

  15. @miciek F 2nd meaning: DEV SPEED AST very modular plug

    & play
  16. @miciek In this talk… AST & UNCTIONAL F F modularity

    (the λ way!) plug & play simple real-world service in Scala
  17. @miciek Influencer Stats

  18. @miciek We need a marketing strategy for our product! Marketing

  19. @miciek Remember when… Old Ways Don’t Work …people watched TV

  20. @miciek Influencers 22 237 likes 2302 likes, 70 retweets 201

    232 views, 23987 likes 502 123 views, 2012 likes …and more
  21. @miciek Influencers items aggregation 1 201 882 views, 423 987

    likes …and more All tweets, youtube videos, etc for one product
  22. @miciek Influencer Stats service collection of videos how many total

    views how many total likes
  23. @miciek Requirement #1 Collections ability to add & update Collections

    of videos … COLLECTION 1 … COLLECTION 2
  24. @miciek Requirement #2 Fetch YouTube Stats ability to fetch individual

    video stats through YouTube API YouTube API 20 views, 2 likes
  25. @miciek Requirement #3 Calculate Stats ability to calculate & return

    Collection statistics … 1 201 882 views, 423 987 likes
  26. @miciek Non-functional requirements ✓HTTP Web Server ✓HTTP Client ✓Collection Storage

    ✓Logging
  27. @miciek PURE Side-effect’y f input value output value f input

    value hard to keep separate hard to test easy to keep separate easy to test
  28. @miciek PURE ✓Save & Load Collections ✓Fetch YouTube Stats ✓HTTP

    Web Server ✓HTTP Client ✓Collection storage ✓Logging Side-effect’y ✓Calculate Stats f video #1 stats video #2 stats aggregated stats
  29. @miciek PURE ✓Save & Load Collections ✓Fetch YouTube Stats ✓HTTP

    Web Server ✓HTTP Client ✓Collection storage ✓Logging Side-effect’y ✓Calculate Stats ULTIMATE GOAL move as much as we can to the PURE side
  30. @miciek ULTIMATE GOAL move as much as we can to

    the PURE side
  31. @miciek ULTIMATE GOAL move as much as we can to

    the PURE side to test in isolation to reason in isolation to easily swap components (because they are isolated)
  32. @miciek What happens next… intro code Java code performance tests

    t we are here
  33. @miciek Modular programming using algebras

  34. @miciek Model e.g. -a YouTube video -instagram post -tweet

  35. @miciek Pure logic f video #1 stats video #2 stats

    aggregated stats
  36. @miciek Pure logic

  37. @miciek Pure logic

  38. @miciek Pure logic … 1 201 882 views, 423 987

    likes easy to test easy to reason about PURE WIN!
  39. @miciek Can it be as easy as this? f input

    value output value NOPE
  40. @miciek Can it be as easy as this? 1. get

    collection collectionId 2. get videoIds from it 3. for each videoId, call YouTube API 4.call our pure calculate function (and log some things in between) f input value output value f input value output value
  41. @miciek Can it be as easy as this? 1. get

    collection collectionId 2. get videoIds from it 3. for each videoId, call YouTube API 4. call our calculate function NOPE because side effects
  42. @miciek Side-effect’y stuff

  43. @miciek Side-effect’y stuff 1. get collection collectionId 2. get videoIds

    from it 3. for each videoId, call YouTube API 4. call our pure calculate function
  44. @miciek Side-effect’y stuff 1. get collection collectionId 2. get videoIds

    from it 3. for each videoId, call YouTube API 4. call our pure calculate function
  45. @miciek Specific effect type

  46. @miciek Too powerful effect type :(

  47. @miciek Side-effect’y stuff 1. get collection collectionId 2. get videoIds

    from it 3. for each videoId, call YouTube API 4. call our pure calculate function F doesn’t do anything F is chosen by the user
  48. @miciek synchronous asynchronous IO effect type F[_]

  49. @miciek Constrained? A doesn’t do anything A is chosen by

    the user
  50. @miciek Constrained? A doesn’t do anything A is chosen by

    the user
  51. @miciek We can’t constrain ourselves What we have What we

    want F doesn’t do anything F is chosen by the user
  52. @miciek Constraints Liberate F doesn’t do anything F is chosen

    by the user Constraints Liberate Liberties Constrain
  53. @miciek Get collection collectionId

  54. @miciek Get collection collectionId just an algebra

  55. @miciek Get videoIds from it

  56. @miciek For each videoId call YouTube API

  57. @miciek For each videoId call YouTube API

  58. @miciek Call our pure calculate function

  59. @miciek (and log some things in between)

  60. @miciek (and log some things in between)

  61. @miciek Signature is enough

  62. @miciek PURE ✓Collections interpreter ✓HTTP Web Server ✓HTTP Client interpreter

    ✓Collection storage interpreter ✓Logging interpreter Side-effect’y ✓Calculate Stats ✓Collections algebra ✓HTTP Client algebra ✓Logging algebra ✓getStats algorithm on F
  63. @miciek algebras ✓Collections interpreter ✓HTTP Client interpreter ✓Collection storage interpreter

    ✓Logging interpreter interpreters ✓Collections algebra ✓HTTP Client algebra ✓Logging algebra
  64. @miciek algebra interpreter

  65. @miciek What happens next… intro code Java code performance tests

    t we are here
  66. @miciek algebra interpreters - AkkaHttp - Hammock (Apache) - Http4s

    - InMem LinkedList - InMem TrieMap - Log All - Max 1k/sec (dropping rest) plug & play
  67. @miciek Make it fast

  68. @miciek @miciek Warning Do not perform any of the following

    stunts on PRODUCTION.
  69. @miciek wrk -t1 -c16 -d30s --latency URL We will use

    wrk 1 thread 16 connections 30 sec duration
  70. @miciek We will use async-profiler jps cd async-profiler ./profiler.sh -d

    10 -f <FILE> <PID> https://github.com/jvm-profiling-tools/async-profiler
  71. @miciek We will use flame graphs http://www.brendangregg.com/flamegraphs.html read from bottom

  72. @miciek Version 1 # requests 99% latency avg latency req/s

    Version 1 ? ?ms ?ms ? -akka-http (client + server) -log all things -in mem linked list state
  73. @miciek Version 1 Results # requests 99% latency avg latency

    req/s Version 1 8510 82.41ms 56.47ms 283.12
  74. @miciek Version 1 Flame Graph

  75. @miciek -don’t change the logic -just change the Logger interpreter

    -dropping logs if the rate is > 1k per second Version 2: Dropping logs
  76. @miciek Version 2 Results # requests 99% latency avg latency

    req/s Version 1 8510 82.41ms 56.47ms 283.12 Version 2 89 757 62.53ms 6.94ms 2986.26 DroppingLogger
  77. @miciek Version 2 Flame Graph

  78. @miciek -don’t change the logic -change the VideoClient type class

    instance Version 3: Change the Video Client
  79. @miciek Version 3 Results # requests 99% latency avg latency

    req/s Version 1 8510 82.41ms 56.47ms 283.12 Version 2 89 757 62.53ms 6.94ms 2986.26 Version 3 96 564 13.05ms 5.06ms 3218.48 DroppingLogger Hammock (Apache)
  80. @miciek Version 3 Flame Graph

  81. @miciek -don’t change the logic -cache results and call logic

    in separate thread Version 4: Statistics Caching
  82. @miciek Version 4 Results # requests 99% latency avg latency

    req/s Version 1 8510 82.41ms 56.47ms 283.12 Version 2 89 757 62.53ms 6.94ms 2986.26 Version 3 96 564 13.05ms 5.06ms 3218.48 Version 4 933 303 62.86ms 2.87ms 31 081.82 DroppingLogger Hammock (Apache) Stats Caching
  83. @miciek Version 4 Flame Graph

  84. @miciek Version 4 Flame Graph

  85. @miciek -don’t change the logic -change the underlying server from

    Akka HTTP to Http4s Version 5: Change the Server
  86. @miciek Version 5 Results # requests 99% latency avg latency

    req/s Version 1 8510 82.41ms 56.47ms 283.12 Version 2 89 757 62.53ms 6.94ms 2986.26 Version 3 96 564 13.05ms 5.06ms 3218.48 Version 4 933 303 62.86ms 2.87ms 31 081.82 Version 5 1 158 664 9.05ms 555.80µs 38 596.24 DroppingLogger Hammock (Apache) Stats Caching Http4s Server
  87. @miciek Version 5 Flame Graph

  88. @miciek Inventions That Already Exist

  89. @miciek Introducing…

  90. @miciek

  91. @miciek Introducing… Cheaper taxi that drives on fixed routes!

  92. @miciek This is a BUS. You invented a BUS. Cheaper

    taxi that drives on fixed routes!
  93. @miciek Introducing… Algebras & Interpreters

  94. @miciek Algebras & Interpreters This is an INTERFACE. You invented

    an INTERFACE.
  95. @miciek Scala FP

  96. @miciek Java

  97. @miciek Interfaces

  98. @miciek Interfaces difference: we need to choose the effect type

  99. @miciek Return type difference: we need to choose the effect

    type which is very powerful
  100. @miciek Algebras

  101. @miciek Constrained effect type

  102. @miciek Dependencies

  103. @miciek Dependencies

  104. @miciek Algebras & Interpreters Not an INTERFACE. major difference: we

    can abstract over the effect type and constrain ourselves using F instead of CompletableFuture…
  105. @miciek Conclusions

  106. @miciek -changed infrastructure details -…but our core logic (and tests)

    didn’t need to change! What have we done? plug & play quickly replacing non-core-logic modules
  107. @miciek Modularity / Separation of concerns if we can.. replace

    the server implementation replace the state implementation replace the logging implementation replace the video client implementation add caching without changing the core logic (& tests) PURE WIN!
  108. @miciek PURE ✓Collections interpreter ✓HTTP Web Server ✓HTTP Client interpreter

    ✓Collection storage interpreter ✓Logging interpreter Side-effect’y ✓Calculate Stats ✓Collections algebra ✓HTTP Client algebra ✓Logging algebra ✓getStats algorithm on F unit-tested integration-tested very constrained just F[_] no constraints Future, IO, …
  109. @miciek Interpreters integration test https://www.testcontainers.org/

  110. @miciek Interpreters integration test interpreter response https://www.testcontainers.org/

  111. @miciek You learned… AST & UNCTIONAL F F modularity (the

    λ way!) plug & play simple real-world service in Scala
  112. @miciek Learn More https://github.com/miciek/influencer-stats

  113. @miciek λ Michał Płachta www.michalplachta.com @miciek AST & UNCTIONAL F

    F Thanks!