Project 1 Slideshare 2 : Format, Document Design, & Readability

04909fdda960dd0ca8d5fbe7bd7813fb?s=47 TechProf
January 07, 2019

Project 1 Slideshare 2 : Format, Document Design, & Readability

04909fdda960dd0ca8d5fbe7bd7813fb?s=128

TechProf

January 07, 2019
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Format, Document Design, & Readability 1

  2. 2 Table of Contents Introduction ........................................................................................................................3-6 About Workplace Genres ..............................................................................................7

    About Using Templates....................................................................................................8-9 Standard Format and Document Design ..................................................................10-11 Project 1 Memo Report Format ....................................................................................12-14 Document Design and Visual Hierarchy ....................................................................15-16 Crap Principles of Design................................................................................................18 Contrast ......................................................................................................................19-27 Repetition ...................................................................................................................28 Alignment ...................................................................................................................29-30 Proximity .....................................................................................................................31 Style Guides ........................................................................................................................32-34 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................35
  3. INTRODUCTION Don't take this wrong but, in the workplace, no

    one will ever want to read what you write. 3 I don’t want to read that report from you.
  4. Workplace readers will NEED to read what you write to:

    • Solve problems, • Gain a better understanding of something, • Make effective decisions, • Plan work they and others will do, and • Create a paper trail (record) for legal purposes if needed. 4 This helps me. What a great writer you are!
  5. To help them out, your writing style needs READABILITY. 5

  6. Readability simply means how easily a reader can understand a

    text. But, achieving a readable style is not only about the words you write. It's also about how a document (or web page) looks. And, in technical writing, how a readable document looks is a function of genre, format, and document design. 6
  7. In the workplace, Genres and how they should look (Format)

    evolved, over time, in response to common writing situations. Here are just a few workplace genres • Business Correspondence: letters, memos, emails, and texts; • Reports, Proposals, and White Papers: informal and formal reports; technical white papers. • Applications; cover letter, resume, e-portfolio. • Multimedia: podcasts, slidecasts, screencasts. 7 GENRES
  8. 8 There's nothing wrong with using a genre template, but

    you need to know the rhetorical work that standard formatting conventions do as well as the principles of document design in order to choose wisely. Rhetorical work just means that you are aware of how certain choices in format and design assist readability while others do not. About using TEMPLATES
  9. 9 Many template designers get this all wrong. For example,

    the templates below violate many principles of effective document design and standard formatting conventions. The obnoxious size of the titles, saturation of the ink-level, and the silly graphic elements all combine to cue a reader that you don't know what you are doing if you use one of these.
  10. 10 Standard genre formats and principles of document design do

    two types of rhetorical work that you need to know about and apply in the documents you produce for this course: 1. Standard Formats allow the reader to discern at-a-glance what the document is – its genre (and hence, what it’s for). 2. Document Design helps readers easily find and revisit the information they need.
  11. You need both because workplace readers are busy, and they

    do not read linearly from start to finish, like they would a book. Instead, they look for the information they need, and read more like newspaper readers do. 11
  12. For project 1, you will need to apply standard formatting

    conventions and principles of document design to compose your memo report (deliverable 1). • A memo report is one of the most common workplace genres and it is written to people within a business or organization. • The next slides explain how to format a memo report using standard conventions and apply basic principles of effective document design. 12
  13. 13 Memorandum To: First and Last Name From: First and

    Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec. Standard Format: Memo Report The title “memo” or "memorandum" signals the reader is getting an internal document. The section below the title creates a record of who received the document, who wrote it, when, and why (conveyed by the subject line). Another standard formatting convention is to single- space and left-justify text, and add a line of white space to separate paragraphs.
  14. Secondary Pages Another convention is to use the page header

    in all pages after the first one to help a reader know which document they are reading and which page they are on. Page numbers are typically omitted on the first page. 14
  15. The central principle of effective document design is to use

    visual hierarchy. Visual hierarchy refers to how text and images are arranged on a page that implies how they are related. 15 DOCUMENT DESIGN
  16. 16 Poor Visual Hierarchy Notice how the elements are "scattered"

    on this page. There are no visual cues to help a reader see how the titles, images, and text are related.
  17. 17 Effective Visual Hierarchy Notice how this page provides visual

    cues through the use of white space and alignment to help a reader understand how elements are elated to one another. Effective visual hierarchy is achieved by using the CRAP PRINCIPLES of document design. Yes, they really are called that.
  18. • Contrast, • Repetition • Alignment. • Proximity 18 CRAP

    PRINCIPLES
  19. CONTRAST 19 Contrast allows readers to see at-a-glance key sections

    of a document and how they are related. Writers create contrast using: • Heading levels, • Bolding, • Color, • Font style and size, • White (negative) space.
  20. Heading Levels 20 Headings help readers easily navigate through content

    to find and revisit information they need. Heading levels also show at-a-glance how some information is subordinate to other information on a page. Most of the time, three - four levels will be all you need, so don't get carried away, particularly if you indent the levels.
  21. Numbering heading levels in a long report is a standard

    convention that assists readability. 21
  22. 22 Memorandum To: First and Last Name From: First and

    Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec. Using bold type and varying font size in headings helps readers see where major sections and subsections begin and end. Bold Type and Font Size
  23. Font Style and Color 23 Often writers also use a

    different font style and color for headings. If you use color, choose only ONE for headings. Learning how to use the Styles feature in Word can make this easy to do.
  24. White Space 24 White space is any section of a

    document that is unused, including the amount of space around an object. Creating contrast with white space helps separate paragraphs of text, graphics, and other portions of a document's layout. It's important though not to use too much or too little white space.
  25. Too Much White Space 25 Memorandum To: First and Last

    Name From: First and Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. Memorandum To: First and Last Name From: First and Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dicum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec. Too Little White Space
  26. Just Right 26 Memorandum To: First and Last Name From:

    First and Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec.
  27. It’s Not Hard to Use Headings But, if you aren’t

    used to writing them, it may feel odd to add headings at first. You may feel like your writing “doesn’t flow” as in an essay but it shouldn’t. Remember the purpose of headings, and it will help you write them. 27
  28. The second crap principle is the consistent repetition of an

    element. It is widely used in multi-page documents, websites, and infographics. Repetition creates a cohesive and consistent design. 28 REPETITION
  29. The third crap principle is about how the text and

    other elements are aligned in a document or web page. The goal in alignment is to use it to reveal the hierarchy of text and elements. 29 ALIGNMENT
  30. Memorandum To: First and Last Name From: First and Last

    Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec. Aligning text in a memo's heading makes it easier to read. 30 Aligning text that is subordinate to another section helps readers see how the information is related.
  31. Proximity is the last crap principle and it means grouping

    elements together to help readers see the relationship between those elements. 31 PROXIMITY Memorandum To: First and Last Name From: First and Last Name Date: Date Sent Subject: What the Memo is About Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Heading Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Leo integer malesuada nunc vel risus commodo viverra maecenas. • Eu mi bibendum neque egestas congue. Ornare massa eget egestas purus. Dolor sed viverra ipsum nunc aliquet bibendum. Non tellus orci ac auctor augue mauris augue neque. • Molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui nunc mattis. Nam libero justo laoreet sit amet cursus sit. Semper viverra nam libero justo laoreet. Etiam non quam lacus suspendisse faucibus interdum posuere lorem. • Rhoncus dolor purus non enim praesent. In egestas erat imperdiet sed euismod. Vestibulum lectus mauris ultrices eros in cursus turpis massa tincidunt. Aliquam eleifend mi in nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam. Pulvinar mattis nunc sed blandit libero volutpat sed cras. In hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Heading Fermentum iaculis eu non diam. Elit ullamcorper dignissim cras tincidunt lobortis feugiat vivamus at. Ut venenatis tellus in metus vulputate eu scelerisque felis. Auctor augue mauris augue neque gravida in. Arcu odio ut sem nulla pharetra diam sit amet. Ut faucibus pulvinar elementum integer enim. Dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Vitae congue eu consequat ac felis. Pretium nibh ipsum consequat nisl vel pretium lectus quam id. Porttitor eget dolor morbi non arcu. Arcu non sodales neque sodales ut. In nulla posuere sollicitudin aliquam ultrices sagittis. Augue lacus viverra vitae congue eu consequat ac felis donec. Bullet points are a standard convention writer's use to group elements.
  32. Many businesses and organizations use style guides and create their

    own genre templates to achieve a consistent look and feel that supports the brand identity. Style guides specify use of standard visual formatting conventions such as font style, size of heading levels, and use of other elements such as logos. 32 STYLE GUIDES
  33. Example 1: Idaho Transportation Department 33 The ITD style guide

    is 95 pages and explains the formatting guidelines that writers should use when preparing research reports. These guidelines include font-style, size of heading levels, line-spacing, layout of pages etc.
  34. Example 2: Green River College 34 Green River College's Brand

    & Identity Guide explains GRC policy for use of university logos, colors, typography, etc.
  35. In the workplace, follow your employer's style guide for specific

    style choices needed to support the business or organization's brand. In this course, project assignment sheets will specify the audience, purpose, and which genre format to use and guide you in the use of standard formatting conventions. Apply principles of document design in all genre formats required in this course. 35 CONCLUSION