behavior. e.g., If we think kids of a certain age can discriminate vowels, they actually can. High fidelity. e.g., How good are kids at discriminating vowels? How does this skill change across development? How does the difficulty of this skill compare to other skills?
study as an sample effect size from a population of studies – Aggregating using quantitative methods (e.g. averaging) – Get point estimate of the true effect size with measure of certainty More precise estimate of effect size than from single study.
be large number of missing studies for effects to be 0 P-curves do not suggest any evidence of p-hacking In sum: Literature is veridical and thus should form the basis for theory-building Use effect sizes to plan sample sizes prospectively, in order to increase power