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Red Hat DevNation - Digital Discrimination: Cognitive Bias in Machine Learning

Red Hat DevNation - Digital Discrimination: Cognitive Bias in Machine Learning

Tools/Communities:
Enter IBM's Call for Code Competition: https://ibm.biz/BdzPJn
AI Fairness 360 Toolkit: http://aif360.mybluemix.net/
Model Asset Exchange: http://ibm.biz/model-exchange
IBM's Data Science and AI Elite Team: http://community.ibm.com/DSE
Watson Studio: https://www.ibm.com/cloud/watson-studio
Watson Machine Learning: https://www.ibm.com/cloud/machine-learning
Watson OpenScale: https://www.ibm.com/cloud/watson-openscale/

Talk Sources:

Cognitive Bias Definition:
https://adweb.clarkson.edu/~awilke/Research_files/EoHB_Wilke_12.pdf

Podcasts/Tweets
https://leanin.org/podcast-episodes/siri-is-artificial-intelligence-biased
https://art19.com/shows/the-ezra-klein-show/episodes/663fd0b7-ee60-4e3e-b2cb-4fcb4040eef1
https://twitter.com/alexisohanian/status/1087973027055316994
https://twitter.com/MatthewBParksSr/status/1133435312921874432

Northpointe/Equivant's COMPAS - Recidivism Score Algorithm
https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612775/algorithms-criminal-justice-ai/

Data for Black Lives
http://d4bl.org/about.html
2019 Conference Notes: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1E1mfgTp73QFRmNBunl8cIpyUmDos28rekidux0voTsg/edit?ts=5c39f92e

Gender Shades Project
http://news.mit.edu/2018/study-finds-gender-skin-type-bias-artificial-intelligence-systems-0212
MIT Media Lab Overview for the project: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=TWWsW1w-BVo
FAT* 2018 Talk about outcomes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af2VmR-iGkY
https://www.ajlunited.org/fight

Other articles referenced in this talk:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/12/business/computer-science-ethics-courses.html
https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/4/17/15322378/how-artificial-intelligence-learns-how-to-be-racist
https://www.engadget.com/2019/01/24/pinterest-skin-tone-search-diversity/

Maureen McElaney

June 25, 2019
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  1. Red Hat DevNation
    Digital Discrimination:
    Cognitive Bias in Machine
    Learning
    June 27, 2019

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  2. Digital Discrimination:
    Cognitive Bias in Machine
    Learning
    My name is:
    Maureen McElaney
    Tweet at me! @Mo_Mack
    2
    @Mo_Mack

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  3. A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of
    deviation from norm or rationality in
    judgment.
    People make decisions given their limited
    resources.
    Wilke A. and Mata R. (2012) “Cognitive Bias”, Clarkson University
    3
    @Mo_Mack

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  4. Example of bias in machine
    learning.
    5
    @Mo_Mack

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  5. NorthPointe’s
    COMPAS
    Algorithm
    6 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  6. Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    May 2016 - Northpointe’s COMPAS Algorithm
    http://www.equivant.com/solutions/inmate-
    classification
    7
    @Mo_Mack

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  7. May 2016 - Northpointe’s COMPAS Algorithm
    http://www.equivant.com/solutions/inmate-
    classification
    Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    @Mo_Mack

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  8. May 2016 - Northpointe’s COMPAS Algorithm
    http://www.equivant.com/solutions/inmate-
    classification
    Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    @Mo_Mack

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  9. May 2016 - Northpointe’s COMPAS Algorithm
    http://www.equivant.com/solutions/inmate-
    classification
    Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    @Mo_Mack

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  10. Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    11
    Black Defendant’s Risk Scores
    @Mo_Mack

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  11. Source: https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    12
    White Defendant’s Risk Scores
    @Mo_Mack

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  12. BLACK VS. WHITE
    DEFENDANTS
    ○ Falsely labeled black defendants as likely
    of future crime at twice the rate as white
    defendants.
    ○ White defendants mislabeled as low risk
    more than black defendants
    ○ Pegged Black defendants 77% more likely
    to be at risk of committing future violent
    crime
    13
    @Mo_Mack

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  13. Gender
    Shades Project
    15 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  14. Joy Buolamwini,
    Algorithmic Justice League
    Gender Shades Project
    Released February 2018
    16
    @Mo_Mack

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  15. “If we fail to make
    ethical and inclusive
    artificial intelligence
    we risk losing gains
    made in civil rights
    and gender equity
    under the guise of
    machine neutrality.”
    18
    - Joy Boulamwini
    @jovialjoy

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  16. Solutions?
    What can we do
    to combat bias
    in AI?
    19
    @Mo_Mack

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  17. 20
    https://www.vox.com/ezra-klein-show-podcast
    @Mo_Mack

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  18. “Coders are the
    most empowered
    laborers that have
    ever existed.”
    21
    - Anil Dash
    @anildash

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  19. EDUCATION IS
    KEY
    22 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  20. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/12/business/computer-science-
    ethics-courses.html
    @Mo_Mack

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  21. Questions
    posed to
    students
    in these
    courses...
    Is the
    technology
    fair?
    How do you
    make sure
    that the
    data is not
    biased?
    Should
    machines
    be judging
    humans?
    24
    @Mo_Mack

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  22. 25
    https://twitter.com/Neurosarda/status/1084198368526680064

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  23. FIX THE
    PIPELINE?
    26 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  24. “Cognitive bias in
    machine learning is
    human bias on
    steroids.”
    27
    - Rediet Abebe
    @red_abebe

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  25. 28
    https://twitter.com/MatthewBParksSr/status/1133435312921874432
    @Mo_Mack

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  26. TOOLS TO
    COMBAT BIAS
    29 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  27. Tool #1:
    AI Fairness
    360 Toolkit
    Open Source Library
    30
    @Mo_Mack

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  28. http://aif360.mybluemix.net/
    @Mo_Mack

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  29. http://aif360.mybluemix.net/
    @Mo_Mack

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  30. TYPES OF METRICS
    ○ Individual vs. Group Fairness, or Both
    ○ Group Fairness: Data vs Model
    ○ Group Fairness: We’re All Equal vs What
    You See is What You Get
    ○ Group Fairness: Ratios vs Differences
    33
    @Mo_Mack

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  31. Machine Learning
    Pipeline
    In-
    Processing
    Pre-
    Processing
    Post-
    Processing
    36
    Modifying the
    training data.
    Modifying the
    learning
    algorithm.
    Modifying the
    predictions (or
    outcomes.)
    @Mo_Mack

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  32. http://aif360.mybluemix.net/
    Demos
    @Mo_Mack

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  33. https://github.com/IBM/AIF360
    AI Fairness 360 Toolkit Public Repo
    39
    @Mo_Mack

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  34. http://aif360.mybluemix.net/community
    AI Fairness 360 Toolkit Slack
    40
    @Mo_Mack

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  35. Tool #2:
    Model Asset
    Exchange
    Open Source Pre-Trained
    Deep Learning Models
    41
    @Mo_Mack

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  36. Step 1: Find a model
    ...that does what you need
    ...that is free to use
    ...that is performant enough
    42
    @Mo_Mack

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  37. Step 2: Get the code
    Is there a good implementation available?
    ...that does what you need
    ...that is free to use
    ...that is performant enough
    43
    @Mo_Mack

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  38. Step 3: Verify the
    model
    ○ Does it do what you need?
    ○ Is it free to use (license)?
    ○ Is it performant enough?
    ○ Accuracy?
    44
    @Mo_Mack

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  39. Step 4: Train the model
    45
    @Mo_Mack

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  40. Step 4: Train the model
    46
    @Mo_Mack

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  41. Step 5: Deploy your
    model
    ○ Adjust inference code (or write from
    scratch)
    ○ Package inference code, model code, and
    pre-trained weights together
    ○ Deploy your package
    47
    @Mo_Mack

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  42. Step 6: Consume your
    model
    48
    @Mo_Mack

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  43. Model Asset
    Exchange
    The Model Asset Exchange (MAX) is a one
    stop shop for developers/data scientists to
    find and use free and open source deep
    learning models
    ibm.biz/model-exchange
    49
    @Mo_Mack

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  44. ○ Wide variety of domains (text, audio,
    images, etc)
    ○ Multiple deep learning frameworks
    ○ Vetted and tested code/IP
    ○ Build and deploy a model web service in
    seconds
    50
    Model Asset
    Exchange
    @Mo_Mack

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  45. ibm.biz/model-exchange
    51
    @Mo_Mack

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  46. http://ibm.biz/model-exchange
    http://ibm.biz/max-slack
    Model Asset eXchange (MAX)
    52
    @Mo_Mack

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  47. Take Control
    of the Machine
    Learning
    Pipeline
    53
    @Mo_Mack

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  48. 54
    IBM’s AI Portfolio
    Everything you need for Enterprise AI, on any cloud
    Watson
    Studio
    Watson
    Machine
    Learning
    Watson AI
    OpenScale
    Build Deploy Manage
    Interact with Pre-built AI Services
    Watson Application Services
    Unify on a Multicloud Data Platform
    IBM Cloud Private for Data
    AI Open Source Frameworks
    @Mo_Mack

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  49. © 2018 IBM Corporation 30 April 2019 IBM Data Science Elite
    55
    Need help?
    IBM Data Science & AI Elite team.
    Find them: community.ibm.com/DSE
    @Mo_Mack

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  50. UPDATE TO
    THE GENDER
    SHADES
    PROJECT
    56 Image Credit: #WOCinTech

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  51. 57
    http://www.aies-conference.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/AIES-19_paper_223.pdf
    @Mo_Mack

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  52. 58
    FAT* 2018: Joy Buolamwini - Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial
    Gender Classification
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af2VmR-iGkY
    @Mo_Mack

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  53. 59
    Photo by rawpixel on Unsplash
    No matter what it is our
    responsibility to build
    systems that are fair.
    @Mo_Mack

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  54. Enter the Call for Code
    https://ibm.biz/BdzPJn
    Slides
    http://bit.ly/redhat-biasinai
    Any questions?
    @Mo_Mack
    61

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