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Comparing Native Java REST API Frameworks - Seattle JUG 2022

Comparing Native Java REST API Frameworks - Seattle JUG 2022

Use Spring Boot! No, use Micronaut!! Nooooo, Quarkus is the best!!! What about Helidon?

There are a lot of developers praising the hottest, and fastest, Java REST frameworks: Micronaut, Quarkus, Spring Boot, and Helidon. In this session, you'll learn how to do the following with each framework:

✅ Build a REST API
✅ Secure your API with OAuth 2.0
✅ Optimize for production with Docker and GraalVM

I'll also share some performance numbers and pretty graphs to compare community metrics.

Related blog post: https://developer.okta.com/blog/2021/06/18/native-java-framework-comparison
Helidon companion post: https://developer.okta.com/blog/2022/01/06/native-java-helidon
GitHub repo: https://github.com/oktadev/native-java-examples

Matt Raible
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September 13, 2022
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  1. Matt Raible | @mraible September 13, 2022 Native Java REST

    API Comparison Micronaut, Quarkus, Spring Boot, and Helidon Photo by Eric Zhang https://unsplash.com/photos/aJmmebD4NpE
  2. @mraible Who is Matt Raible? Father, Husband, Skier, Mountain Biker,

    Whitewater Rafter Bus Lover Web Developer and Java Champion Okta Developer Advocate Blogger on raibledesigns.com and developer.okta.com/blog @mraible
  3. None
  4. None
  5. None
  6. developer.okta.com

  7. developer.auth0.com

  8. @mraible Today’s Agenda Why Java? Build { REST, GraphQL }

    APIs with Java Secure your APIs with OAuth 2.1 Build with Docker Go Native with GraalVM https://unsplash.com/photos/JsTmUnHdVYQ
  9. @mraible Why Java? 25+ Years of use, abuse, and improvements

    Open Source code is available; many popular open source frameworks and tools Hugely Popular and widely used by many enterprises and web-scale companies
  10. @mraible Download the Oracle builds of OpenJDK https://jdk.java.net/18 Or Eclipse

    builds from Adoptium https://adoptium.net Get Started with Java 18
  11. @mraible Get Started with Java 18 Better yet, use SDKMAN!

    curl -s https://get.sdkman.io | bash 
 sdk install java 18-open
  12. Java Releases and Features

  13. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2020/01/09/java-rest-api-showdown Build REST APIs with Java

  14. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2021/06/18/native-java-framework-comparison Build Native Java REST APIs

  15. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2022/01/06/native-java-helidon Build REST APIs and Native Apps with Helidon

  16. Serverless 💵 💸 https://unsplash.com/photos/glRqyWJgUeY

  17. @mraible sdk install micronaut mn create-app com.okta.rest.app \ -b maven

    -f security-jwt -f micronaut-aot Get Started with Micronaut
  18. https://micronaut.io/launch

  19. package com.okta.rest.controller; import io.micronaut.http.MediaType; import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller; import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get; import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Produces;

    import io.micronaut.security.annotation.Secured; import io.micronaut.security.rules.SecurityRule; import java.security.Principal; @Controller("/hello") public class HelloController { @Get @Secured(SecurityRule.IS_AUTHENTICATED) @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN) public String hello(Principal principal) { return "Hello, " + principal.getName() + "!"; } }
  20. micronaut.security.token.jwt.enabled=true micronaut.security.token.jwt.signatures.jwks.okta.url= https://dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/default/v1/keys Micronaut JWT Security

  21. micronaut.security.token.jwt.enabled=true micronaut.security.token.jwt.signatures.jwks.okta.url= https://dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/default/v1/keys Micronaut JWT Security https://micronaut-projects.github.io/micronaut-security/latest/guide/#jwt

  22. Install HTTPie (a better cURL) $ <tool> install httpie https://httpie.org

  23. Test Micronaut with HTTPie https://httpie.org mvn mn:run http :8080/hello TOKEN=eyJraWQiOiJxOE1QMjFNNHZCVmxOSkxGbFFWNlN...

    http :8080/hello Authorization:"Bearer $TOKEN"
  24. Verify Micronaut API with HTTPie

  25. @mraible Get Started with Quarkus mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:2.12.2.Final:create \ -DprojectGroupId=com.okta.rest \

    -DprojectArtifactId=quarkus \ -DclassName="com.okta.rest.quarkus.HelloResource" \ -Dpath="/hello" \ -Dextensions="smallrye-jwt,resteasy-reactive"
  26. https://code.quarkus.io

  27. package com.okta.rest.quarkus; import io.quarkus.security.Authenticated; import javax.ws.rs.GET; import javax.ws.rs.Path; import javax.ws.rs.Produces;

    import javax.ws.rs.core.Context; import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType; import javax.ws.rs.core.SecurityContext; import java.security.Principal; @Path("/hello") public class HelloResource { @GET @Authenticated @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN) public String hello(@Context SecurityContext context) { Principal userPrincipal = context.getUserPrincipal(); return "Hello, " + userPrincipal.getName() + "!"; } }
  28. mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location= https://dev-133337.okta.com/ oauth2/default/v1/keys mp.jwt.verify.issuer=https:// dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/ default MicroProfile JWT Security https://www.eclipse.org/community/eclipse_newsletter/2017/september/article2.php

  29. mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location= https://dev-133337.okta.com/ oauth2/default/v1/keys mp.jwt.verify.issuer=https:// dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/ default MicroProfile JWT Security https://www.eclipse.org/community/eclipse_newsletter/2017/september/article2.php

  30. None
  31. Test Quarkus with HTTPie https://httpie.org mvn quarkus:dev http :8080/hello TOKEN=eyJraWQiOiJxOE1QMjFNNHZCVmxOSkxGbFFWNlN...

    http :8080/hello Authorization:"Bearer $TOKEN"
  32. Verify Quarkus API with HTTPie

  33. @mraible Get Started with Spring Boot https start.spring.io/starter.zip \ dependencies==web,oauth2-resource-server,native

    \ packageName==com.okta.rest \ name==spring-boot \ type==maven-project \ baseDir==spring-boot | tar -xzvf -
  34. https://start.spring.io https://start.spring.io

  35. package com.okta.rest.controller; import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping; import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController; import java.security.Principal; @RestController public

    class HelloController { @GetMapping("/hello") public String hello(Principal principal) { return "Hello, " + principal.getName() + "!"; } }
  36. @mraible Optimize Tomcat for Spring Native <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId> <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId> <exclusions>

    <exclusion> <groupId>org.apache.tomcat.embed</groupId> <artifactId>tomcat-embed-core</artifactId> </exclusion> <exclusion> <groupId>org.apache.tomcat.embed</groupId> <artifactId>tomcat-embed-websocket</artifactId> </exclusion> </exclusions> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.apache.tomcat.experimental</groupId> <artifactId>tomcat-embed-programmatic</artifactId> <version>${tomcat.version}</version> </dependency>
  37. Spring Security OAuth 2.0 Resource Server https://docs.spring.io/spring-security/reference/servlet/oauth2/resource-server okta.oauth2.issuer=https://dev-133337.okta.com/ oauth2/default

  38. Test Spring Boot with HTTPie https://httpie.org mvn spring-boot:run http :8080/hello

    TOKEN=eyJraWQiOiJxOE1QMjFNNHZCVmxOSkxGbFFWNlN... http :8080/hello Authorization:"Bearer $TOKEN"
  39. Verify Spring Boot API with HTTPie

  40. @mraible Get Started with Helidon mvn -U archetype:generate -DinteractiveMode=false \

    -DarchetypeGroupId=io.helidon.archetypes \ -DarchetypeArtifactId=helidon-quickstart-mp \ -DarchetypeVersion=3.0.1 \ -DgroupId=com.okta.rest \ -DartifactId=helidon \ -Dpackage=com.okta.rest
  41. https://helidon.io/starter

  42. The Helidon CLI

  43. import io.helidon.security.Principal; import io.helidon.security.annotations.Authenticated; import jakarta.ws.rs.GET; import jakarta.ws.rs.Path; import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Context;

    @Path("/hello") public class HelloResource { @Authenticated @GET public String hello(@Context SecurityContext context) { return "Hello, " + context.userName() + "!"; } }
  44. import com.okta.rest.controller.HelloResource; import org.eclipse.microprofile.auth.LoginConfig; import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped; import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Application; import java.util.Set;

    @LoginConfig(authMethod = "MP-JWT") @ApplicationScoped public class HelloApplication extends Application { @Override public Set<Class<? >> getClasses() { return Set.of(HelloResource.class); } }
  45. MicroProfile JWT Security mp.jwt.verify.issuer=https://dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/default mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location=${mp.jwt.verify.issuer}/v1/keys https://download.eclipse.org/microprofile/microprofile-jwt-auth-2.0/microprofile-jwt-auth-spec-2.0.html <dependency> <groupId>io.helidon.microprofile.jwt</groupId> <artifactId>helidon-microprofile-jwt-auth</artifactId> </dependency>

  46. Test Helidon with HTTPie https://httpie.org mvn package && java -jar

    target/helidon.jar http :8080/hello TOKEN=eyJraWQiOiJxOE1QMjFNNHZCVmxOSkxGbFFWNlN... http :8080/hello Authorization:"Bearer $TOKEN"
  47. Verify Helidon API with HTTPie

  48. @mraible Startup Performance Milliseconds 0 300 600 900 1200 Micronaut

    Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon 1,082 943 347 262 662 863 240 Dev Startup (mvn) Packaged Startup (java -jar)
  49. @mraible What about GraphQL APIs? Why GraphQL? Does your favorite

    framework support GraphQL? Micronaut https://micronaut-projects.github.io/micronaut-graphql/latest/guide Quarkus https://quarkus.io/guides/smallrye-graphql Spring Boot https://spring.io/projects/spring-graphql Helidon https://helidon.io/docs/v3/#/mp/graphql
  50. @mraible Secure your API with OAuth 2.0 https://aaronparecki.com/2019/12/12/21/its-time-for-oauth-2-dot-1

  51. @mraible Secure your API with OAuth 2.1 https://oauth.net/2.1 PKCE is

    required for all clients using the authorization code flow Redirect URIs must be compared using exact string matching The Implicit grant is omitted from this specification The Resource Owner Password Credentials grant is omitted from this specification Bearer token usage omits the use of bearer tokens in the query string of URIs Refresh tokens for public clients must either be sender-constrained or one-time use
  52. @mraible Authenticate with OpenID Connect (OIDC) What is OpenID Connect?

    Does your favorite framework support OIDC authentication? Micronaut https://guides.micronaut.io/latest/micronaut-oauth2-okta.html Quarkus https://quarkus.io/guides/security-openid-connect-web-authentication Spring Boot https://docs.spring.io/spring-security/reference/servlet/oauth2/login Helidon https://helidon.io/docs/v3/#/mp/security/providers#OIDC-Provider
  53. What about testing?

  54. @mraible Build with Docker Create a Dockerfile 
 FROM openjdk:18-alpine

    ARG JAR_FILE=target/*.jar COPY ${JAR_FILE} app.jar EXPOSE 8080 ENTRYPOINT ["java","-jar","/app.jar"]
  55. @mraible Build with Docker Build your image docker build -t

    <tag-name> . Run your image docker run -it -p 8080:8080 <tag-name>
  56. @mraible Build with Docker: Jib Get Jibby with it! mvn

    verify jib:build Or build directly to your Docker daemon mvn verify jib:dockerBuild https://github.com/GoogleContainerTools/jib
  57. @mraible Build with Docker Micronaut uses Jib, but you must

    configure plugins Quarkus generates four Docker-related files Dockerfile.jvm Dockerfile.legacy-jar Dockerfile.native Dockerfile.native-micro Quarkus + Jib mvn quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions="container-image-jib"
  58. @mraible Build with Docker Spring Boot 2.3+ has built-in support

    mvn spring-boot:build-image Uses layered JARs for faster builds dependencies snapshot-dependencies resources application https://spring.io/blog/2020/01/27/creating-docker-images-with-spring-boot-2-3-0-m1
  59. @mraible Build with Docker Helidon generates three Docker-related files Dockerfile

    Dockerfile.jlink Dockerfile.native Helidon + Jib Not available
  60. @mraible Use Micronaut CLI mn create-app ... mvn package -Dpackaging=native-image

    gradle nativeImage gradle dockerBuildNative Go Native with GraalVM and Micronaut https://docs.micronaut.io/latest/guide/#graal
  61. @mraible Go Native with GraalVM and Quarkus Create an executable

    without GraalVM installed mvn package -Pnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true Then, build the image docker build -f src/main/docker/Dockerfile.native -t \ <tag-name> . And run it docker run -it -p 8080:8080 <tag-name> https://quarkus.io/guides/building-native-image
  62. @mraible Use start.spring.io to get plugins and profiles <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>

    <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId> <configuration> <classifier>${repackage.classifier}</classifier> <image> <builder>paketobuildpacks/builder:tiny</builder> <env> <BP_NATIVE_IMAGE>true</BP_NATIVE_IMAGE> </env> </image> </configuration> </plugin> <plugin> <groupId>org.springframework.experimental</groupId> <artifactId>spring-aot-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version>${spring-native.version}</version> <executions> Go Native with GraalVM and Spring Boot
  63. @mraible Go Native with GraalVM and Spring Boot Add milestone

    repositories to your pom.xml <repositories> <repository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> </repository> </repositories> <pluginRepositories> <pluginRepository> <id>spring-milestones</id> <name>Spring Milestones</name> <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url> </pluginRepository> </pluginRepositories>
  64. @mraible Go Native with GraalVM and Spring Boot Add Spring

    Native dependency <dependency> <groupId>org.springframework.experimental</groupId> <artifactId>spring-native</artifactId> <version>0.12.1</version> </dependency> Build the native application mvn spring-boot:build-image
  65. @mraible How we fixed the Okta Spring Boot Starter https://youtu.be/8vY-9tXlCW4

  66. @mraible Build the image docker build -f Dockerfile.native -t <tag-name>

    . And run it docker run --rm -p 8080:8080 <tag-name> Go Native with GraalVM and Helidon
  67. @mraible Native Startup Performance Milliseconds 0 20 40 60 80

    100 September 13, 2022 40 36.8 19 18.2 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  68. @mraible Native Memory Used (MB) Megabytes 0 30 60 90

    120 150 September 13, 2022 132 76 51 69 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  69. @mraible Tests Run on a 2021 MacBook Pro M1 Max

  70. @mraible Demo Time! https://github.com/oktadev/native-java-examples

  71. Community

  72. @mraible Stack Overflow Tags 0 35,000 70,000 105,000 140,000 September

    9, 2022 68 127,585 3,042 1,395 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  73. @mraible GitHub Stars 0 18,750 37,500 56,250 75,000 September 9,

    2022 2,700 63,100 10,700 5,500 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  74. https://star-history.t9t.io/#micronaut-projects/micronaut-core&quarkusio/quarkus&spring-projects/spring-boot&oracle/helidon GitHub Star Growth

  75. @mraible Jobs on Indeed (US) 0 10,000 20,000 September 9,

    2022 8 11,675 121 117 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  76. @mraible Twitter Followers 0 25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 September 9,

    2022 3,826 92,000 15,800 12,100 Micronaut Quarkus Spring Boot Helidon
  77. @mraible JHipster Support 🤓 Micronaut Blueprint - github.com/jhipster/generator-jhipster-micronaut - v1.0.2,

    18 releases, 17 contributors, 385 commits // TODO: Micronaut 3, Reactive, Microservices, GraalVM native images Quarkus Blueprint - github.com/jhipster/generator-jhipster-quarkus - v2.0.0-beta.1, 6 releases, 16 contributors, 550 commits // TODO: Quarkus 2.9, Dev Services, Reactive, Microservices
  78. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2021/01/20/reactive-java-microservices

  79. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2020/08/17/micronaut-jhipster-heroku

  80. https://developer.okta.com/blog/2021/03/08/jhipster-quarkus-oidc

  81. Intel vs M1 Max https://twitter.com/mraible/status/1509371877348843525

  82. @mraible 🏆 Quarkus provides the best DevEx and memory usage

    🚀 Micronaut is the easiest to use and starts the fastest 🌱 Spring Boot has the strongest community, ecosystem, and growth 🔮 Helidon still has some catching up to do but has made great progress ⚡ Spring 6 could be a game changer My Thoughts
  83. @mraible Action! New to Java? Try Spring Boot Know Spring?

    Trial migration paths Testing is important, invest early and often Design your apps with security in mind Use OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.1 https://unsplash.com/photos/JsTmUnHdVYQ
  84. developer.okta.com/blog/tags/java @oktadev

  85. git clone https://github.com/oktadeveloper/okta-spring-webflux-react- example.git https://github.com/oktadev/native-java-examples Use the Source, Luke!

  86. Thanks! Keep in Touch raibledesigns.com @mraible Presentations speakerdeck.com/mraible Code github.com/oktadev

    developer.okta.com
  87. developer.okta.com