in terms of international law. When the United States kills people in foreign, sovereign states, the world looks to international law for the standard of justification. In war, enemy fighters may be killed under a standard of reasonable necessity; outside war, authorities are far more restricted in their right to resort to lethal force. Independent scholars confirm that many drone attacks are occurring outside war zones. These experts know the legal definition of war, and they understand why it is important to know it: Above all, protecting human rights is different in war than from protecting them in peace. Mary Ellen O’Connell
Republican vice- presidential candidate Paul Ryan has been taking heat from Catholic groups, including dozens of nuns, priests and theologians, who issued a statement denouncing his budget proposal as "morally indefensible." "A budget that turns its back on the hungry, the elderly and the sick while giving more tax breaks to the wealthiest few," they wrote, "can't be justified in Christian terms."
about the Tampa macaque, Captain Tom reiterated what both the F.W.C. and an anthropologist at Notre Dame who studies macaques, Agustín Fuentes, told me: in the wild, young macaques that challenge their troop leaders and lose are often forced out, left to wander in search of a new troop. The Mystery Monkey is presumed to be one of these disenfranchised males; it just kept wandering until it hit a city full of human primates instead. Agustín Fuentes
David Cortright of the University of Notre Dame’s Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies sees the insider killings as a sign that the U.S. strategy to hand over security to allied regional militias is doomed, as was the Soviet effort in the 1980s to mold Afghanistan into an ideological ally. "A political option needs to be pursued," he said, embracing a Rand Corp. blueprint for Afghan peace talks drafted last year. It proposes U.N. oversight of a forum including the government of President Hamid Karzai, rival political forces and the Taliban, with the United States and Afghanistan's neighbors conducting parallel talks.
churches may be doing better, but can't gloat. According to exhaustive social science data analysed by Robert Putnam of Harvard and David Campbell of Notre Dame, all organised American religion is in demographic decline. So, good news for atheism? Not really. Putnam and Campbell, writing in their much- praised 2010 book American Grace, found that atheism continues to be confined to a relatively tiny population, disproportionately concentrated in academia and media. David Campbell
according to newspaper accounts, a female grizzly bear sprang from the bushes along a tributary of the Yellowstone River and tore into a trapper and fur trader named Hugh Glass. She slashed his face, munched his scalp and removed a fist-sized hunk from his posterior. Members of Glass' expedition ran to his aid and killed the animal, but his prognosis looked grim. Two men were posted to stay behind and bury him when he succumbed to the inevitable. After six days, the duo abandoned him, still comatose and gurgling. They took his gun, knife and ammunition. Jon T. Coleman
at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, spent 10 weeks tracking the health of 110 adults. She asked half of them to stop lying throughout the study period—which meant no false statements, though participants could still omit the truth, keep secrets, and dodge questions they didn't want to answer. The other folks weren't given any specific instructions about lying, though they knew they'd be reporting the number of fibs they told each week. In addition to taking a weekly lie-detector test, participants filled out questionnaires about their physical and mental health, as well as the quality of their relationships. Anita Kelly
$1B In 2008 Authors Hamid Mehran, Robert Battalio, and Paul Schultz looked at the effects of the short-selling ban instituted on September 19 in the wake of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy in a paper titled Market Declines: What Is Accomplished by Banning Short-Selling. They then compared that to the performance of stocks in the aftermath of the 2011 credit downgrade of the U.S. at the hands of Standard & Poor’s, when the S&P 500 fell 6.6%, marking its worst decline since the depths of the financial crisis. Paul Schultz
an isolated case. In 2009, Lloyds Bank and Credit Suisse were fined $350 million and $536 million, respectively, for allegedly removing or altering information to conceal prohibited transactions with Iranian clients and customers from other sanctioned countries. In 2010, ABN Amro and Barclays were docked $500 million and $298 million, respectively, for allegedly committing similar crimes. Then, this June, ING Bank paid the largest ever fine -- $619 million -- against a bank for allegedly moving billions illegally through the U.S. financial system on behalf of Iranian and Cuban clients. Jimmy Gurulé
Campaign David Campbell Instead, Romney opted for Ryan, who may be a more natural fit on religious grounds. ”Historically there has not been the same level of animosity between Mormons and Catholics as between Mormons and evangelicals,” says political scientist David Campbell of Notre Dame.
Department, said officials would look to see if any violations were willful. If they were, individuals involved could face prison terms and the company could pay a large fine, said Mr. Gurule, a law professor at the University of Notre Dame. NCR's Subsidiary in Syria Accused of Sanctions Lapse Jimmy Gurulé
going to take a calamity,” said James O’Rourke, a University of Notre Dame management professor. “When the post office literally runs out of money to pay its employees and suppliers, that’s what it’s going to take to get Congress to act. They’ve shown little interest to this point.” James O’Rourke
Loughran, a finance professor at the University of Notre Dame Mendoza College of Business, said Carlyle’s stock performance to date “means it’s not a flash in the pan. It’s not like they are going into social media,” Lougran said. “They are buying auto paint. It’s not very glamorous, but sometimes slow and steady and dull wins.” Timothy Loughran
confronted with a firestorm of contentious ads, each followed by an immediate and aggressive denial, almost all of it devoid of evidence," said Joe Urbany, a University of Notre Dame marketing professor who studies the impact of negative campaign advertising. "It's impossible to distinguish fact from conjecture from fiction." Joe Urbany
parental duties divided among three or more people, “the difficulty is that no one will have enough of the parenting responsibility to allow the child to flourish,” observed Margaret Brinig, a law professor at the University of Notre Dame. Margaret Brinig
Notre Dame University in Indiana, recently published a paper in "Applied Physics Letters" detailing their work on Sudoku-solving algorithms that move far beyond the simpler "brute force" systems already used by dedicated Sudoku enthusiasts…. Zoltan Toroczkai …A brute force system simply runs all possible combinations of numbers on a Sudoku board until the correct answer is found. The system works, and according to…Toroczkai, it is relavitely easy to set up, but the answers take time to arrive.
professor of business ethics at the University of Notre Dame, attributes the failure to stop Sandusky to a phenomenon she calls "motivated blindness," a tendency, whether subconscious or deliberate or sometimes both, to ignore unethical or even criminal behavior by others when you perceive it to be in your best interest to do so. Motivated blindness "means I don't probe, I don't ask, I don't believe," Tenbrunsel said. "I have evidence in front of me but choose to disregard facts." Ann Tenbrunsel
Siria? La negativa del régimen de permitir observadores de estos países no es sorpresiva, dijo Asher Kaufman, profesor asociado en el Instituto Kroc de Estudios para la Paz Internacional de la Universidad de Notre Dame. Asher Kaufman
Russia will be perceived as “having direct responsibility if he uses chemical weapons or unleashes more firepower from the air,” said George Lopez, a former UN sanctions investigator who now teaches at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. George Lopez
fraction of the total income for those on the bottom of the income distribution," said economics professor James X. Sullivan of Notre Dame University. For some, like the elderly on the lower end of the income distribution, government- provided social security can be their sole source of income. Jim Sullivan
the message is a fair one," said Dr. James McKenna, head of the Mother- Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame. "They argue that it is not enough to simply judge a practice like bed-sharing as being simply 'dangerous' before determining what kind of bed- sharing is involved and who is involved." Jim Sullivan
the University of Notre Dame suggests iris biometric enrollment is susceptible to an aging process that causes recognition performance to degrade slowly over time. "The biometric community has long accepted that there is no 'template aging effect' for iris recognition, meaning that once you are enrolled in an iris recognition system, your chances of experiencing a false non- match error remain constant over time," Kevin Bowyer of the department of computer science and engineering said. Kevin Bowyer
professor of economics at Notre Dame and an author of the study, said that “the similarity of the finding across income, education, marital status and sex of the child makes us think that there’s something causal going on here.” Bill Evans
the Romney campaign is paying close attention to studies that show advertising in Spanish can turn off white and black voters. When white and black audiences saw ads with a Latino endorsement or in Spanish, their support for a candidate dropped, said Ricardo Ramirez, a professor of political science at Notre Dame. Ricardo Ramirez
are plenty of benefits to being competitive. Timothy Judge, a management professor at the University of Notre Dame, noted that research has shown that the best athletes are also the most competitive. Tim Judge
like Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina, could be seen as St. Augustine's classic case for a just war: love of neighbor may, at times, permit, even require, the use of force to protect the innocent. According to Pope John Paul II, the international community has not only a right but a duty to intervene to "disarm the aggressor" when "the survival of populations and entire ethnic groups is seriously compromised." The international law concept of a responsibility to protect (R2P) makes similar moral claims. Gerard Powers
ningún cambio importante en la política", adelanta Jeffrey Bergstrand, ex economista de la Fed que hoy es profesor de finanzas en la Universidad de Notre Dame. "La Fed se cuidará de hacer cualquier cosa a menos que vea una desaceleración más sustantiva".