Final Review (2600)

Final Review (2600)

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

May 09, 2013
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  1. Final  Exam  Review   Exam  Format     Sec3on  I:

     Slide  IDs  (10)    Ar#st/Architect    Title    Culture/Stylis#c  Period    Cultural  Significance     Sec3on  II:  Chronology    (3)    Place  Slides  in  Proper    Chronological  Order.     Sec3on  III:  Essays  (2)    Study  your  major    themes   Good  to  Know…     Exam  Date:  Tuesday  May  14th,   2013  from  8:00-­‐10:00.     The  Final  is  worth  30%  of  your   final  grade.     Full  study  guide  is  on   Blackboard  under  “Study   Guides  and  Handouts”     Second  Chance:  Your  late   Image  and  Text  assignments   are  due  TODAY     Second  Chance:  Your  Image   and  Text  redos  are  due     Tuesday  May  14th.    
  2. Slide  IDs:  Cultural/Stylis3c  Periods   Cultural/Stylis,c  Periods   1.  

     Late  An3quity   7.    Carolingian   2.    Byzan3ne   8.    O`onian   3.    Anglo-­‐Saxon   9.    Romanesque   4.    Hiberno-­‐Saxon   10.  Early  Gothic   5. Frankish   11.  High  Gothic   6. Norse   12.  Late  Gothic  
  3. Slide  IDs   Ar3st:   Title:   Stylis3c  Period:  

    Significance:  
  4. Chronology   (a)   (b)   (c)  

  5. Emo3onality  in  medieval  art   Ideas   •  Romanesque:  

     Anxiety,   Tension,  milennium  (1000  CE),   power,   •  Gothic:  looser,  less  anxious,   Mary  (the  Virgin),  kindness,   love,  peace,  comfort,  motherly   love,  closer  more  in3mate   rela3onship  with  God,  a   personal  rela3onship,  warmer   climate,  more  food,  more   surplus,  financial  success,     Images   •  Romanesque:  cramped  space,   heaven/hell,  apocalypse  (last   judgment),     –  Ste.  Foy  at  Conques   –  Ste.  Madeleine  at  Vezeley   –  St.  Lazare  at  Autun   •  Gothic:  Personal  devo3on,   smoother  mo3on,  more  space  in   sculpture,  more  order,  symmetry,   heaven  on  earth,    rich  materials,   strong  ver3cals,  light  (=  goodness),   stained  glass  windows  (requiring   bu`resses),       •  Notre  Dame  de  Paris,   •  Notre  Dame  de     •  St.  Denis  
  6. Christ in Majesty, South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115

    (See 15-2). Ma`hew   Mark   Luke   John   Twenty-­‐Four  Elders  
  7. Trumeau, South Portal Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or

    Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23) 15-23, Trumeau, South Portal, Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115
  8. 15-­‐24,  Vices/Lazarus,  Porch,   South  Portal,  Priory  Church   at

     Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.    
  9. 15-­‐24,  Lazarus  and  Dives,  Porch,  South   Portal,  Priory  Church

     at  Moissac,  France,  c.   1115.           Dives         Lazarus  the  Leper     Soul     Soul  
  10. Death   of  a   Miser   Torment  of  

    Avarice   Torment   of  Lust   Scene  of   Torment  
  11.             Christ  in  Majesty  

              Good                                    Wicked                           Hell                           Heaven   Monastery  of  Ste.  Foy,  Conques,  France,   11th  and  12th  Century.  
  12. Monastery  of  Ste.  Foy,  Conques,  France,  11th  and  12th  Century.

     
  13. 478,  Giselbertus  (?),  Last  Judgment  Tympanum,   Autun  Cathedral,  1120-­‐1130,

     or  1130-­‐1145.  
  14. 462, Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France,

    9th-10th centuries. Furtum  Sacrum  =     “Sacred  Thek”  
  15. 16-­‐7,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.  1145-­‐1155.

     
  16. Central  Tympanum,  Royal  Portal,  West  Façade,   Chartres  Cathedral,  c.

     1145-­‐1155  (See  16-­‐7).   Seven  Liberal  Arts  
  17. Virgin  and  Child  and  angels  (Notre  Dame  de  la  

    Belle  Verrière),    Window  at  Chartres   Cathedral,  c.1170.      
  18. 17-­‐16,  Virgin  and  Child,  originally  from  St.  Denis,  c.  

    1324-­‐1339.  
  19. 550,  Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia3on,  

    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  20. 550,  Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia3on,  

    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  21. Materiality     Ideas   •  Lapis  Lazuli  (Blue):  visual:

      vibrant,  rich,  social/ culture:  rare  and  far  away   (Afghanistan),  expensive,   associated  with  the   Virgin,  subjects  of   importance,   •  Gold:  visual:  shiny,  like   sunlight,  social/culture:   expensive,  purity,  light/ enlightenment,     Images   •  Windows  (color/light)   –  Notre  Dame  de  Chartes   •  Ivory  Chest   •  Imported  –  exo3c  –  rare     •  Reliquaries     •  Virgin  of  Jeanne  D’Evreux   •  Gold   •  Gems  and  Pearls   •  Relic   •  Golden  Mosaics   –  Hagia  Sophia  
  22. The  Sack  of  Jericho,  Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.

     
  23. The  Virgin  Crowned  as  Queen  of  Heaven,  Santa  Maria  Maggiore,

      Rome,  Apsidal  Mosaic  redone  in  1294  by  Jacopo  Torri3.  
  24. What  is  an  Icon?     General:  Two-­‐ dimensional  

    representa3ons     Specific:  Pictures  of   holy  persons,  events,   venerated  by  the   Eastern  church.   7-­‐29,  Virgin  Enthroned  with  Saints  and  Angels,  St.   Catherine’s  of  Mount  Sinai,  Egypt,  6th  Century  CE.    
  25. 14-­‐5,  St.  Ma`hew  from  the  Book  of   Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,

     660-­‐680   Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  Su`on  Hoo,   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  
  26. 14-­‐5,  St.  Ma`hew  from  the  Book  of   Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,

     660-­‐680   Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  Su`on  Hoo,   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  
  27. Crown of Charlemagne, Replica, Aachen, 9th Century. 14-13, Equestrian portrait

    of Charles the Bald (grandson of Charlemagne) 9th c.
  28. Plaque reads (in Latin): THIS IS THE KING OF THE

    JEWS 14-­‐19,  Crucifixion  with   angels  and  mourning   figures,  front  cover  of  the   Lindau  Gospels,  From   Saint  Gall,  c.870-­‐880  
  29. Gero Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero, Cathedral, Cologne, c.970

  30. Casket of Santiago, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 19th century. The

    stone under the altar, Santiago de Compostela, 3rd or 4th century. Thought  to  be  where  the   boat  carrying  the  saint  body   docked,  but  actually   dedicated  to  a  Roman  god.  
  31. Reliquary  of  Ste.  Madeleine,  Vezelay,   France,  1281.  

  32. 30˚ 20˚ 10˚ 0˚ Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Pb

    Pb Sn Sn Venice Verona Assisi Rome Vienna Buda Innsbruck Prague Geneva Paris Rouen Arras Reims Espalato Durazzo Zara Trieste Belgrade Alexandria Damietta Famagusta Antioch Constantinople Smyrna Candia Kaffa Trebizond Moncastro Kiliya Syracuse Tripoli Messina Palermo Tunis Algiers Granada Palma Cádiz Córdoba Seville Melilla Lisbon Southampton London Hull Mainz Worms Hamburg Bremen Cracow Breslau Danzig Kiev Novgorod Christiania Bergen Stockholm Nuremburg Lübeck Edinburgh Bruges Genoa Siena Marseille Cagliari Lyon Dijon Poitiers Aigues- Mortes Valencia Barcelona León Milan Tripoli Beirut Acre Jaffa Loire Ebro Tagus Danube Dneiper Rhine Elbe Seine L A N T I C C E A N N O R T H S E A BA L T I C S E A B L A C K S E A M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A PYRENEES CARPATHIAN MTS A L P S CYPRUS CORSICA CRETE SARDINIA SICILY BALEARIC IS F R I C A E G Y P T 0 0 300 miles 400 kms raw materials: gold silver iron copper lead tin ivory timber wax gems silk spices hides wool linen furs Cu Pb Sn 2 Trade and Transmission Venetian trade routes Genoese trade routes Hanseatic League trade routes major inland trade routes route of Fourth Crusade, 1202-04 Fifth Crusade, 1217-21 Seventh Crusade, 1248-54 Eighth Crusade, 1270 artistic influence from Paris artistic influence from Constantinople imported goods Louis’  Procession  
  33. The  legacy  of  the  Roman  Empire  in   medieval  art:

        Ideas:   •  Syncre3sm:  Orb,  Angel/Nike,   Wreath,  Architecture,  Toga,   Oratory  Gesture,  halo,     •  Spolia:  spoils  –  harves3ng  of   architecture   Images:   •  Michael   •  Equestrian  Statues   –  Jus3nian,  Charles  the   Bald  (Holy  Roman   Emperor),     –  Ravenna:  columns  to  the   Palace  chapel  of   Charlemagne  
  34. Menorah   Trumpets   Spoils  Relief,  Arch  of  Titus,  Rome,

     81  CE  
  35. Jonah   Peter   Marcelinus   7-­‐5,  Good  Shepherd,  Orants,

     and  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Catacomb  of  SS.   Peter  and  Marcellinus,  Rome,  Late  3rd-­‐Early  4th  century  CE.   Narra3ve  Image  
  36. Figures  from  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Turkey  (?),  Late  Third

      Century  CE.  (See  7-­‐6)   Jonah  given  to  the  whale   Jonah  being  cast  up   Jonah  res3ng  under  the  arbor  
  37. The  Good  Shepherd,  Turkey  (?),   Late  Third  Century  CE

      Hermes  Kriophoros,  Crete,  620   BCE   Syncre3sm  is  the  conscious  or  unconscious  adapta3on  of   images  from  one  tradi3on  to  another,  giving  the  image  a  new   meaning.  
  38. Sarcophagus  with   Endymion,  early  3rd   Century  CE  

    Sarcophagus  with   Jonah,  c.  270  BCE   Syncre3sm  is  the  conscious  or  unconscious  adapta3on  of   images  from  one  tradi3on  to  another,  giving  the  image  a  new   meaning.  
  39. 7-­‐6,  Orant  Figure   (Jonah),  Turkey  (?),   Late  Third

     Century  CE.   Man  with  raised  arms,   Arlon,  Belgium,  c.  3rd   century  CE   Orant  Figures  
  40. 7-­‐4,  The  Par3ng  of  the  Red  Sea,  Torah  Niche,  House

      Synagogue,  Dura  Europos,  244-­‐45  CE   Moses   Moses   Egyp3an  Soldiers   Hands  of  God   Egyp3an  Soldiers   *Con3nuous  Narra3ve  
  41. Centrally  Planned  Churches   Church  of  Santa  Costanza   Plan,

     Rome,  c.  350  CE   Mausoleum  of  Augustus,   Rome,  c.  14  CE  
  42. Church  of  Santa  Costanza,  Rome,  c.  350  CE.  (See  Pg.

     228)   Mausoleum  of  Augustus,  Rome,  c.  14  CE  
  43. 7-­‐11,  Wine  Making,  Church  of  Santa  Costanza,  Rome,  c.  350

     CE   Dionysus  Seated  Among  Vines,   House  of  the  Masks,  Delos  Late   2nd  Century  BCE   John  15:1-­‐17    lI  am  the  true  vine,  and  my   Father  is  the  vinedresser…z  
  44. 7-­‐8,  Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.   Basilica

     of  Trajan,  Rome,  112     Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,   c.  422-­‐432.  
  45. 7-­‐9,  Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.   Spolia

      Basilica  Ulpia,  Forum  of  Trajan,  Rome,   112-­‐117,  dedicated  117  CE.  
  46. 7-­‐26,  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  Ivory   Panel,  Constan3nople,  6th

     Century  CE   Could  be  another   angel  or  an   emperor  receiving   this  orb.   Diptych  =  Di  (Two)  Ptukhe  (Fold)  
  47. 7-­‐26,  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  Ivory   Panel,  Constan3nople,  6th

     Century  CE   Ara  Pacis,  Procession  (Detail),   Rome,    13  BCE.  
  48. 7-­‐26,  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,   Ivory  Panel,  Constan3nople,  6th

      Century  CE   Nike  Adjus3ng  her  Sandal,  Temple   to  Athena  Nike,  Acropolis,  Athens,   440  BCE.     Wing  
  49. Jus3nian  as  the   Defender  of  the  Faith (Barbarini  Ivory),

     mid-­‐ sixth  century  CE.   Jus3nian  as  Victor  
  50. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,   (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐6th

     century.   Equestrian  Statue  of  Marcus   Aurelius,  Rome,  161-­‐180  CE.  
  51. Equestrian  Statue  of  Charles  the   Bald,  9th  century  CE.

      Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,   (Barbarini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth  century.  
  52. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,   (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth

     century   CE.   “At  the  summit  of  the  column  stands  a   huge  bronze  hors  turned  towards  the   east,  a  most  noteworthy  sight….Upon  this   horse  is  mounted  a  bronze  image  of  the   Emperor  like  a  colossus….He  wears  a   cuirass  in  heroic  fashion  and  his  head  is   covered  with  a  helmet…and  a  kind   radiance  flashes  forth  from  there….He   gazes  towards  the  rising  sun,  steering  his   course,  I  suppose,  against  the  Persians.     In  his  lek  hand  he  holds  a  globe,  by  which   the  sculptor  has  signified  that  the  whole   earth  and  sea  were  subject  to  him,  yet  he   carries  neither  sword  no  spear  nor  any   other  weapon,  but  a  cross  surmounts  his   globe,  by  virtue  of  which  alone  he  has   won  the  kingship  and  victory  in  war.     Stretching  forth  his  right  hand  towards   the  regions  of  the  East  and  spreading  out   his  fingers,  he  commands  the  barbarians   that  dwell  there  to  remain  at  home  and   not  to  advance  any  further.”  
  53. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,   (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth

     century   CE.  
  54. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,  (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth  century

      CE.  
  55. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,   (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth

     century   CE.  
  56. Jus3nian  as  defender  of  the  faith,  (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth  century

      CE.  
  57. Jus3nian  as  the   Defender  of  the  Faith (Barbarini  Ivory),

     mid-­‐ sixth  century  CE.   Conquered   Heathens  and   Barbarians  giving   Tribute.  
  58. Jus3nian  as  the   Defender  of  the  Faith (Barbarini  Ivory),

     mid-­‐ sixth  century  CE.   Military  officer   presen3ng  a   trophy  to   Jus3nian.  
  59. Jus3nian  as  the   Defender  of  the  Faith (Barbarini  Ivory),

     mid-­‐ sixth  century  CE.   Christ  Blessing   Jus3nian  
  60. Pg.  431  B,  The  Evangelist   Ma`hew,  Lindisfarne   Gospels,

     Scotland  710-­‐725   CE.   Pg.  431  C,  Ezra  Repairing  the  Gospels,   Codex  Amia3nus,  680-­‐715.  
  61. Pg. 431B, St. Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels, from

    Lindisfarne, England, c.715- 720. 14-18, Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers, c. 816-835.
  62. 14-17, Saint Matthew. Folio 15. Coronation Gospels, from Aachen. c.

    800-810. 14-18, Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers, c. 816-835.
  63. 14-12, Equestrian portrait of Charles the Bald (grandson of Charlemagne),

    9th century.
  64. 6-52, Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. Roman Imperial, Rome, c.176

    CE. 14-12, Equestrian portrait of Charles the Bald (grandson of Charlemagne) 9th c. renovatio imperii Romani renewal of the Roman empire
  65. ★  The  knowledge  to  make  concrete  was  lost  to  

    Medieval  Europe.   Saint-­‐Mar3n-­‐du-­‐Canigou,  French  Pyrenees,   1001-­‐1026  (See  15-­‐2).   Groin  Vault  
  66. 16-­‐16,  Visita3on,  West  Façade,   Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame,  

    Reims,  France,  1211-­‐1286.   Roman  Sarcophagus  from   Reims,  Detail,  260-­‐265  CE  
  67. Elizabeth  from  the  Visita3on,   Reims  Cathedral  (West   Facade),

     c.  1230.   Portrait  of  a  Flavian  Matron,   90-­‐100  CE.    
  68. The  Virgin,  from  the  Visita3on,   Reims  Cathedral  (West  

    Facade),  c.  1230.   Portrait  of  a  Roman  Matron,   110-­‐120  CE.    
  69. 16-­‐16,  Visita3on  (1230)  and  Annuncia3on  (1240-­‐1250),   West  Façade,  Cathedral

     of  Notre  Dame,  Reims,  France.  
  70. Controversy  over  images  in   Chris3anity:     Ideas  

    Images  
  71. *Venera,on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Processions  
  72. None
  73. *Venera,on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Kissing  
  74. None
  75. *Venera,on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Proskynesis  
  76. None
  77. Iconoclasts  (Breakers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  akin  to

     the  “graven  images”  men3oned   in  the  second  commandment:  “4  Thou  shalt  not   make  unto  thee  any  graven  image,  or  any  likeness   of  any  thing  that  is  in  heaven  above,  or  that  is  in   the  earth  beneath,  or  that  is  in  the  water  under   the  earth:5    thou  shalt  not  bow  down  thyself  to   them,  nor  serve  them.”  (Exodus  20:  4-­‐5)   2)  Icons  are  man  made,  as  opposed  to  relic,  and  do   not  deserve  to  be  venerated:  “The  divine  nature  is   completely  uncircumscribable  and  cannot  be   depicted  or  represented  by  ar,sts  in  any  medium   whatsoever.”  (Iconoclas,c  Council,  754)  
  78. Portal,  Fontenay  Abbey   Portal,  Priory  Church,  Moissac   Façade,

     Fontenay  Abbey,  France,   1139-­‐1147.  
  79. “immoderate  height  of  [Cluniac]  churches…their   immoderate  length,  their  excessive

     width,   sumptuous  decora3on  and  finely  executed   pictures,  which  divert  the  a`en3on  of  those   who  are  praying.”     –  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Apologia.     15-­‐9,  Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,   France,  1139-­‐1147.   15-­‐8,  Nave,  Monastery  at   Cluny,  France,  1088-­‐1130.  
  80. Capital  Detail   Capital  Detail   15-­‐9,  Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,

      France,  1139-­‐1147   Cloister,  Priory  Church,   Moissac,    
  81. “What  profit  is  there  in  those  ridiculous  monsters,  in  

    that  marvelous  and  deformed  comeliness,  that   comely  deformity?...So  many  and  so  marvelous  are   the  varie3es  of  divers  shapes  on  every  hand  that  we   are  more  tempted  to  read  in  the  marble  than  in  our   books,  and  spend  the  whole  day  in  wondering  at   these  things  than  in  medita3ng  upon  the  law  of  God.     For  God’s  sake,  if  men  are  not  ashamed  of  these   follies,  why  at  least  do  they  not  shrink  from  the   expense?”     –Bernard  of  Clairvaux   Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.  
  82. Iconodules  (Lovers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  powerful  didac3c

     tools:  “An  image  is,  aSer   all,  a  reminder;  it  is  to  the  illiterate  what  a  book  is   to  the  literate,  and  what  the  word  is  to  hearing,  the   image  is  to  sight.”  (John  of  Damascus)   2)  Icons  are  a  valuable  proxy  by  which  the  faithful  could   demonstrate  their  love  and  honor  for  the  divine:   “God  created  man  to  his  own  image”  (Genesis  1:27)   3)  Icons  are  a  valid  way  to  communicate  Christ’s   humanity  and  suffering:  “How,  indeed,  can  the  Son   of  God  be  acknowledged  to  have  been  a  man  like  us —he  who  was  deigned  to  be  called  our  brother—if   he  cannot  be  depicted?”  
  83. Pg.  246,  The  Crucifixion   and  Iconoclasts   whitewashing  an

     icon  of   Christ,  Khludov  Psalter,   850-­‐75.  
  84. Simon  Magus  and   Patriarch   Nikephoros,   Khludov  Psalter,

    850-­‐75.  
  85. Angel  Dragging  Iconoclast,  Khludov  Psalter, 850-­‐75.  

  86. “Delight  in  the  beauty  of  the  house  of   God…call

     him  away  from  external   cares…dwelling  in  some  strange  region   of  the  universe  which  neither  exists   en3rely  in  the  slime  of  the  earth  nor   en3rely  in  the  purity  of  heaven… transported  from  this  inferior  to  that   higher  world.”     “We  profess  that  we  must  do  homage   through  the  outward  ornaments  of   sacred  vessels,  and  to  nothing  in  the   world  in  an  equal  degree  to  the  service   of  the  Holy  Sacrifice,  with  all  inner   purity  and  with  all  outward  splendor.”   Abbot  Suger,  Jesse  Window,  St.   Denis,  c.  13th  century  (See  16-­‐2   and  16-­‐3).    
  87. Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Upper  Rhein,   c.  1450.   “Money

     is  won  with  such  skill  that  it  may  be   mul3plied.    It  is  expended  so  that  it  may  be   increased,  and  pouring  it  out  produces   abundance.    The  Reason  is  that  the  very  sight   of  these  costly  but  wonderful  illusions  inflames   the  men  more  to  give  than  to  pray.”   “To  me  [golden  images]  somehow  represent   the  ancient  rite  of  the  Jews…  Or  is  it  that  since   we  have  been  mingled  with  the  gen3les,   perhaps  we  have  also  adopted  their  ways  and   even  serve  their  idols.”   “O  vanity  of  vani3es,  but  no  more  vain  than   insane!    The  Church  is  radiant  in  its  walls  and   des3tute  in  its  poor.    It  dresses  its  stones  in   gold  and  it  abandons  its  children  naked.    It   serves  the  eyes  of  the  rich  at  the  expense  of   the  poor.    The  curious  find  that  which  may   delight  them,  but  those  in  need  do  not  find   that  which  should  sustain  them.”  
  88. Religious  Spaces   Ideas   Images  

  89. Chris3an  House  Church,  Dura  Europos,  Syria,  c.   244-­‐245  CE.

     
  90. Chris3an  House  Church,   Dura  Europos,  Syria,  c.   244-­‐245

     CE  
  91. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537.
  92. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. 240  Feet   270  Feet  
  93. 180  Feet   7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of

    Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. “Solomon  I  have  surpassed  thee.”  
  94. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Plan of Hagia

    Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. (Stokstad 7-18) 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537.
  95. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia

    Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. (See 7-19) “a  golden  chain  from  Heaven”   “the  firmament  which  rests  on  air”  
  96. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. “gilded  tesserae  from  which  a  gli`ering  stream   of  golden  rays  pours  abundantly  and  strikes   men’s  eyes  with  irresis3ble  force.    It  is  as  if  one   were  gazing  at  the  midday  sun  in  spring.”   “Light  comes  from  the  Good  and  …light  is   the  visual  image  of  God.”  
  97. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. Who…shall  sing  the  marble  meadows  gathered   upon  the  mighty  walls  and  spreading   pavement…[There  is  stone]  from  the  green   flanks  of  Carystus  [and[  the  speckled  Phrygian   stone,  some3mes  rosy  mixed  with  white,   some3mes  gleaming  with  purple  and  silver   flowers.    There  is  a  wealth  of  porphyry  stone,   too,  besprinkled  with  li`le  bright  stars….You   may  see  the  bright  green  stone  of  Laconia  and   gli`ering  marble  with  wavy  veins  found  the   deep  gullies  of  the  Iasian  peaks,  exhibi3ng   slan3ng  streaks  of  blood-­‐red  and  livid  white;   the  pale  yellow  with  swirling  red  from  the   Lydian  headland;  the  gli`ering  crocus-­‐like   golden  stone  [of  Libya];….gli`ering  [Cel3c]   black  [with]  here  and  there  abundance  of  milk;   the  pale  onyx  with  glint  of  precious  metal;  and   [Thessalian  marble]  in  parts  vivid  green  not   unlike  emerald….It  has  spots  resembling  snow   next  to  flashes  of  black  so  that  in  one  stone   various  beau3es  mingle.”  
  98. Men   Women   Clergy   7-19, Anthemius of Tralles

    and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. Men   Women   “No  ma`er  how  much  the  concentrate  their   a`en3on  on  this  and  that,  and  examine   everything  with  contracted  eyebrows,  they   are  unable  to  understand  the  craksmanship   and  always  depart  from  there  amazed  by  the   perplexing  spectacle.”  
  99. 7-20, Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547.

    7-20, Plan of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c.520-547. Central   Domed   Area   Narthex  
  100. Interior of San Vitale, as seen from apse, Ravenna, Italy,

    c.520-547. Plan  
  101. Interior of San Vitale, as seen towards apse. Ravenna, Italy.

    c.520-547. (See 7-21)
  102. Restored  View  of  the  third  abbey  church  (Cluny  III),  Cluny,

      France,  1088-­‐1130  (See  15-­‐7  and  15-­‐8).  
  103. Throne Altar Dome Christ Interior  of  the  Palace  Chapel  of

     Charlemagne.    Aachen,   792-­‐805  (See  14-­‐13).  
  104. 14-­‐13,  Interior  of  the  Palace  Chapel  of   Charlemagne,  Aachen,

     792-­‐805.   Throne Restored  plan  of  the  Palace  Chapel  of   Charlemagne,  Aachen,  792-­‐805.       Entrance   Throne   Altar        (1st   floor)   Christ     (dome)  
  105. Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,

     France,  1140-­‐1144   (See  16-­‐2  and  16-­‐3).   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of  St.   Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144  (See   16-­‐2  and  16-­‐3).  
  106. “Invisible  Art”   16-­‐13,  Rose  Window  and  Lancets,  North  Transept,

     Chartres  Cathedral,   France,  1230-­‐1235.  
  107. Church  of  Sainte-­‐Chapelle,  Paris,   1239-­‐1248  (See  508A).  

  108. 509B,  Upper  Chapel,  Church  of  Sainte-­‐ Chapelle,  Paris,  1239-­‐1248.  

  109. Upper  Chapel,  Church  of  Sainte-­‐Chapelle,   Paris,  1239-­‐1248  (See  509B).