Slide IDs (10) Ar#st/Architect Title Culture/Stylis#c Period Cultural Signiﬁcance Sec3on II: Chronology (3) Place Slides in Proper Chronological Order. Sec3on III: Essays (2) Study your major themes Good to Know… Exam Date: Tuesday May 14th, 2013 from 8:00-‐10:00. The Final is worth 30% of your ﬁnal grade. Full study guide is on Blackboard under “Study Guides and Handouts” Second Chance: Your late Image and Text assignments are due TODAY Second Chance: Your Image and Text redos are due Tuesday May 14th.
Anxiety, Tension, milennium (1000 CE), power, • Gothic: looser, less anxious, Mary (the Virgin), kindness, love, peace, comfort, motherly love, closer more in3mate rela3onship with God, a personal rela3onship, warmer climate, more food, more surplus, ﬁnancial success, Images • Romanesque: cramped space, heaven/hell, apocalypse (last judgment), – Ste. Foy at Conques – Ste. Madeleine at Vezeley – St. Lazare at Autun • Gothic: Personal devo3on, smoother mo3on, more space in sculpture, more order, symmetry, heaven on earth, rich materials, strong ver3cals, light (= goodness), stained glass windows (requiring bu`resses), • Notre Dame de Paris, • Notre Dame de • St. Denis
Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23) 15-23, Trumeau, South Portal, Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115
Pb Sn Sn Venice Verona Assisi Rome Vienna Buda Innsbruck Prague Geneva Paris Rouen Arras Reims Espalato Durazzo Zara Trieste Belgrade Alexandria Damietta Famagusta Antioch Constantinople Smyrna Candia Kaffa Trebizond Moncastro Kiliya Syracuse Tripoli Messina Palermo Tunis Algiers Granada Palma Cádiz Córdoba Seville Melilla Lisbon Southampton London Hull Mainz Worms Hamburg Bremen Cracow Breslau Danzig Kiev Novgorod Christiania Bergen Stockholm Nuremburg Lübeck Edinburgh Bruges Genoa Siena Marseille Cagliari Lyon Dijon Poitiers Aigues- Mortes Valencia Barcelona León Milan Tripoli Beirut Acre Jaffa Loire Ebro Tagus Danube Dneiper Rhine Elbe Seine L A N T I C C E A N N O R T H S E A BA L T I C S E A B L A C K S E A M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A PYRENEES CARPATHIAN MTS A L P S CYPRUS CORSICA CRETE SARDINIA SICILY BALEARIC IS F R I C A E G Y P T 0 0 300 miles 400 kms raw materials: gold silver iron copper lead tin ivory timber wax gems silk spices hides wool linen furs Cu Pb Sn 2 Trade and Transmission Venetian trade routes Genoese trade routes Hanseatic League trade routes major inland trade routes route of Fourth Crusade, 1202-04 Fifth Crusade, 1217-21 Seventh Crusade, 1248-54 Eighth Crusade, 1270 artistic influence from Paris artistic influence from Constantinople imported goods Louis’ Procession
Ideas: • Syncre3sm: Orb, Angel/Nike, Wreath, Architecture, Toga, Oratory Gesture, halo, • Spolia: spoils – harves3ng of architecture Images: • Michael • Equestrian Statues – Jus3nian, Charles the Bald (Holy Roman Emperor), – Ravenna: columns to the Palace chapel of Charlemagne
century CE. “At the summit of the column stands a huge bronze hors turned towards the east, a most noteworthy sight….Upon this horse is mounted a bronze image of the Emperor like a colossus….He wears a cuirass in heroic fashion and his head is covered with a helmet…and a kind radiance ﬂashes forth from there….He gazes towards the rising sun, steering his course, I suppose, against the Persians. In his lek hand he holds a globe, by which the sculptor has signiﬁed that the whole earth and sea were subject to him, yet he carries neither sword no spear nor any other weapon, but a cross surmounts his globe, by virtue of which alone he has won the kingship and victory in war. Stretching forth his right hand towards the regions of the East and spreading out his ﬁngers, he commands the barbarians that dwell there to remain at home and not to advance any further.”
the “graven images” men3oned in the second commandment: “4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:5 thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.” (Exodus 20: 4-‐5) 2) Icons are man made, as opposed to relic, and do not deserve to be venerated: “The divine nature is completely uncircumscribable and cannot be depicted or represented by ar,sts in any medium whatsoever.” (Iconoclas,c Council, 754)
width, sumptuous decora3on and ﬁnely executed pictures, which divert the a`en3on of those who are praying.” – Bernard of Clairvaux, Apologia. 15-‐9, Nave, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-‐1147. 15-‐8, Nave, Monastery at Cluny, France, 1088-‐1130.
that marvelous and deformed comeliness, that comely deformity?...So many and so marvelous are the varie3es of divers shapes on every hand that we are more tempted to read in the marble than in our books, and spend the whole day in wondering at these things than in medita3ng upon the law of God. For God’s sake, if men are not ashamed of these follies, why at least do they not shrink from the expense?” –Bernard of Clairvaux Historiated Capital with Lions’ Heads, Cloister, Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115.
tools: “An image is, aSer all, a reminder; it is to the illiterate what a book is to the literate, and what the word is to hearing, the image is to sight.” (John of Damascus) 2) Icons are a valuable proxy by which the faithful could demonstrate their love and honor for the divine: “God created man to his own image” (Genesis 1:27) 3) Icons are a valid way to communicate Christ’s humanity and suﬀering: “How, indeed, can the Son of God be acknowledged to have been a man like us —he who was deigned to be called our brother—if he cannot be depicted?”
him away from external cares…dwelling in some strange region of the universe which neither exists en3rely in the slime of the earth nor en3rely in the purity of heaven… transported from this inferior to that higher world.” “We profess that we must do homage through the outward ornaments of sacred vessels, and to nothing in the world in an equal degree to the service of the Holy Sacriﬁce, with all inner purity and with all outward splendor.” Abbot Suger, Jesse Window, St. Denis, c. 13th century (See 16-‐2 and 16-‐3).
is won with such skill that it may be mul3plied. It is expended so that it may be increased, and pouring it out produces abundance. The Reason is that the very sight of these costly but wonderful illusions inﬂames the men more to give than to pray.” “To me [golden images] somehow represent the ancient rite of the Jews… Or is it that since we have been mingled with the gen3les, perhaps we have also adopted their ways and even serve their idols.” “O vanity of vani3es, but no more vain than insane! The Church is radiant in its walls and des3tute in its poor. It dresses its stones in gold and it abandons its children naked. It serves the eyes of the rich at the expense of the poor. The curious ﬁnd that which may delight them, but those in need do not ﬁnd that which should sustain them.”
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. “gilded tesserae from which a gli`ering stream of golden rays pours abundantly and strikes men’s eyes with irresis3ble force. It is as if one were gazing at the midday sun in spring.” “Light comes from the Good and …light is the visual image of God.”
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. Who…shall sing the marble meadows gathered upon the mighty walls and spreading pavement…[There is stone] from the green ﬂanks of Carystus [and[ the speckled Phrygian stone, some3mes rosy mixed with white, some3mes gleaming with purple and silver ﬂowers. There is a wealth of porphyry stone, too, besprinkled with li`le bright stars….You may see the bright green stone of Laconia and gli`ering marble with wavy veins found the deep gullies of the Iasian peaks, exhibi3ng slan3ng streaks of blood-‐red and livid white; the pale yellow with swirling red from the Lydian headland; the gli`ering crocus-‐like golden stone [of Libya];….gli`ering [Cel3c] black [with] here and there abundance of milk; the pale onyx with glint of precious metal; and [Thessalian marble] in parts vivid green not unlike emerald….It has spots resembling snow next to ﬂashes of black so that in one stone various beau3es mingle.”
and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. Men Women “No ma`er how much the concentrate their a`en3on on this and that, and examine everything with contracted eyebrows, they are unable to understand the craksmanship and always depart from there amazed by the perplexing spectacle.”