academic documents – search engines, digital libraries, e-journals, e-prints, etc. • Need support for analysing academic domains to determine (e.g.) – Who are the experts? – What are the canonical papers? – What is the leading edge?
academic domains Minimal commitment to start with • References upper-level constructivist Descriptions and Situations (cDnS) ontology Motivated by view of academic domains as settings for collective construction of knowledge
/ Sign-vehicle • Needs physical realisation One IO can have multiple realisations • Status of different modes of expression? Is orally-delivered speech the same expression as written speech but just different realisation? Or are they two different expressions?
cf. Plot expressed by novel • Propositional content expressed by clauses and sentences • Non-propositional content expressed by questions (interrogative sentences) But have seen elsewhere questions characterised as propositional
other entities • Constitution article defines President classifies Barack Obama • President classifies (at different times) Bill Clinton and George Bush • Congressman classifies a number of persons at same time
academic domain • Defined and used by theories • But what is status of phlogiston as a concept? Defined by a defunct scientific theory Still part of the lexicon But is it part of the conceptual system?
an Information Object differently thus conceiving different descriptions • Different descriptions can be contradictory (though ostensibly from the same Information Object) cdns:SocialAgent sdo:Person sdo:Organisation
• Emerges out of its member entities (but member entities retain own identity) • Different from mathematical sets Members can change or be substituted without affecting identity of collection No empty or singleton collections
debate in academic domains • Use of cDnS as an upper-level framework for ensuring design captured essential elements of aspect of reality dealing with collective construction of knowledge Does it buy be anything else?