Slides presented at the ONTOCHAIN Summit for Trustworthy Internet by Vlado Stankovski, ONTOCHAIN technical coordinator & Professor of Computer Science at University of Ljubljana
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Berlin, ONTOCHAIN Summit
Moderator: Vlado Stankovski
University of Ljubljana
SLIDO: QUESTIONS FOR THE AUDIENCE
Questions will run online during the roundtable discussion
1 What is the highest concern that you have about the (un)trustworthy
2 Which type of application scenarios should we prioritise?
3 What real-world data properties can be discovered by means of consensus
4 What are the main technologies that a trustworthy internet should
Stimulating thoughts from..
Rapolas Lakavičius, European Commission
Ioannis Vlachos, EU Blockchain Observatory & Forum
Ignacio Alamillo-Domingo, Astrea La Infopista Jurídica
António Damasceno, Next Generation Internet TruBlo
Can we imagine semantically complex, dynamic,
trust-critical data/application ecosystems?
The worker observed in the video:
• Is he wearing a helmet?
• Which colour is the helmet?
• Should he be warned?
• Does he wear a safety vest?
• Is he a company employee?
• Is he happy?
• Was he at work yesterday?
• With whom is he conversating?
IS OUR INTERNET TRUSTWORTHY?
NAME SOME OF THE PROBLEMS!
In real-life scenarios of humans interacting with the internet, different problems
have been detected, such as:
• the centralization of power i.e., information and knowledge being in the
hands of just a few actors,
• the unknown provenance of information, e.g., fake news,
• anonymity in favor of criminal activity,
• personal privacy violations and personal data exploitation, e.g., the
Cambridge Analytica scandal,
• biases in AI algorithms, e.g., under-representation of certain social groups in
training data can make AI algorithms discriminate against those social
• no fair rewards for quality contributions, e.g., the provision of credible
• and more threats to the fundamental rights of users.
WHAT MAKES THE SEMANTIC WEB TRUSTWORTHY?
• The Semantic Web is a vision about an extension of the existing
World Wide Web, which provides software programs with machine-
interpretable metadata of the published information and data.
• In other words, we add further data descriptors to otherwise existing
content and data on the Web.
• A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to store complex
structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.
The initial use of the term was in connection with expert systems,
which were the first knowledge-based systems.
• Resource Description Framework (RDF), Web Ontology Language
(OWL) are W3C recommendations
HOW ONTOLOGIES CAN BE USED TO SUPPORT
• Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies
concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and
reality. It includes the questions of how entities are
grouped into basic categories and which of these
entities exist on the most fundamental level.
• Aristotle’s ontology is the philosophical study of
being in general, or of what applies neutrally to
everything that is real.
• Plato's ontology is the theory of forms that are
discovered by the exercise of reason.
• Gruber’s ontology is an “explicit specification of a
• Borst’s definition is a formal specification of a
• W3C’s Semantic Web activity notably with RDF
and the OWL2 Language species.
BLOCKCHAINS & THE SEMANTIC WEB: ARE THEY AT
A MEETING POINT?
Blockchains & Semantic Web are all about building
▪ Blockchain is a shared ledger
▪ Ontology is a shared conceptualisation (W3C Semantic
Looking for a potentially new:
▪ Ontologies and use of metadata with Blockchains
▪ Consensus protocols, application-level proofs
▪ Scalability mechanisms (e.g. using sidechains)
▪ Reputation and reasoning mechanisms
Focus on advanced application scenarios:
▪ Semantic marketplace
▪ Part tracking, supply chains
▪ IPR/copyright management
▪ Also see: European Blockchain Services Infrastructure
WHAT ADVANCED DATA PROPERTIES CAN BE
ACHIEVED BY USING SEMANTIC BLOCKCHAINS?
Addressing needs of:
• Semantically complex, dynamic,
Fostering diversity, plurality and
Human-rights, security and privacy
WHAT SHOULD BE THE MAJOR FOCUS POINTS FOR
• The Self-Sovereign Digital Identity
• Decentralised Identities (DID
methods) and Verifiable
Credentials (VCs) of W3C
• Semantic interoperability
integration across multiple
• On-chain data management
• Off-chain knowledge management
Smart Oracles, Internet of
• Decentralised knowledge graphs
• Ontology space: ONTOSPACE
• Ecosystem economy: tokenomics
FT, SFT, NFT
• Ecosystem scalability & integration
• Other supporting technologies
IS THERE A GAP BETWEEN BLOCKCHAINS AND
FUTURE SMART APPLICATIONS?
AND GET INVOLVED!
Thank You for