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Presentation Fukushima

December 04, 2012

Presentation Fukushima

Fukushima, Nuclear incident, Damages, Compensation, Japan, Comparative Law


December 04, 2012

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  1. Mass Tort in Japanese Nuclear Incidents East China University of

    Political Science and Law Shanghai November 28, 2012 Andrea Ortolani, PhD Centre for Comparative and Transnational Law – Torino The University of Tokyo 1 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  2. Outline 1. The facts of March 2011 2. Nuclear damage

    compensation in Japan 3. The incident at JCO 4. The incident at Fukushima-1 5. Current state of compensation 6. Lessons learned (?) 2 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  3. Radioactive materials escaped from cores Contamination of air (I-131, Cs-134,

    Cs-137, other) Direct contamination of sea water Indirect contamination of sea water (fallout, rivers, etc) Contamination of: Agricultural lands, rivers and sea Urban waste, sewage and sewage sludge Environment Fukushima Daiichi The Facts 6 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  4. Nuclear Damage Compensation National Legal Framework Act on Compensation for

    Nuclear Damage (Act 147/1961) - Purpose - Strict liability (with exception) - Channelled liability - Liability not limited (but...) - Mandatory insurance - Possibility of additional Governmental support - Dispute Reconciliation Committee 8 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  5. Nuclear Damage Compensation International Legal Framework General principles - Sources

    of law, content, judicial precedents Treaties: Paris and Vienna (with amendments) - strict liability (with exceptions) - channelled liability - mandatory insurance; - maximum liability cap - time limitations - jurisdiction 9 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  6. The incident at JCO Tokaimura The Facts Uncontrolled chain reaction

    Irradiation of workers at the plant (2 workers died) Limited irradiation of air and areas around the plant Several precautionary measures of Mayor and Prefecture 11 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  7. The incident at JCO Tokaimura Liabilities Civil liability Guidelines of

    Nuclear Damage Dispute Reconciliation Committee - Most claims solved through mediation - Some claims went to court Criminal liability Criminal charges against JCO, executives and surviving worker All defendants guilty - light sentences 12 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  8. The incident at JCO Tokaimura Liabilities Civil liability Guidelines of

    Nuclear Damage Dispute Reconciliation Committee - Personal injuries - Medical examination expenses - Evacuation expenses - Examination expenses for property - Loss of value for contaminated property - Loss of income - Business damage (actual damage and damage for rumour) - Mental suffering (in principle, only when recognized) 98% of claims compensated in a year 15.4 billion yen paid out in compensation 13 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  9. The incident at JCO Tokaimura Civil suits & Lessons learned

    Civil suits “Successful” claimants: compensation won in Court is less than what granted on the basis of guidelines Unsuccessful claimants: failure to prove damages Lessons learned Very low financial security (compensation 15x insured sum) Litigation control through mediation 14 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  10. Compensation for Fukushima-1 Legal Issues Liability of TEPCO “A grave

    natural disaster of an exceptional character”? Jurisdiction Fukushima City, Tokyo Causation Vague standards (to be evaluated in practice) State Liability - For surveillance through NISA? - For emergency response? 16 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  11. ݪࢠྗଛ֐ഛঈฆ૪৹ࠪձ Decree 99/2011 Pres. Yoshihisa Nomi (Gakushuin Univ.) ✴ Guidelines

    Provisional guidelines 4/28, 5/31 Interim guidelines 8/5 + 12/6, 3/16 economic damages + non-economic ✴ Guidelines March 16, 2012: - ¥ 6.000.000 for areas contaminated 5+years - 100% compensation for land and real estate. - Other zones: compensation according to evacuation time Compensation for Fukushima-1 Current Situation 17 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  12. Compensation for Fukushima-1 Compensation Guidelines 1) Damages caused by governmental

    order to evacuate; 2) Damages caused by governmental designation of the sea and sky hazard zone; 3) Damages caused by governmental request to restrict shipment of agricultural and sea products; 4) Damage caused by other governmental orders; 5) Reputation damage (the so-called “fuhyo higai”); 6) Indirect damage (including business damage and lost income); 7) Damage caused by exposure to radiation; 8) Coordination between donations to victims; property damage suffered by local governments. 18 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  13. Claim Preparation of documents Filing the claim Accepting the claim

    Mediation Mediation offer Center does not accept Center does not accept Total or partial agreement Total or partial disagreement Total or partial disagreement Mediation contract Court Procedure restarts Compensation for Fukushima-1 Dispute Settlement Center 19 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  14. ݪࢠྗଛ֐ഛঈࢧԉػߏ Established on September 12, 2011 Ex. Director: Takehiko Sugiyama

    ✴ Capital: ¥14 billion Government 50% + 12 EPCO 50% ✴ Aim: obtaining funds to pay the compensation Bonds issued for 5,000 billion ✴ http://www.ndf.go.jp/index.html Compensation for Fukushima-1 Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Fund 20 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  15. Compensation claims - Ordinary procedure: Deterrents (mandatory conciliation?) JCO precedents:

    no gains for plaintiffs Derivative suit of shareholders - Biggest legal suit in Japanese history Lessons Learned (?) Japanese Aversion to Litigation? 22 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  16. The role of the Bar Associations - Active voice in

    public debate - Free legal assistance for compensation claims - National network for suits against nuclear plants Lessons Learned (?) Japanese Aversion to Litigation? 23 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  17. ่ࡺมᅹНћрే࡝ଢ଼ᆊнжЖи! ̻ࡼићณ୞эѿಶџ̻Ȼ މᄻѢоଚ७џ๪࢜ใᆛпѽ८તᆛടޔ༟஌џ࠘эѿ౩ࡿ୿ᆬрຫињиѿќ઩иѲэ̝ ᆘѶ ണу̞࿷੺ў຾ᄴћ̞ќѲѝїњиѽїыѷѿၑ̞ѝкыњѼип҃пѽўиќикၑѶണи ќ၇ທщҀњиѲэ̝! ໘ႎုদઠᇌ৽ݵћѣ̞྇ޔ଄Ѣމᄻџౝ๴пјสౝўग़ᅦ৪ચ҆ыњиѓєхѿѼк̞݀ࡋ Ѣ฾џදڝыњиѓєс̞ုদઠ๷ಔჷ݌ѢҔһӂҖҫѸஃᆛ҆ຜњၑక҆ूѵѿўѝ̞௿୓ ўഴܤ҆щҀѿѼкџॾѧпхњиѲэ̝ ่ࡺมᅹНћрే࡝ଢ଼ᆊѤ࡚Жй଼ЧмЖкसᅄѤૈеиЩѐИ

    кЖИХксДќѐЭѥ! ! ༳൧с௝଱н! ่ࡺมᅹр೽ݲ໽୪ࠎୌнࠩਮЧўиЖмЖХкнжЖиє໽୪ ѤଃУћўѝܦ໕ళОДќѐЫ! ! ่ࡺมᅹр೽ݲ໽୪ࠎୌ̹৥О෨ѓб໽୪ࠎୌйсДќѐЭѥ̂! Жебѥ่ࡺมᅹнే࡝ଢ଼Ѥ଼Щиє˼ഀр೽ݲѤే࡝Ыѝसᅄ ОмСмѝєрйсДќѐЭѥ! ! ౲ვܪн೎൬Ѥ! ่ࡺมᅹнే࡝ଢ଼Ѥ଼Ыٰݰнє೽ݲ໽୪ే࡝рုေОДќѐЫ ৥Оौંᅹ೽ݲ໽୪࿨ೌݔठҋӃҏ̔кЖИࠝ߶Ѥ౥൶Щ˼঎఻˾ආᅓмᅓஶрඇݒٷ ڝО่ࡺมᅹкཥݲૢрߴнຸќ˼ᇊݔрඇݒѤৈИкЖИయีО༥೯ЩиЖѐЫ! ဍ঄੾О೎൬ݓ ѤৈеиЖѐЫș ཎᏊຊⓎ㟁ᡤ஦ᨾࡢᦆᐖ㈺ൾࡣ㸪 ⿕ᐖ⪅ࡢ ⓙᵝࡀ⮬ࡽุ᩿ࡍࡿ࡟ࡣ㞴ࡋ࠸ၥ㢟ࡶྵ ࡲࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍࠋ ࡑࡇ࡛඲ᅜྛᆅࡢᘚㆤኈ఍ ࡛ࡣ㸪㟈⅏↓ᩱἲᚊ┦ㄯࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍࠋ ࡲࡓ㸪ཎⓎ㈺ൾㄝ᫂఍࣭┦ㄯ఍ࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ ࡿᆅᇦࡶ࠶ࡾࡲࡍࠋ ㄝ᫂఍ࡸ┦ㄯ఍ࡣཎ๎ ↓ᩱ࡛ࡍࠋᑡࡋ࡛ࡶ␲ၥ㸪୙Ᏻ࡞Ⅼࡀ࠶ࡗ ࡓࡽ㸪 ࡲࡎᘚㆤኈ࡟ࡼࡿㄝ᫂ࡸ┦ㄯࢆཷࡅ ࡚࠿ࡽ㸪 ᮾி㟁ຊ࡟ᑐࡍࡿᦆᐖ㈺ൾࡢ᪉ἲ ࢆỴࡵࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ࠾່ࡵࡋࡲࡍ 㸦࠾㏆ࡃࡢ┦ ㄯඛ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ⿬㠃ࢆᚚぴࡃࡔࡉ࠸ࠋ 㸧 ࠋ ࠾ၥ࠸ྜࢃࡏ ᪥ᮏᘚㆤኈ㐃ྜ఍㸸ᮾ᪥ᮏ኱㟈⅏࣭ཎᏊຊⓎ㟁ᡤ஦ᨾᑐ⟇ᮏ㒊஦ົᒁ  TEL㸸03-3580-9956㸭FAX㸸03-3580-9957 MAIL㸸[email protected] URL㸸http://www.nichibenren.or.jp/activity/human/higashinihon_daishinsai.html As for the claims to TEPCO Before sending them out - Guidelines may differ - Do not hurry in sending claims - We can assist you free of charge Lessons Learned (?) Japanese Aversion to Litigation? 24 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  18. Lessons Learned (?) Need of Framework for Disaster Response Problems

    of disaster preparedness 1. No comprehensive, realistic plan at governmental/local level 2. Lack of training 3. Excessive reliance on the Self-Defence Force 4. Lack of a framework for communication among public authorities and between authorities and volunteers/NPO Recommendations 1. A comprehensive “all-hazard” planning 2. Improvement of training 26 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  19. Lessons Learned (?) New Framework for Compensation Hard problems to

    solve 1. Unprecedented damages Huge compensation with substantial burden for the economy of the Country 2. Long-lasting damages: problem of evaluation 3. Problem of assessing the causal connection 27 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  20. Lessons Learned (?) Dangers of Moral Hazard 1. Misalignment of

    incentives: “Nuclear village” vs. others 2. Chernobyl precedent: “Polluter gets paid” principle? 28 sabato 1 dicembre 2012
  21. Thank You ! @ortospace il diritto cʼè, ma non si

    vede http://dirittogiapponese.wordpress.com/ search: “diritto giapponese blog” [email protected] 29 sabato 1 dicembre 2012