initial frame is obtained via interaction; E(α) = ∑ vi∈V U(αi , zi ) + ∑ vi∈V ∑ vj ∈N(vi) V (zi , zj )ϕ[αi ̸= αj ] Markovian property implies that we can estimate MRF energy of the current frame via MRF energy of the previous frame. Given a spatio-temporal distance function, linear estimation is possible via; Ut(αt i , zt i ) = 1 γt i ∑ vt−1 j ∈Vt−1 Ut−1(αt−1 j , zt−1 j )e−dis(zt i ,zt−1 j ) V t(zt i , zt j ) = 1 γt ij ∑ vk∈Vt−1 ∑ vl∈N e−dis(zt i ,zt−1 k )e−dis(zt j ,zt−1 l )V t−1(zt−1 k , zt−1 l ) Interactive Video Segmentation 25/41