The Internet of Things: A survey

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December 09, 2014

The Internet of Things: A survey

"a world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols"
- semantic meaning
"from anytime, anyplace connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything"
- ITU
"a world where things can automatically communicate to computers and each other providing services to the benefit of the human kind"
- CASAGRAS

577eea1853e8be2e133085491588026f?s=128

saracubillas

December 09, 2014
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  1. The Internet of Things: A survey Luigi Atzori, Antonio Iera,

    Giacomo Morabito Davis Jaunzems Sara Rodriguez Cubillas
  2. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 2 Computer Networks (MIRI) Internet of Things "a world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols" - semantic meaning "from anytime, anyplace connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything" - ITU "a world where things can automatically communicate to computers and each other providing services to the benefit of the human kind" - CASAGRAS
  3. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 3 Computer Networks (MIRI) Internet of Things "a world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols" - semantic meaning "from anytime, anyplace connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything" - ITU "a world where things can automatically communicate to computers and each other providing services to the benefit of the human kind" - CASAGRAS
  4. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 4 Computer Networks (MIRI) Convergence of different visions
  5. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 5 Computer Networks (MIRI) RFID 101 Image taken from http://122.182.4.125/infiniumwebsite/images/ContentImages/RFID/SolRFIDHowItWorks.jpg
  6. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 6 Computer Networks (MIRI) SOA-based architecture Middleware - software layer between the technological and the application levels. SOA principles allows for decomposing complex systems into applications consisting of simpler and well-defined components.
  7. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 7 Computer Networks (MIRI) SOA-based architecture Applications - top of the SOA, exporting all the systems functionalities to the final user. Through web service protocols and composition technologies, applications can realize integration between distributed systems and other applications.
  8. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 8 Computer Networks (MIRI) SOA-based architecture Service composition - functionalities for the composition of single services offered by networked objects to build specific applications. No devices only services. The logic behind service creation and management can be expressed in terms of workflows – BPEL, WSDL.
  9. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 9 Computer Networks (MIRI) SOA-based architecture Service management - provides the main functions that are expected to be available for each object: dynamic discovery, status monitoring, service configuration, etc. Service repository knows which services are associated to each object in the network.
  10. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 10 Computer Networks (MIRI) SOA-based architecture Object abstraction – provides abstraction layer capable of harmonizing acces to vast and heterogeneous set of objects, each providing specific functions accessible through its own dialect.
  11. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 11 Computer Networks (MIRI) Other middleware solutions  Fosstrak – focuses on the management of RFID related applications.  e-SENSE - focuses on issues related to capturing ambient intelligence through wireless sensor networks. Layers – application, management, middleware and connectivity.  UbiSec&Sens - architecture for mediumand large scale wireless sensor networks, with a particular attention to the security issues. Middleware focuses on long-term logging.
  12. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 12 Computer Networks (MIRI) Discussion What else architectures could we use/implement in IoT?
  13. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 13 Computer Networks (MIRI) Discussion IBM Adept – Inspired by block chain technology, transaction processing engine behind the Bitcoin crypto-currency.  Block chain - data are stored in a variety of different places while its tracking the relationship between different parties to that data.  Telehash - private messaging protocol, simple and secure end-to-end encryption, SSL+PGP to create private mesh.  BitTorrent – uses file sharing protocol to move all the data around, because not everything has a robust connection to each other.
  14. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 14 Computer Networks (MIRI) Applications
  15. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 15 Computer Networks (MIRI) Transportation and logistics  RFID and NFC can realize real-time logistics monitoring  Sensors may provide better navigation and safety  Perishable good – fruit, meat, dairy products, monitoring and quality control
  16. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 16 Computer Networks (MIRI) Healthcare  Patient-flow monitoring to improve workflow  Inventory location tracking  Patient identification and remote patient monitoring
  17. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 17 Computer Networks (MIRI) Smart environments  Sensors used to adapt rooms heating to weather and our preferences  RFID tags associated to production parts for autonomous manufacturing  Health parameter tracking for gym trainees
  18. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 18 Computer Networks (MIRI) Personal and social  Finding objects that we don’t remember where they have been left  Object theft detection when they move specific area  Automatic update of information about our social activities
  19. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 19 Computer Networks (MIRI) Futuristic  Robot taxis swarm  CIM for monitoring status and performance of each buildings and urban fabric  Augmented, sensor based games
  20. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 20 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues 1. Standardization activities that are being carried out on different IoT-related technologies 2. The most important research issues that need to be addressed:  addressing and networking issues  security and privacy
  21. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 21 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: standartization activity RFID technology standardization is focusing in:  RFID frequency and readers-tags  communications protocols EPCGlobal aims for a unique identifier(EPC) Informal working group on the implementation of the RFID: it is composed of stakeholders(industry, operators, European standard organization civil society organizations, data protection authorities...)
  22. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 22 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: standartization activity ETSI M2M committee goals:  The development and the maintenance of an end-to-end architecture for M2M (with end-to-end IP philosophy behind it)  Strengthening the standardization efforts on M2M including:  sensor network integration  naming  addressing  location  QoS  security  charging  management  application  hardware interfaces
  23. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 23 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: standartization activity 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) is defining a set of protocols that can be used to integrate sensor nodes into IPv6 networks ROLL (Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks) : RPL (ripple) a routing protocol draft, that will be the basis for routing over low power and lossy networks
  24. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 24 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: addressing and networking issues 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) Solutions are required for enabling the addressing of RFID tags into IPV6 networks. IPv6 addresses 128 bits, RFID tags use 64-96 bit identifiers. Two different approaches, but in both of them Mobility is supported1. Domain Name Servers objective is to provide the IP address of a host, in IoT communications occurs between or with objects instead of host → Object Name Service (ONS) ONS: 1. http://ipv6.com/articles/applications/Using-RFID-and-IPv6.htm Reference to a description of the specific object RFID tag identifier mapped with URL
  25. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 25 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: addressing and networking issues TCP is inadequate for the IoT:  Connection setup:  Congestion control:  Data buffering: requires data to be stored at the source and at the destination too costly to manage in terms of required energy for battery-less devices each session begin with a connection setup procedure (three ways handshake) setup phase would last for a considerable portion of the session time and it need to be processed TCP is responsible of performing end-to-end congestion control data to be exchange is small, the whole TCP session will be concluded with the transmission of the first segment and the ack
  26. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 26 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: addressing and networking issues Traffic characterization an QoS: large amount of data generated by sensor networks deployed for heterogeneous purposes, extremely different traffic characteristics characterization of the traffic is very important as it is necessary to network providers for planning the expansion fo their infrastructures
  27. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 27 Computer Networks (MIRI) Discussion Will the current internet architecture be able to support IoT?
  28. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 28 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: security and privacy "People will resist the IoT as long as there is no public confidence that it will not cause serious threats to privacy."
  29. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 29 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: security Vulnerable to attacks for several reasons:  Physically attack to the components  Eavesdropping simple because the communication are wireless  Components with low energy and computing resources→cannot implement complex schemes supporting security Authentication and data integrity - cannot exchange too many messages with the authentication servers Proxy attack- man in the middle attack: two transceivers
  30. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 30 Computer Networks (MIRI) Open issues: security EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 and ISO/IEC 18000–3 tags protect both read and write operations on their memory with a password. To protect against eavesdropping (wireless)Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) scheme All the solutions proposed to support security use some cryptographic methodologies The password length is too short to provide strong levels of protections. Password management remains a challenging task, especially when entities belonging to different organizations, as in the case of the IoT, are involved. Cryptographic algorithms spend large amount of resources in terms of energy and bandwidth
  31. Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Autumn 2014 (Fall

    Semester) 31 Computer Networks (MIRI) Discussion Is the idea of big brother becoming true?