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Frontend Architecture for Scalable Design Systems: Design4Drupal 2019

33b3008b7aa8f9d4ae7959bfa9d7c8cd?s=47 Salem
June 28, 2019

Frontend Architecture for Scalable Design Systems: Design4Drupal 2019

How do you build and manage a design system’s frontend architecture that is both scalable and maintainable?

The typical tools and techniques for approaching design systems often break down when trying to scale across multiple sites, integrate with dynamically injected content, or keep the system up to date. Many of these technical boobytraps aren't discovered till late in development, but can be avoided through progressively decoupled components.

This session is most appropriate for frontend developers & architects or teams building and maintaining a design system. You will learn:

- Why and how to decouple a design system from Pattern Lab and Drupal
- Preventing component fragmentation in Drupal through the use of web components
- Pattern Lab improvements and techniques to reduce rework and ease Twig-based component integration
- How distributing a design system via NPM (yes, NPM) can help teams overcome technical hurdles with Composer



June 28, 2019

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  1. Frontend Architecture for Scalable Design Systems Tweet me questions! @salem_ghoweri

    Slides: bit.ly/boltdesignsystem-d4d Design4Drupal 2019
  2. How to build a modern, 
 scalable design system? •

    Maintainable: make it easy to keep code + docs up to date • Flexible: lets developers pick & choose the components to install + update • Easy to Integrate: share Twig templates in Drupal, Symfony, & Pattern Lab • Framework Agnostic: works with Angular, Vue, React, static sites, etc
 … in 50 minutes or less.
  3. Salem Ghoweri • Twitter @salem_ghoweri • Lead Frontend Architect at

    Pegasystems (Cambridge, MA) • Building design systems, pattern libraries for over 4 years • Creator and lead developer of the Bolt Design System • Core contributor on the open source Pattern Lab projects (PHP and Node)
  4. None
  5. 3 years ago, the front-end code in our Drupal sites

    was a bit of a mess…
  6. …so we used tools like Pattern Lab to build our

    first Design System!
  7. We used all the best front-end tools & techniques… Tools

    Generic Elements Settings Objects Components Themes Utils ITCSS Webpack Atomic Design
  8. • Built Drupal-friendly Twig-based components in Pattern Lab • Documented

    our components via markdown + demos in Pattern Lab • Twig namespaces + Components module for tight Drupal integration • “Bleeding edge” approach of having the design system codebase as a separate repository outside of Drupal (pulled in via Composer) …and embraced the best practices for Drupal + PL integration
  9. Many of our Drupal sites used our first design system!

  10. And everything was perfect. The End.

  11. Actually… our first design system started having some problems. …major

    scalability problems
  12. …major scalability problems How do I use this component? 

    What are the different config options? What changed with this most recent release? Reorganizing Pattern Lab’s docs completely broke all these Twig templates in Drupal… Component
 Fragmentation Issues Shipping Code via Composer Fragile
 Integrations We had to recreate this component’s Twig template… forgot to tell you… and now your CSS updates broke Drupal. WHY IS DRUPAL HAVING TO INSTALL PATTERN LAB?! We couldn’t configure this in Drupal so we had to hack something together with some inline styles… We didn’t know that Twig template required that option… We need to build and ship a new component ASAP that looks like the design system… Poor Documentation
  13. The fragmentation got so bad… “We need half the pages

    in Drupal to use the old version of the design system (from a year ago)…
 …and the other half needs to use the latest version…” …our first design system was basically dead. ⚰
  14. A Scalable Design System Needs To Solve 2 Major Challenges

    1. Maintainability: how do you maintain, support, and improve the design system over time? ^ bug fixes, docs, testing coverage, refactors, enhancements, etc
 2. Fragmentation: how do you prevent the code that’s been shipped from falling apart over time? ^ easy to upgrade + hard to break + related code stays in sync
  15. So we rebuilt.

  16. 1. More maintainable docs & demos that stay up to

    date. 2. More flexible, more encapsulated, and more cross- platform-friendly components. 3. Make the design system’s code installable à la carte. 4. Make integrations as automated as possible. Bolt Design System Goals:
  17. Solution #1: 
 API-powered Docs

  18. Step 1: Structure your code to be export-friendly // packages/core/styles/…/_settings-colors.scss

    @import ' ../ ../02-tools/tools-data/tools-data.scss'; $bolt-brand-colors: ( indigo: ( xdark: hsl(233, 71%, 8%), dark: hsl(233, 47%, 16%), base: hsl(233, 47%, 23%), light: hsl(233, 33%, 49%), xlight: hsl(233, 73%, 81%), ), ); @include bolt-export-data('colors/brand.bolt.json', $bolt-brand-colors); { "indigo": { "xdark": "rgb(6, 9, 35)", "dark": "rgb(22, 26, 60)", "base": "rgb(31, 38, 86)", "light": "rgb(84, 93, 166)", "xlight": "rgb(171, 179, 242)" } } Step 2: Export data about your code
  19. // BoltCore.php — teach Twig about data in the design

    system function initRuntime(\Twig_Environment $env) { try { $fullManifestPath = TwigTools\Utils ::resolveTwigPath($env, '@bolt-data/full-manifest.bolt.json'); $dataDir = dirname($fullManifestPath); $this ->data = self ::buildBoltData($dataDir); } catch (\Exception $e) {} } /** * @param $dataDir {string} - Path to data directory * @return {array} - Json files parsed as a single array */ function buildBoltData($dataDir) { ...} // Expose data globally via Twig’s getGlobals API public function getGlobals() { return [ 'bolt' => [ 'data' => $this ->data, ], 'enable_json_schema_validation' => true, ]; } Step 3: Teach your design system to other systems (like Twig)
  20. {% for colorName, palette in bolt.data.colors.brand %} {% include "_color-swatch.twig"

    with { color_swatch: { colorName: colorName, palette: palette } } %} {% endfor %} Step 4: Use It!
  21. None
  22. Solution #2 
 Component Schemas $schema: 'http: //json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#' title: 'Bolt

    Button' description: 'Buttons are the core of our action components.' type: object required: - text properties: attributes: type: object description: A Drupal-style attributes object for adding extra HTML attributes. text: title: 'Button Text' description: 'The text displayed inside a button' type: string icon: type: object description: Nested icon component. Accepts an extra 'position' prop for placement. ref: '@bolt-components-icon/icon.schema.yml'
  23. • Describes your existing data format(s). • Provides clear human—and

    machine—readable documentation. • Validates data which is super helpful for: ◦ Automated testing ◦ Enforcing rules about the data passed into components ◦ Managing API changes over time What’s a schema? https://json-schema.org/
  24. Step 1: Write schemas # button.schema.yml $schema: 'http: //json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#' title:

    'Bolt Button' description: 'Buttons are the core of our action components.' type: object required: - text properties: attributes: type: object description: Drupal attributes object text: // package.json "schema": "button.schema.yml"
  25. // bolt-button/package.json "schema": "button.schema.yml" // www/build/data/full-manifest.bolt.json { "name": "@bolt/components-button", “basicName":

    "bolt-components-button", "dir": "/Users/ghows/sites/bolt-release/packages/components/bolt-button", "assets": { "style": "/Users/ghows/sites/bolt-release/packages/components/bolt-button/index.scss", "main": "/Users/ghows/sites/bolt-release/packages/components/bolt-button/index.js" }, "deps": ["@bolt/core"], "twigNamespace": “@bolt-components-button", "schema": { "$schema": "http: //json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#", "title": "Bolt Button", “description": "Buttons are the core of our action components.", "type": "object", "properties": { "attributes": { Step 2: Aggregate the data // bolt-link/package.json "schema": “link.schema.yml"
  26. <?php namespace Bolt\TwigExtensions; use BasaltInc\TwigTools; class BoltCore extends \Twig_Extension implements

    \Twig_Extension_InitRuntimeInterface { public function getFunctions() { return [ TwigTools\TwigFunctions ::get_data(), TwigTools\TwigFunctions ::validate_data_schema(), ], } } // composer.json "require": { "basaltinc/twig-tools": “^1.4.0", } Step 3: Teach other systems about these schemas (like Twig)! • Globally provide schema data • Import schema files directly • Validate data being passed in • Automatically add default data
  27. Step 3: Teach other systems about these schemas (or JavaScript)!

    import schema from ‘ ../link.schema.yml'; @define class BoltLink extends BoltAction { static is = 'bolt-link'; static props = { display: props.string, valign: props.string, url: props.string, target: props.string, isHeadline: props.boolean, }; constructor(self) { self = super(self); self.schema = schema; return self; } render() { // Validate the original prop data passed along // Returns back the validated data w/ defaults adde const { display, valign, url, target, isHeadline } this.validateProps( this.props, ); } • Globally provide schema data • Import schema files directly • Validate data being passed in • Automatically add default data
  28. {% set schema = bolt.data.components['@bolt-components-button'].schema %} {% for size in

    schema.properties.size.enum %} <p>Button Size Variation: {{ size }} </p> {% include "@bolt-components-button/button.twig" with { "size": size, "text": "Example " ~ size ~" Button" } %} {% endfor %} Pattern Lab demos Step 4: Use it to power everything!
  29. Component Documentation

  30. import { render } from '@bolt/twig-renderer'; const { readYamlFileSync }

    = require('@bolt/build-tools/utils/yaml'); const { join } = require('path'); const schema = readYamlFileSync(join( __dirname, ' ../button.schema.yml')); const { tag, size } = schema.properties; // test server-side rendering via Twig + rendering service size.enum.forEach(async sizeOption => { test(`button size: ${sizeOption}`, async () => { const renderedTwigTemplate = await render('@bolt-components-button/button.twig', { text: `${sizeOption} Button`, size: sizeOption, }); expect(renderedTwigTemplate.ok).toBe(true); expect(renderedTwigTemplate.html).toMatchSnapshot(); }); }); Schema-powered Jest tests
  31. Schema-powered component validation (CLI) $schema: 'http: //json-schema.org/draft-04/ schema#' title: 'Bolt

    Button' required: ✖ Failed to recompile Pattern Lab! Error with code 1 after running: php: “/Users/ghows/sites/bolt/packages/components/bolt-button/src/button.twig” had schema validation errors: `text` The property text is required {% include "@bolt-components-button/button.twig" with { iconOnly: true, icon: { name: "close" }
  32. Schema-powered component validation (in-browser)

  33. Schema-powered Component Explorer

  34. $schema: 'http: //json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#' title: 'Bolt Button' description: 'Buttons are the

    core of our action components.' type: object required: - text properties: attributes: type: object description: A Drupal-style attributes object for adding extra HTML attributes. text: title: 'Button Text' description: 'The text displayed inside a button' One Schema To Rule Them All! Component 
 Documentation Configuration 
 Defaults ✅ CLI + In-Browser 
 Validation Component Tests Component 
 Explorer Label Label Pattern Lab 
  35. Solution #3 
 Twig + Web Components <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html”> View

    The Components </bolt-button> ✨
  36. ❖ Web Components are a collection of low level APIs:

    • Custom Elements: defines the custom HTML tag used by the component (ex. <bolt-button>) • Shadow DOM: encapsulates the HTML and CSS inside a component • HTML Templates: reusable HTML templates • ES6 Modules: import & use components in other components ✤ Web Components bring native components to the web platform. ❖ Many great web component libraries & tools available: • Libraries & Tools: Lit-HTML, SkateJS, Lit-Element, StencilJS • Frameworks: Polymer 3, Ionic Framework, Angular, Preact, React, Vue.js, Svelte… Web Components:
 Components That Work Everywhere!
  37. Cross-browser support?
 It’s quite good + polyfills exist for older

    browsers! https://www.webcomponents.org/
  38. import { define, BoltBase, html } from ‘@bolt/core’; import classNames

    from 'classnames/bind'; import styles from ‘./button.scss'; const cx = classNames.bind(styles); class BoltButton extends BoltBase { static props = { url: props.string, size: props.string, color: props.string, }; render() { const classes = cx('c-bolt-button', { 'c-bolt-button --medium': !this.props.size, [`c-bolt-button --${this.props.size}`]: this.props.size, 'c-bolt-button --primary': !this.props.color, [`c-bolt-button --${this.props.color}`]: this.props.color, }); return html` ${this.addStyles([styles])} <a href=“${this.props.url}” class=“${classes}”> ${this.slot(‘default')} </a> `; } customElements.define('bolt-button', BoltButton); <html> <body> <bolt-button url=“https: // boltdesignsystem.com"> View The Docs </bolt-button> <script src="/build/bolt-global.js" async> </script> </body> </html>
  39. {% include "@bolt-components-button/button.twig" with { text: "View The Components", url:

    "/pattern-lab/index.html", style: "primary" } only %} <bolt-button> via Twig <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html"> View The Components </bolt-button> <bolt-button> via HTML import '@bolt/components-button'; render(){ return html` <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html"> View The Components </bolt-button> `; } <bolt-button> via JS Same component 
 in Twig, Javascript, and plain HTML
  40. Twig Pre-rendered Web Components {% include "@bolt-components-button/button.twig" with { text:

    "View The Components", url: "/pattern-lab/index.html", width: "full", style: "primary" } only %} button.twig <!— Pre-rendered via Twig —> <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html”> <a href="/pattern-lab/index.html" class="c-bolt-button c-bolt-button --medium c-bolt-button --full c-bolt-button --border-radius- regular c-bolt-button --primary c-bolt-button --center" is="shadow-root"> <replace-with-children class="c-bolt-button __item">View The Components </replace-with-children> </a> </bolt-button> Rendered HTML (No JavaScript) <!— post-rendered after JavaScript kicks in —> <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html”> View The Components </bolt-button> Rendered HTML (With JavaScript)
  41. <style>… </style> <a href="/pattern-lab/index.html" class="c-bolt-button c-bolt-button --center c- bolt-button --primary

    c-bolt-button --medium c- bolt-button --full c-bolt-button—border-radius- regular"> <span class="c-bolt-button __icon is-empty"> <slot name=“before"> </slot> </span> <span class=“c-bolt-button __item"> <slot> </slot> </span> <span class="c-bolt-button __icon is-empty"> <slot name="after"> </slot> </span> </a> Browser doesn’t support Shadow DOM? No problem! <bolt-button url="/pattern-lab/index.html"> <a href="/pattern-lab/index.html" class="c-bolt-button c-bolt-button --center c-bolt-button --primary c-bolt-button --medium c- bolt-button --full c-bolt-button—border-radius- regular"> <span class="c-bolt-button __icon is-empty"> <slot name=“before"> </slot> </span> <span class=“c-bolt-button __item"> View The Components </span> <span class="c-bolt-button __icon is-empty"> <slot name="after"> </slot> </span> </a> </bolt-button> <bolt-button url=“/pattern-lab/index.html”> ▸#shadow-root (open) View The Components </bolt-button> With Shadow DOM Without Shadow DOM
  42. Using Bolt’s 
 Web Components in Vue.js https://github.com/bolt-design-system/bolt/tree/ master/example-integrations/vue

  43. Using Bolt’s 
 Web Components in Angular https://github.com/bolt-design-system/bolt/tree/ master/example-integrations/angular

  44. Using Bolt’s 
 Web Components in Static HTML https://github.com/bolt-design-system/bolt/tree/ master/example-integrations/static-html

  45. Solution #4 
 Progressively Decoupling + 
 Publishing to NPM

    npm install @bolt/components-button
  46. Monorepos

  47. • A repository that contains multiple packages or projects. These

    projects can be related (but don’t have to be). • Many of the most popular JavaScript projects have moved to a monorepo: Babel, Gatsby, Webpack, Vue CLI, Storybook, Jest... • Some of the most popular PHP frameworks like Symfony and Laravel are also monorepos! What is a Monorepo? https://gomonorepo.org/
  48. • More maintainable codebase • Simplified, more easily shared, de-duplicated

    dependencies • Easier to coordinate updates across multiple components • Unified tools / build process for linting code, compiling, testing, deploying, and publishing • Single place to report issues / announce releases • Tests across modules are run together → finds bugs that touch multiple modules easier • One single source of truth for making any changes to the code, demos, or documentation Why Go With A Monorepo?
  49. Design system contributors: 
 more unified + maintainable code Design

    system consumers: 
 only pull in the parts needed
  50. + How to Monorepo?

  51. # publish packages w/ changes since last publishing $ lerna

    publish { "lerna": "3.13.1", "npmClient": "yarn", "useWorkspaces": true, "version": “2.3.0", } lerna.json "dependencies": { "lerna": "^3.13.1", }, "workspaces": { "packages": [ "packages /*", "packages/config-presets /*", "docs-site" ] } package.json How to Monorepo?
  52. “Downgrading” Pattern Lab 1. Reorganized codebase so components don’t live

    in Pattern Lab, 
 they are simply demoed in Pattern Lab 2. Avoid using Pattern Labisms in the code being shipped 3. This allows Pattern Lab, our Twig-based static site generator (used for the docs site), Drupal, etc to all integrate the exact same way: Twig.
  53. Reorganizing Your 
 Design System Codebase └── packages ├── components

    │ ├── bolt-button │ │ ├── __tests __ │ │ ├── src │ │ │ ├── button.scss │ │ │ ├── button.twig │ │ │ └── button.js │ │ ├── index.js │ │ ├── index.scss │ │ ├── button.schema.yml │ │ └── package.json │ └── bolt-icon/ ├── core ├── core-php ├── config ├── global └── build-tools ├── website │ └── src │ ├── pattern-lab │ │ └── _patterns │ │ ├── 01-visual-styles │ │ ├── 02-components │ │ └── ├── button │ │ └── icon │ └── docs/ │ ├── getting-started.md │ └── coding-standards.md ├── example-integrations/ │ ├── drupal-lab/ │ └── vue/ ├── internal-scripts/ Code that’s published
 (components, build tools, config, shared styles, cross browser polyfills, Twig extensions, etc) “Everything Else” (support code)
 (docs, website code, pattern lab demos, example integrations, deploy scripts, etc)
  54. But wait, what about PHP dependencies?! • When publishing, git

    subtree split to sync PHP deps to READ-ONLY git repos • Web hook updates Packagist
  55. Solution #5 
 Integrations composer require 

  56. Design System “A La Carte”:
 Install and use just what

    you need 1. NPM install only the components you need + build tools for compiling • The Webpack-based build tools in Bolt also generate the data that automatically wires up Twig namespaces & extensions to Drupal 2. Configure the build tools based on how you want things setup in Drupal • Also solves the problem of “installed components” vs “enabled components” 3. Composer require the bolt_connect Drupal module to automatically teach Drupal about Twig namespaces and custom Twig extensions
  57. { "name": "pega www_theme", "version": "1.0.0", "scripts": { "build": "bolt

    build --prod", "start": "bolt start", "watch": "bolt watch" }, "dependencies": { "@bolt/build-tools": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-action-blocks": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-background": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-background-shapes": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-band": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-block-list": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-blockquote": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-breadcrumb": "2.3.0", • NPM installed components live in the node_modules folder • Even works w/ component dependencies!
  58. module.exports = { env: 'drupal', buildDir: './dist/', wwwDir: ' ../

    ../ ../', verbosity: 1, components: { global: [ '@bolt/global', '@bolt/components-action-blocks', '@bolt/components-background', '@bolt/components-background-shapes', '@bolt/components-band', '@bolt/components-blockquote', .boltrc.js {% set hero %} {% grid "o-bolt-grid --flex o-bolt-grid --matrix o-bolt-grid --middle" %} {% cell "u-bolt-width-12/12 u-bolt-width-5/12@medium" %} {{ featured_image }} {% endcell %} {% cell "u-bolt-width-12/12 u-bolt-width-7/12@medium" %} {% include "@bolt-components-headline/headline.twig" with { text: article_title, size: "xxxlarge", tag: "h1", } only %} {% include "@bolt-components-list/list.twig" with { display: "inline@small", tag: "div", node --blog.html.twig { "name": "pega www_theme", "version": "1.0.0", "scripts": { "build": "bolt build --prod", "start": "bolt start", "watch": "bolt watch" }, "dependencies": { "@bolt/build-tools": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-action-blocks": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-background": "2.3.0", "@bolt/components-background-shapes": "2.3.0", package.json
  59. https://github.com/bolt-design-system/bolt/tree/master/example-integrations/drupal-lab

  60. Recap

  61. 1. Component schemas can provide a powerful way to keep

    your design system up to date, validated, and well documented. 2. Building Twig-integrated Web Components allow for more resilient, more flexible, more future-proof, and more cross-platform interoperability FTW. 3. Progressively decoupling your design system from Drupal — and Pattern Lab using a monorepo can help better organize, maintain & scale your system. 4. Publishing your design system to NPM allows developers to install and use to use just the components that they need. 5. Automating Twig namespaces and Twig extensions can further reduce frictions with Drupal and with Pattern Lab + address fragility issues with manual approach. Key Takeaways
  62. https://github.com/bolt-design-system/bolt

  63. Thanks! boltdesignsystem.com bolt-design-system channel on the DrupalTwig Slack