Geosphere Notes

C8d80c597c2f31254628e6f229a90747?s=47 Stilesof87
September 25, 2014

Geosphere Notes



September 25, 2014


  1. LAYERS OF THE EARTH Geosphere

  2. Geosphere • Solid part of the Earth’s crust that consists

    of all rock, and the soils and sediments on Earth’s surface. • Most located in Earth’s interior
  3. Earth’s Interior • Seismic Waves: the waves that travel through

    the Earth’s interior during an earthquake. • Altered by the type of material that it travels through.
  4. Seismologists • Scientists who measure changes in these waves to

    determine that the earth’s interior is made in layers.
  5. Composition of the Earth • Three layers: • crust •

    mantle • core • Density increases towards the center of the Earth
  6. Crust • Thin, outer layer. • Made up of light

    elements • less than 1% of Earth’s mass • 5-70km thick
  7. Mantle • Layer beneath the crust • 84% of mass

    of Earth • 2,900 km thick • Made of • Lithosphere (20%) • Asthenosphere (9%) • Mesosphere (55%)
  8. Lithosphere • Outer layer • cool, rigid • divided up

    into huge tectonic plates
  9. Asthenosphere • 250 km thick • solid, plastic layer made

    of rock • flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move across
  10. Mesosphere • 2,250 km thick • “middle” sphere • lower

    part of mantle
  11. Core • 3,248 km radius • sphere of hot, dense

    nickel and iron • 4,000 - 5,000 °C • 15% of the Earth • Made of • Outer Core (7.5%) • Inner Core (7.5%)
  12. • Outer Core; 2,200 km thick, outer shell, made of

    liquid nickel and iron • Inner Core: 1,228 km radius; a sphere of solid iron and nickel
  13. • Be able to draw and label the three layers

    of the earth (crust, mantle, and core) as well as the 5 layers based on physical properties (lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer and inner core).
  14. What is the rock cycle? • To show how rocks

    slowly change through time, scientists have created a model called the rock cycle. • It illustrates the processes that create and change rocks.
  15. Rock Cycle Continued • The rock cycle shows the three

    types of rock— igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary—and the processes that form them. • Weathering and Erosion – Weathering is the natural break down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. Erosion is the movement of broken rock from higher to lower elevations (down mountains and along streams). • Melting – Solid rock changing into magma due to very high heat • Heat and Pressure – Under many layers of earth’s crust, rock is exposed to a lot of heat and pressure
  16. The Rock Cycle explains how Rocks and Natural Processes are

    related weathering Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous
  17. The Geosphere and Us • Volcanoes, earthquakes, and landslides •

    Provides soil, energy, and minerals • Mining and pollution affect geosphere