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# MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION AND APPLICATION OF KERNEL TENSOR DECOMPOSITION BASED UNSUPERVISED FEATURE EXTRACTION

Seminar at IEEE Bangalore, 15th Feb 2021
https://events.vtools.ieee.org/m/260534
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2021.106834 ## Y-h. Taguchi

February 15, 2021

## Transcript

1. ### 1 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION AND APPLICATION OF KERNEL TENSOR DECOMPOSITION BASED

UNSUPERVISED FEATURE EXTRACTION Y-h. Taguchi Department of Physics, Chuo University Tokyo, Japan Published in Knowledge-based systems (IF=5.9) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2021.106834
2. ### 2 Purpose: Identification of small number of critical variables within

large number of variables (=p) based upon small number of samples (=n). (so called “large p small n” problem) → difficult because ….. Statistical test: Small n→ not small enough (not significant enough) P-values Large p→ strong multiple comparison correction (corrected P- values take larger values) → No significant p-values at all.
3. ### 3 More advanced machine learning approach: (e.g., lasso, random forest)

“large p small n”→ overfitting…. Too optimized selection toward a specific set of small number n results in “sample specific-variable selection” → Other set of variables will be selected if using another set of small number of samples (n) is used.
4. ### 4 Try synthetic example of (p>>n, i.e. p/n ~ 10

Try synthetic example of (p>>n, i.e. p/n ~ 102 2) )
5. ### 5 N variables N 1 M measurements M/2 M measurements

Gaussian Zero mean Gaussian Non-zero mean M2 samples /variable i≦N 1 :distinct between j,k≦M/2 and others i>N 1 : no distinction Task: Can we identify N 1 variables correctly?
6. ### 6 Strategy 1 • Apply t test to individual variables

to test if it is distinct between two classes (i.e. j,k≦M/2 vs others) • Computed P-values are corrected with considering multiple comparison corrections by Benjamini-Hochberg method. • Variables with corrected P-values <0.05 are selected. j k M M/2 M/2
7. ### 7 i > N 1 i ≦ N 1 P>0.05

989.3 3.4 P≦0.05 0.7 6.6 N=103, N 1 =10, M=6, Gaussian dist. μ(mean)=2, σ(SD)=1 Averaged over 100 independent trials. Fact N P Prediction N TN FN P FP TP Fact N P Prediction N 990 0 P 0 10 Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) (TP⨉TN)-(FN⨉FP) (TN+FP)(FN+TP)(TN+FN)(RP+TP) ~ 0.77
8. ### 8 Lasso (N 1 =10 given, since no P-value computations)

i > N 1 i ≦ N 1 P>0.05 989.4 2.4 P≦0.05 0.6 7.6 MCC ~ 0.84 Random Forest (N 1 =10 given, since no P-value computations) i > N 1 i ≦ N 1 P>0.05 988.2 1.8 P≦0.05 1.8 8.2 MCC ~ 0.81
9. ### 9 Singular value decomposition (SVD) xij N M (uli)T N

L vlj L M ⨉ ≈ x ij ≃∑ l=1 L u li λl v l j L L ⨉ λl
10. ### 10 x ijk G u l1i u l2j u l3k

L1 L2 L3 HOSVD (Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition) Extension to tensor….. N M K x ijk ≃∑ l 1 =1 L 1 ∑ l 2 =1 L 2 ∑ l 3 =1 L 3 G(l 1 l 2 l 3 )u l 1 i u l 2 j u l 3 k
11. ### 11 N variables N 1 M measurements M/2 M measurements

Gaussian Zero mean Gaussian Non-zero mean M2 samples /variable x ijk ≃∑ l 1 =1 L 1 ∑ l 2 =1 L 2 ∑ l 3 =1 L 3 G(l 1 l 2 l 3 )u l 1 i u l 2 j u l 3 k

i ≦ N 1

14. ### 14 P i =P χ2 [> (u 1i σ1 )2]

- log 10 P i Assuming that u 1i obey Gaussian (null hypothesis), P-values are attributed to individual variables (i) using χ2 distribution - log 10 P i i ≦ N 1
15. ### 15 Adjusted P i <0.05 are selected i > N

1 i ≦ N 1 P>0.05 989.9 2.2 P≦0.05 0.1 7.8 MCC ~ 0.88 t test MCC ~ 0.77 lasso MCC ~ 0.84 Random forest MCC ~ 0.81
16. ### 16 We named this strategy as “TD (tensor decomposition) based

unsupervised FE (feature extraction)”, which was in detail described in my recently published book. Unsupervised Feature extraction applied to Bioinformatcs, 2020, Springer international.
17. ### 17 Advantages of TD based unsupervised FE, Advantages of TD

based unsupervised FE, 1) It is very fitted to feature selection problems in “large p small n” problem. 2) In contrast to conventional feature selection methods (e.g., lasso and random forest) no knowledge about the number of selected variables is required. Variables can be selected using P- values like conventional statistical test.
18. ### 18 3) In contrast to conventional statistical tests (e.g., t

test), it work in “large p small n” problems, at least, comparative with conventional feature selections that require the number of variables selected. 4) TD based unsupervised FE is unsupervised method, since it does not require knowledge about classes or labeling when singular value vectors (u l1i , u l2j , u l3k ) are generated. MCC ~ 0.88 t test MCC ~ 0.77 x ijk ≃∑ l 1 =1 L 1 ∑ l 2 =1 L 2 ∑ l 3 =1 L 3 G(l 1 l 2 l 3 )u l 1 i u l 2 j u l 3 k

example

21. ### 21 Data set　GSE147507 Gene expression of human lung cell lines

with/without SARS-CoV-2 infection. i:genes(21797) j: j=1:Calu3, j=2: NHBE, j=3:A549 MOI:0.2, j=4: A549 MOI 2.0, j=5:A549 ACE2 expressed (MOI:Multiplicity of infection) k: k=1: Mock, k=2:SARS-CoV-2 infected m: three biological replicates
22. ### 22 x i jk m ∈ℝ21797×5×2×3 x i jk m

≃∑ l 1 =1 L 1 ∑ l 2 =1 L 2 ∑ l 3 =1 L 3 ∑ l 4 =1 L 4 G(l 1 l 2 l 3 l 4 )u l 1 j u l 2 k u l 3 m u l 4 i u l1j : l 1 th cell lines dependence u l2k : l 2 th with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection u l3m : l 3 th dependence upon biological replicate u l4i : l 4 th gene dependence G: weight of individual terms
23. ### 23 Purpose： identification of l 1 ,l 2 ,l 3

independent of cell lines and biological replicates （u l1j ,u l3m take constant regardless j,m） and dependent upon with or wothout SARS-CoV-2 infection（u l21 =-u l22 ） Heavy “large p small n” problem Number of variables(=p): 21797 ~ 104 Number of samples (=n): 5 ⨉2 ⨉3 =30 ~10 p/n ~ 103
24. ### 24 l 1 =1 l 2 =2 l 3 =1

Cell lines With and without SARS-CoV-2 infection biological replicate Independent of cell lines and biological replicate, but dependent upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.
25. ### 25 l 1 =1 l 2 =2 l 3 =1

｜G｜is the largest in which l 4 ？
26. ### 26 Gene expression independent of cell lines and biological replicate,

but dependent upon SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with u 5i (l 4 =5) P i =P χ2 [> (u 5i σ5 )2] Computed P-values are corrected with considering multiple comparison corrections by Benjamini-Hochberg method. 163 genes with corrected P-values <0.01 are selected among 21,797 genes.

28. ### 28 Comparisons with conventional methods: Comparisons with conventional methods: Since

we do not know how many genes should be selected, lasso and random forest is useless. Instead we employed SAM and limma, which are gene selection specific algorithm (adjusted P-values are used ). t test SAM limma P>0.01 P≦0.01 P>0.01 P≦0.01 P>0.01 P≦0.01 Calu3 21754 43 21797 0 335 3789 NHBE 21797 0 21797 0 342 3906 A549 MOI 0.2 21797 0 21797 0 319 4391 MOI 2.0 21472 325 21797 0 208 4169 ACE2 expressed 21796 1 21797 0 182 4245
29. ### 29 Kernelization of TD based unsupervised FE Kernelization of TD

based unsupervised FE

31. ### 31 Kernel Tensor decomposition x ijk G u l1i u

l2j u l3k L1 L2 L3 N M K x ij’k’ N M K ⨉ x jkj ' k ' =∑ i x ijk x ij' k ' (Linear kernel)
32. ### 32 x jkj ' k ' ≃∑ l 1 =1

L 1 ∑ l 2 =1 L 2 ∑ l 3 =1 L 3 ∑ l 4 =1 L 4 G(l 1 l 2 l 3 l 4 )u l 1 j u l 2 k u l 3 j' u l 4 k ' x jkj’k’ G u l3j’ u l1j u l2k L3 L1 L2 u l4k’ L4 Kernel Trick x jkj’k’ → k(x ijk ,x ij’k’ ):non-negative definite
33. ### 33 k (x ijk , x ij ' k '

)=exp(−α∑i ( x ijk −x ij ' k ' )2) Radial base function kernel k (x ijk , x ij ' k ' )=(1+∑ i x ijk x ij ' k ' ) d Polynomial kernel k(x ijk ,x ij’k’ )→ tensor decomposition
34. ### 34 Synthetic example:Swiss Roll x ijk ∈ℝ1000×3×10 ⨉ 10 Number

of points (=n) Spatial dimension (=p)

37. ### 37 Kernel TD (with RBF) applied to a bundle of

10 Swiss Rolls
38. ### 38 Feature selection Feature selection Linear Kernel: x jkj’k’ →

u l1j , u l2k u l 1 i ∝∑ jk x ijk u l 1 j u l 2 k P i =P χ2 [> (u l 1 i σl 1 )2] Computed P-values are corrected with considering multiple comparison corrections by Benjamini-Hochberg method. Features with corrected P-values <0.01 are selected. TD
39. ### 39 RBF, Polynomial Kernels Exclusion of a specific i i

Recompute x jkj’k’ x jkj’k’ → u l1j ⨉ u l2k TD Estimate coincidence between u l1j , u l2k and classification of (k,j) Rank i i based upon the amount of decreased coincidence u l1j ⨉ u l2k k
40. ### 40 Application to SARS-CoV-2 data set Applying RBF kernel and

select 163 top ranked genes. TD KTD
41. ### 41 Conclusions TD based unsupervised FE is specialized to feature

selections in “large p small n” It can work comparatively with conventional feature selections (lasso, random forest) and can give us P-values that lasso and random forest cannot. TD based unsupervised FE could select human genes related with SARS-CoV-2 infection even when other conventional gene selection methods (t test, SAM, limma) cannot work well.
42. ### 42 TD based unsupervised FE was successfully “kernelized”. Kernel TD

(KTD) based unsupervised FE could even outperform TD based unsupervised FE when it was applied to identification human genes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Other advanced KTD based unsupervised FE is expected to develop to attack more wide range of problems including genomic science/bioinformatics.