Biology Series: Mitosis

Biology Series: Mitosis

Our Biology Series will focus on select areas, including Chicago Public School Remote Learning High School activities. Our videos are designed for high school-level students. Lecture instructors include UIC Urban Health Program pre-health students and UIC College of Medicine students.

MUSIC: Grey Blue Grey - Tommy English

ACCESS YouTube:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znPaqNBKUKg

EMBEDDED LINKS:
Biology Independent Project
https://cps.edu/SiteCollectionDocuments/enrichmentlearning/May11/HS-Biology-Packet-English-05-11-20.pdf

Automated mitosis detection in wound healing assay
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oioF4nXSJ6I&feature=emb_logo

How a wound heals itself - Sarthak Sinha
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLVwELDMDWs&feature=emb_logo

How Does a Cut Heal?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbiY-W4dHac&feature=emb_logo

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UIC Urban Health Club

May 29, 2020
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Transcript

  1. 2.

    Remote Learning Cluster Packets Biology Independent Project: How Does a

    Cut on My Hand Heal? Click on the activity link to follow along.
  2. 3.

    UIC Urban Health Club How Does a Cut on My

    Hand Heal? - Watch Full Lecture Below
  3. 5.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Phenomenon Introduction

    Before conducting any investigation to gather evidence, you’ll have a chance to share your current thinking on how and why this cut on the finger heals, just as scientists would. Then, you’ll gather evidence to help you revise your current thinking and finally generate a new explanation. 1. On the three model templates below, draw out and explain your thinking about how the cut on Jamie’s finger heals over time. Be sure to… a. include what is happening inside the cells b. any processes you think are taking place and the timing of those processes.
  4. 9.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 1:

    How do cells close the wound after a cut? The Cellular Biology of Wound Healing • Inflammatory Phase (Day 0-5) • Proliferative Phase (Day 3-14) • Maturation Phase (Day 7 to I Year) So, “How do cells close the wound after a cut?” Write you response on a sheet of paper and consider the following: a. How the space opened by the cut is filled with cells. b. How different types of cells reform the structure of the wounded skin
  5. 10.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 1:

    How do cells close the wound after a cut?
  6. 11.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 1:

    How do cells close the wound after a cut? What patterns do you notice in the behavior of the bronchial cells over time as they respond to the wound? Looking at what you found in both Text 1 and Text 2, what can you conclude about how a cut on your hand heals? Cite evidence to support your conclusions.
  7. 12.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 2:

    How does my body reproduce skin cells? Stages of the Cell Cycle • Grow, copy its genetic material (DNA), and physically split into two daughter cells • Cell cycle is a cycle, rather than a linear pathway • Eukaryotic cells → stages of the cell cycle are divided into two major phases: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase What information can you conclude about the cell cycle that will help us understand how the cut on Jamie’s finger heals?
  8. 13.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 2:

    How does my body reproduce skin cells? You will now use the ideas about the cell cycle that you just gathered to compare two authentic science experiments that were performed that investigated the rate of the cell cycle in injured skin cells versus uninjured skin cells. You’ll consider the benefits and limitations of each experiment, compare their outcomes, and analyze their data to determine the effect of a wound on the cell cycle in skin cells.
  9. 14.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Experiment A:

    Mitotic Activity of Wounded Human Epidermis
  10. 15.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Experiment A:

    Mitotic Activity of Wounded Human Epidermis Experiment Summary • Hypothesis: “Determine how mitosis proceeds in healing of wound skin on the human epidermis” • Methods Key Information: ◦ 4 healthy white males, 25-35 years old participated in this experiment ◦ The wounds on the subjects were observed at 6 hour intervals each day, for a total of 4 days ◦ When the wound was observed, a drug that stops the cell cycle was injected to the wound in order to stop mitotic activity ◦ A microscope was used to count the number of dividing cells in the wound • Results: The graphs demonstrate the findings for each subject
  11. 16.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Experiment B:

    The Origin & Mode of Fibroblast Migration & Proliferation in Granulation Tissue
  12. 17.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Experiment B:

    The Origin & Mode of Fibroblast Migration & Proliferation in Granulation Tissue Experiment Summary • Hypothesis: “Determine how mitosis proceeds in healing of wounded skin on the rat epidermis” • Methods Key Information: ◦ 28 adult male rats were used for this experiment ◦ Every 24 hr intervals, the wounds on the rats were observed. The experiment lasted 7 days ◦ Using a microscope, mitotic nuclei was located and counted • Results: ◦ The graph demonstrate the percent of cells undergoing mitosis each day. Additionally, the graph shows the mitotic activity in an unwounded site (control)
  13. 18.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 2:

    How does my body reproduce skin cells?
  14. 20.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Experiment A

    vs Experiment B 6. How do the outcomes of the two experiments compare to one another? Are the outcomes consistent? Why or why not? Cite evidence to support your conclusions. 7. Looking at what you found in both Experiment A and Experiment B, what can you conclude about how a cut on your hand heals? Cite evidence to support your conclusions.
  15. 21.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 3:

    “How does gene expression for cells in the cut change?” To help us figure out how cells change in response to the cut to help it heal, it will help us to look at a new idea called gene expression. You’ll recall that all of our traits, such as skin color, hair color, height, and many more, are controlled by the DNA in our genes. The genetic code in the DNA undergoes a process of transcription to make mRNA and translation to make proteins, which are the molecules that give rise to traits.
  16. 22.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 3:

    “How does gene expression for cells in the cut change?” • Gene expression can be regulated, in a sense, turned on and off. • INS gene produces insulin in the presence of sugar (turns on), but turns off when sugar is not present. • This allows your body to metabolize the sugar that was consumed • This type of gene expression is inducible, meaning that it must be turned on in the presence of something • A repressible system would be one that makes a hormone that when a certain concentration is reached, represses the expression.
  17. 23.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Investigation 3:

    “How does gene expression for cells in the cut change?” Overall then, cues from the environment, like the sugar molecules in the doughnut you ate, are responsible for turning some genes on and off. These environmental molecular factors that turn genes on and off are called transcription factors.
  18. 25.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Using Evidence

    to Construct a Final Model After gathering evidence from each of the activities and investigations, you’ll now revise the model you made originally to help us answer our driving question, “How does a cut on your hand heal?” In the templates below, sketch your final models and record your final explanations. Be sure to… • Include evidence that you’ve gathered that supports your explanation. • Annotate the cell cycle diagram that is given to show different rates of mitosis. • Draw how cells grow to cover the cut skin tissue. • Pick two aspects of your model that you revised from your initial model, and explain what evidence supports those revisions
  19. 26.
  20. 27.
  21. 28.
  22. 29.
  23. 30.

    How Does a Cut on My Hand Heal? Reflections 1.

    What did you learn from this task about how scientists develop models to explain phenomena in the world? 2. How does this task make you think differently about what happens to your skin when you are cut?