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Adrian Howard - Pace Layer Mapping

Adrian Howard - Pace Layer Mapping

Product teams and user research practitioners often have problems working together well. They work with very different artefacts, often operate on different timescales, and both groups can experience conflict over the value each discipline brings to the end product. Pace Layer Mapping is a practice to help product teams communicate and align around user research during their day-to-day work.

uxaustralia
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March 17, 2022
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  1. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    www captionslive com au | captionslive outlook com |
    UX A a a
    D R a c
    T da , 17 Ma c 2022
    Ca i ed b : T ac Ball

    View Slide

  2. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 133
    ADRIAN HOWARD: Hell e e e. Tha k f i g i h me a
    he e d f he da a d he h, m g d e i i ea l 'cl ck he e. I
    e d m ime ki g i h c m a ie h a e ha i g blem i h
    k f ki d f e e ea ch, d c ma ageme , a d deli e e la .
    A d e f he ai i I ffe e c e i he e eam fail
    i eg a e e e ea ch k effec i el i h he g i g d c k.
    Hel i g d ha be e , e e all led he ac ice ha i called ace
    la e ed ma i g. A d f a el , e , i ' e a he ca a . A d
    e ea ch a d d c k i f ll f ca a e a d a e babl
    familia i h a b ch al ead . S k ha e ec . I ill ea l
    e lai he c e f he ca a , I ill fill i me f he de ail he
    a ice im le e am le, e ill i kle i i h a b ch f i e a d
    h h l e a im le blem f a d e a e d e. I'm
    g i g d ha beca e I'm m ch m e i e e ed i elli g he l g
    me j e ha e e all led ha ace la e ma i g ca a
    ac ice. I did ' i g f ll f med f m he f ehead f Ze . Like he
    k d , e a ed l e a e blem, ced hi g e c ld
    d , e eaked ff, a e e ime , lea ed f m h e e e ie ce ,
    a d e e all i l ed e l ed he ac ice e ime hel l e e
    blem , h ef ll . A d ha ' he j e e a e g i g g da .
    We a ed i h a alig me blem ha e l ed i h a
    ac ice called cale f hi e . Af e ha alig me blem a
    l ed, he ac ice e l ed a li le bi i me hi g I call lea e a
    hich he e l ed i i c eme al e a, hich he e l ed i e i e
    e e e e a, hich added a he hi g f ha e a ed
    calli g flai hich e e all b ade ed i ace la e ma i g. All
    f h e hi g e e ef l a diffe e ime f diffe e ea . The
    l ed me blem , ai ed e e , a d h e h a i ch ff

    View Slide

  3. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 134
    ha ' he le I a ake a a da , he a efac a d
    ac ice e ed f e e ea ch h ld be ef l a d he he a e
    , lea e cha ge hem il he ac all a e. S le ' e he
    begi i g. Scale f hi e . A d hi came ab he I a ki g
    i h he a - ha a ill fig e blem l i fi . The had
    d e me ki d f ea l c me de el me k ha a
    ea able, he had b il me ea l e, hi ed a b ch f e le,
    he e e begi i g ha e blem ide if i g hei a ge c me .
    The de ail f ha he e e b ildi g d ' eall ma e . S - al he e
    i a ca NDA. S le ' j a ha he e e maki g T i e f ca .
    The hi ed me hel hem ge me cla i hei d c a eg
    a d i i a d af e alki g a b ch e le a he ga i a i i
    a idl became clea he e a a ma i e lack f alig me h hei
    ac al c me e e a d ha blem he e e ha i g. The d c
    ma age e e ki d f b ildi g me hi g like hi , he de el e
    h gh he e e b ildi g f me hi g like hi . The de ig e h gh
    he e e b ildi g f me hi g like hi . A d he i e m del f he
    c me a fa ff ack f m e e b d el e' he e ac all
    alked hem, i a like a mi acle he had a ki d f c he e
    c e a i a all.
    U i i gl hi lack f alig me h e e e b ildi g f
    a d h e blem e e e i g l e led a l f c flic i hi
    he ga i a i ha di ec i he d c h ld g i .
    A d I'm e he ce f he di g diffe e akeh lde i h
    diffe e eed i familia i h . I ' a blem e all hi . A d I
    did ha I ec ma f ld ha e d e i he ame i a i .
    We - hi a e-COVID a d e ffed hem all i he ame m
    i h a l f a e , ha ie a d -i e . We e e ma aged ge
    a fe diffe e e d e i he e i i g d c i ha m a ell.

    View Slide

  4. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 135
    A d e a ed face all he diffe e m del a d diffe e idea
    ab a c me . We li f lk i g , a d g hem a ic la e
    he d c c me i h a fe diffe e me h d . J e ca ge
    l f diffe e e ec i e . We g hem e f b f
    de c ibe hei ical c me . S me hi g I lea ed f m hei i i g
    f he e celle Ja ice F a e . We g hem b ild em a h ma
    de c ibe he c me e e ie ce . S me hi g I lea ed f m Da id
    G e ' k. A d e g e le ide if dime i ha c ld hel
    cla if diffe e ki d f c me al g a c i m f hi g.
    S me hi g I g f m Ci d Al a e ' e celle c me de el me
    b k. A d ce f lk h e e fai l ha a d e led ha a e d ced
    e lled all he i f ma i ff he hee a d he e ide ce a d
    a m i a d ild a e g e e i e a d ck hem
    he all. A hi i b i l e ha e ' g a alig me , e
    ha e i fac a l f di ag eeme a e le alk he alk, a d a h
    diffe e e le a hi g . Which i he e he cale f hi e c me
    i a d i ' eall im le. Y j d a a li e igh ac he le g h f
    he all a d a e e d f he cale a e hi g ha e ba icall had made
    , g e e , a d a he he e d he e a e hi g ha e eall e e
    c fide f. Thi g e ha e a l f e ide ce f .
    A d he e g f lk j if he e hei hi g a he cale.
    Which led l f i e e i g c e a i ab ha c a
    e ide ce, he diffe e e e ie ce e le ha e i h c me a d
    . Idea ha e e m all c adic b i l c ld ' b h be
    e, hich led m ch m e d c i e c e a i ab h e
    c ld fig e ha he eal a e f he ld i . We a ed a a i g
    ha b a d i h e ea ch ac i i ie a d e e ime hel fig e hi g
    . We did ma i e ie i h he c me i he m a d g
    hei ie hi g . A d ff like ha .

    View Slide

  5. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 136
    Whe hi g had fi all e led d i became clea e eeded
    m e he cale f he beca e ea l e e hi g ha e had
    di c e ed eeded m e e ea ch a d e e ime a i alida e ell
    a d be h e a he facili a f hi ha e a e al hel ed me
    make e ha a fe f he fac ha he eam eemed 100 e ce
    ce ai f ac all g checked i h me dece e ea ch. A d hile e
    e e ' all alig ed c me , he e a ill a l f
    di ag eeme , e c ld begi ee ha me i e e m ch m e
    likel ha he e e.
    A d e had me lid e e f e ea ch a d e e ime a i
    cla if h e a ea f ce ai . N , I'm e me f lk ill be
    a i g he e e le h ld ha e d e me be e e e ea ch f .
    A bi m e e h g a hic k . Old fa hi ed i e ie i g, b ild
    e a. Tha migh ell ha e hel ed. S hi e a f m T dd Zake
    Wa fel i ca be a e f l a c mm ica e he e l f e
    e ea ch. The ca be ed e ibl mi ed a d lead eam make
    mi ake . I ha e ce ai l e e ie ced b h ce a i i m ca ee a d I
    ill ge i he h le e a g d, e e a a g me e il.
    B ca ha e ha a g me T i e if like. I l e hi e.
    Pe a a e e a de c i i a aca i a e e i ic e
    alb m . The a e a g ea emi de b he d ' ac all e lace he
    e e ie ce. A ic e alb m i ' he ame a g i g a h lida . A
    e a de c i i i ' he ame a e e ie ci g he e e ea ch
    ce i all i j f l de h a d f .
    A d, i fac , he c m a did d me fai l dece ea l e ea ch
    k. I a j i a alida ed b la e cha ge a d i he
    de l i g b i e m del a d e e ge ed e, a i e e. A d la e
    di c e ie made d i g deli e e e g fed back eak he bi ha
    he igi al e ea che g g.

    View Slide

  6. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 137
    S a he e d f ha cale f hi e ce , e did ' ha e a
    e a de c i i . I a m e like a a h f a b ch f e ea ch
    e i a d he c m a ' c me . I a me hi g ha i h
    me m e k migh ge di illed d i a dece e a
    de c i i . B i ead f ha , I a me hi g m e i e e i g
    ha e . The a ifac a lef he all. A d e le a ed efe i g i
    d i g d c a d de el me k i e i ab c me
    came . I ed bei g he f a e- ff alig me ac i i
    hich he a I had al a ed i i he a a d i a ed bei g he
    l ha e le e e e l i g e ime. Re ea che a d d c e le
    e i a a l hel hem ee ha hi g eeded m e alida i .
    De el e a d de ig e ed i fi d hi g ha e le e e m e
    c fide ab , ha he c ld make im leme a i deci i i h
    ki d f bei g - g i g ff a d checki g fi . A d a he ha a c i m
    f lk added a li le bi f c e a d c ea i e b ad c id g i g .
    Thi g e hea d f m a c me , a a d m idea e le i he eam
    h gh migh be ele a . Pe le a ed f mali i g le f h
    hi g m ed be ee he ca eg ie . F e am le he g e c ld m e
    he eak ca eg he e had hea d he blem a ic la ed b fi e
    c me i me a . S me hi g migh m e f m eak g if
    e c ld deli e me ki d f MVP e e ime alida e he
    c me , ha c me eed.
    S me hi g migh m e f m g e if e ac all hif a
    fea e ba ed he e e ime a d a eal c me e i l e
    he blem e had ide ified a he a .
    We al a ed eei g m eme back he he a . S if e
    hi ed a fea e b d ed i , he he e a me hi g i h ha
    igi al deci i a d ma be e had mi ed me hi g he e did ha
    e a e e ime al e . S i m ed back a li le bi .

    View Slide

  7. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 138
    If e had a iece f e ide ce i a ' ac all ed make a
    d c deci i , he i a ' ki d f ele a he k ha a
    bei g d e a d agai i migh be hed back a e . I hel ed e le
    a b ild a la b k ab e ea ch ac i i ie , a d deli e ac i i ie ,
    ha ked i h he e e ea ch a d made e i a ele a he
    d c k i g e a d beca e e ha e he ha ed e ce ha
    d c e le, e ea ch e le a d de el e c ld all c me a d
    ge he , e a ed ha i g m ch m e d c i e c e a i ab
    i i ie a d e ea ch e b ild i i .
    Thi g e he lef eeded - fai l b i l eeded m e e ea ch
    bef e e c ld make e ible d c deci i . Thi g i he middle
    e had me eak e ide ce f . Ma be i ' ime d me ki d f
    mall cale chea X he ki d f d c di ec i ha ld c me
    f i igh . E e ime a d MVP -- ce e g ff e e
    e had me fai l li e ide ce ha h e hi g e e ed a d ef l
    a d a lied c me e c ld a maki g la ge
    i e me , bigge be , l ge e m k ab he hi g ha a ea ed
    he e. De el e a d de ig e c ld l k ha ace a d g , eah I
    ca make deci i ba ed ha i h ela i e c fide ce.
    A d all hi a ef l e gh e a ed a alki g ab hi
    b ch f ac ice ge he , c mm ica i g he eam a d hel hem
    ge he ame ad a age . A d e a ed calli g i lea e a. Tha
    a a h ge mi ake. Te ible, e ible label. Te ible label, beca e if
    G gle lea e a ee a f b f a d a he f b f a d
    a he f b f a d a he f b f . I eem bec me a
    me i e he la fe ea he ge e ic label f h e ki d f
    a efac . S he e le alked ab lea e a a d had ' had he
    e e ie ce ha eam i h he cale f hi e a d all ha k
    bef eha d, he eall g he g idea i hei head a d he a ed

    View Slide

  8. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 139
    d i g diffe e hi g a d le e le h had ha e e ie ce e e
    ki g i h hem all he ime.
    S e cha ged he ame. Si ce e a ed b ildi g e a,
    he e a e ime, e h gh i c eme al e a migh be a be e
    label. S e cha ged he ame agai . Si ce e a e b ildi g he
    e a e ime e h gh ha migh m e effec i el . We k ha
    label d a diffe e eam ee ha he h gh a d ha he
    e ec ed ha ac ice be. A d, agai , i a a l label. F me
    f lk i c eme al e a a c mm ica i g he idea ha e e e
    deli e i g bi f he c m le ed e a e af e a he , a he ha
    efi i g e ime. S ki d f b ildi g a jig a a he ha efi i g a
    ke ch. Thi ill a i f m Jeff Pa i e celle , e a ma i g
    b k dem a i g ha icel . I c eme al a ake a deli e i
    ch k . We had a a a d fi i h. I ' he g e ec a i i h me
    le e f d. O he he ha d i e a i bei g m e f a ce
    e e efi i g me hi g e ime. G ad all maki g ha ke ch a d l
    fideli i igh i highe fideli i igh e a e m e c fide ab .
    S e ied ha a a label. A d hi e ac all eemed ick
    a d be ef l. Pe le e e c i he he e alked ab i , he
    did ' c me back i h a m del ab de el me , i a a l g a he
    a e a ed hem hi k ab i a c le m e eam a ed
    la i g i h hi a e l ked ha he e a he i e e i g
    beha i . Remembe he back a d hi g le e alked ab
    he he i igh e e ' a lied a d d ed back he le c fide
    ca eg ie e a me a ec f ff adi i all i h e ible i h
    e a, hi g dem g a hic , ge de , age, di a ea i g ff he b a d
    beca e b d a maki g d c deci i i h hem. A d he
    m ed he le ele a ca eg ie . Which i l el beca e h e ki d f
    hi g ge e all d i e bad a m i . A a l el a icle b I di Y g

    View Slide

  9. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 140
    I h ghl ec mme d ead if e le ha e ' ead i al ead . B
    de i e h e blem , e le eem eall a ached h e h ha
    e ill ed a d he li le bi f ba ic dem g a hic i f ma i a d ke
    b i gi g hem back agai . E e if he did e e all di a ea ff
    he b a d. E eciall if he had ' bee e e f he k ha
    hed i ff he b a d. The ff ha aid e e e ac all ed hi
    i f ma i . S he b gh i back a d ied add i i agai .
    E e if ha i f ma i did ' e d bei g ef l f d i i g he
    d c d c i . S e j i i a c e . We ack ledged ha
    h e hi g e i ed, b di ced hem f m he ki d f deci i d i i g
    ce ha a ha e i g i he ff f he he all. S e ca
    i a hem a d alki g ab hem b al dem a e he fac ha
    hile hi migh be e, he e e ' ef l hel d i e d c
    di ec i .
    F lk a ed calli g hi flai hich i a j ke f m he Office film,
    e a e ff ha a ed eflec im a hi g ab he
    e b ac all did ' . S e ha e added flai . Wha e ?
    Af e i g hi m del f a fe diffe e clie e f d me
    i e e i g i e a d abili a d f c . Pe le me ime g
    di ac ed b he ki d f he e hi ff, he e i igh , he e
    ff ha came i a d failed kee a e e he bigge l ge e m
    k. O i i ial a em fi hi a d a e i dic ealig me
    e e ci e, e ld ake a e back e e fe eek a d l k a all
    i e a i e e a m del . S me ime e e ded h i g me f
    hem a a beca e e di c e ed he e i e m del ea l a ' ha
    ele a a m e he k ha a ha e i g. S me ime e
    di c e ed he e a a e m del, he e a a b ch f e e ea ch,
    e i f ma i ha had c me i he ld ab a diffe e ki d f
    c me e e e ' l ki g a hi i a d e eeded kick ff a e

    View Slide

  10. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 141
    a ifac ha did ' fi a f e i i g ie . S me ime e had
    diffe e m del a d e me ged hem ge he . We a a i a i
    e h gh ill be like a ig ifica diffe e ce be ee g f
    c me ed j be im a a d e c ld j ea
    hem a he ame.
    A d me ime he i e. S me ime e f d he e a a
    ig ifica e beha i ha e did ' eall de a d bef e a d e
    ac all had g i h diffe e a f a acki g deali g
    i h hei i e . Thi hel ed. B af e e a ed d i g hi , hi
    e i dic ea e me e e ci e, e a ed ici g me hi g el e ha
    a i e i e e i g. We iced ha diffe e hi g , fai l b i l
    cha ged diffe e ace . S me ff cha ged a idl a d me ff
    cha ged m ch le f e e l . F e am le, a e IOS elea e came
    i h a e ifica i a d idge fea e a d dde la ch k f
    c me e e a ki g c me ab h d ' e ha e a idge i h
    he a , I eall a ee he idge . I ' a e e e f
    c me , a eed ha j a ' he e like i m h ag .
    A d e le a ed a a e i a d d hi g ab i
    . O he e ea ch i igh cha ged m ch le f e . Like he e all
    eed f li e ifica i ha ha g a d. B i d e ' cha ge
    a ic la l f e . A d he i igh cha ge eall a el . A d
    de l i g c me eed ab a i g feel c fide ha he a e
    mi i g im a fac ab he jec . Th e i igh a e ell
    alida ed, he a e lid, he d ' cha ge a all e a el .
    The e diffe e cade ce emi d me f S a B a d' hea i g
    la e i hi b k "h b ildi g lea ' hich i l el b k ab
    a chi ec e hich i i ba ed me 70 k f m a a chi ec
    called F a k D ff . A d if l k a a b ildi g a ffice bl ck, a
    h e, he e i he ff i he b ildi g, he f i e, he dec a i , he

    View Slide

  11. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 142
    cha ge , e le ge e chai , cha ge he c l f he all a d
    he he e i he h ical b ildi g f he ace, he m . S me ime
    add a i d k ck d he all . S me ime a ffice ace,
    imm able hi g b ha ha e le f e ha cha gi g ff. The e
    i ff like e ice a d l mbi g a d ai c di i i g. The cha ge le
    f e ha he ace a d e e le f e ha he aff a d he he e i a
    cheme a d de l i g c e a d he fi all he i e b ildi g i
    hich b i l cha ge fai l a el . All h e hi g a e i e ela ed,
    b he cha ge a e diffe e ace . A d i emi d me f he
    diffe e a e f cha ge i he e ea ch.
    B a d la e alk ab ace la e i he c e f ci ili a i .
    Fa ace f fa hi , hich elied l ace f c mme ce hich elied
    e e l e ace f i f a c e. A d il he g igh d
    he a al ld. A d a B a d aid, each la e i f c i all
    diffe e f m he he a d e a i g me ha i de e de l , b
    each la e i fl e ce a d e d he la e cl e i i a a ha
    make he h le em elia . A d ha elia ce a ki d f ha e
    e e af e .
    Th e diffe e ki d f aced k a me hi g ha e had
    ee i - i h i c eme al e a. S e m ed hi g a d.
    We e a a ed he i igh e had ee i la e , i igh ha cha ged
    a l e e hed he diag am, a d i igh ha cha ged a el e e
    hed d he diag am. We a ed calli g i ace la e ma i g f
    he b i ea . A d e al ki d f a ed addi g hi g ha
    e e ' di ec l c me ela ed all he ime. P d c i igh , he
    e ea ch i igh e f d he e a e e e d i g e e ime a d
    deli e i g he d c . S i ki d f b ade ed a li le bi f m j
    c me i f ma i . S ick e ie . We a ed ff i h a e- ff
    alig me ac i i ha hel ed gi e e le c fide ce i hich e ea ch

    View Slide

  12. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 143
    i igh e e e a d hich e e ' . A d de a di g he e
    e e b d a all hi dime i . N ece a il ge i g ag eeme
    b de a di g ha he e a di ag eeme . The e a ed add
    c e a d le ha i i ial e- ff ac fac e le a i g efe i g
    i m e a d m e d i g ac al d c de el me k a d g i g
    e ea ch k.
    Whe he e a ha ele a i f ma i a c mi g back agai
    a d agai , de i e he fac i a ' ef l f d i i g d c di ec i ,
    e lled i i a e a a e a ea he e i ca g li e a d a
    e e b d . A d he e a ha diffe e bi f e ea ch m i g a
    diffe e ace , e a ed e a a i g hi g i la e de e di g h
    f e hi g cha ged.
    Which b i g fi all back ha ice ea ca a . S ba icall
    e ha e he c fide ce i ili f he e ea ch i igh , ma ed
    h i all . We ha e h f e h e i igh cha ge ma ed e icall
    e d e defi e a i i al le f h e decide m e he i igh
    a d he ma . The a e la b k f h e ma age i igh i
    he e ea ch a d he e e ime al ac ice e e m e hem
    a d. A d ha b eakd le ' d me i e e i g hi g he
    ha ' all i ali ed a all. We k ff e he e ha eak
    e ide ce a d e eed m e e ea ch he e e b d ha e hi
    e ec i e, he c e a i ab he he e ea ch i eeded
    bec me m ch im le he eam. Thi i a ace he e ge e a i e
    e e ea ch k b d c ma age a d e ea che e d
    ha e .
    Thi mea de el e ca j ig e i , me ime a b ch f he
    d c e le ca ig e i a ell. We k ha e ha e ge
    e ide ce f i igh he e. We a e m e likel e e ime a d make
    mall be , a a ace he e e e ea ch a d d c a d de el me

    View Slide

  13. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 144
    a d de ig ca all ge i l ed. Whe he e hif he igh e k
    e ha e m ch ge e ide ce e ca e hi i f ma i d i e
    deci i ab biddi g fea e e ca be fai l c fide ill f lfil a
    c me eed. We ca be fai l e be e make he e a e g i g
    a ff. Thi ace i m e ed b de ig a d de el me .
    The e ha e a ace he e e ea ch i igh a e m e f c ed
    a d d i i g h - e m ac ical k. We k ha he i igh a
    he i bjec cha ge a l . S if e a e g i g make a
    i e me he e e fl i h ld babl be a h - e m a he ha a
    l g- e m hi g. U il e ee h he la e he l ge e i d f
    ime. Ma be e h ld j ai a d d a hi g e headli e i
    e le d . Th e a e he ki d f deci i ha ha la e hel d i e.
    A d a e m e d he ma e ha e m e a d m e c fide ce he e
    hi g a e le likel cha ge a h ice.
    A d ff d ea he b m i a lace he e e ca make
    deci i ab l ge e m ili , he b m i a lace he e e ca
    make la ge a d la ge i e me i h m e c fide ce. We k he
    b m la e i ' g i g cha ge e f e . We k he hi , e
    k i i me hi g i g i g be m i g a d e e he eek
    m h. Tha ' he ace he e e ea ch i igh a e f c ed a d
    d i i g a egic d c di ec i a he ha ac ical d c di ec i .
    Wha ab he flai ? Th e ef l bi f e i f ma i ha
    a e ' ac all ef l f d i i g d c deci i . We had ha e a a e
    ca eg d bef e, a d i ' ki d f di a ea ed. The hi g i , if
    e a l h e le flai ki d f a all e d i he b m lef . I
    d e ' cha ge m ch a d i ef l f d c deci i . A he
    a f ie i g he ace la e ma i b ea i g i a ad a . S ff
    ha mig a e he b m lef a e hi g ha e d cha ge m ch
    a d hi g e a e c fide ce a e ef l. S b a d la ge he ca be

    View Slide

  14. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 145
    ig ed.
    Whe ea hi g i he lef a e hi g a e likel cha ge,
    babl eed m e e ea ch. The eed a bi m e a e i ee
    ha ' ha e i g, a d hich hi g a e g i g be ef l. A d he
    igh e ha e me c fide ce he a e ac al c me blem .
    Thi g migh cha ge ickl . The e migh be a a ie eed.
    Sh - e m i e me , h - e m d c k . Smalle be a e he
    hi g e d i ha igh ad a il e ca e hei l g- e m
    ili d c di ec i .
    E e all hi g e d i he b m igh , ha i a ki d f able
    ef l ad a . We ha e high c fide ce i he l g- e m ili . We
    ca b ild fea e ha igh . S h d e i a ma a d
    ma i g a he ha he ace la e diag am? S me f migh be
    familia i h Sim Waldle ' k. He c ea ed a a ifac ha a ki d
    f i e i abl called a Waldle ma a d i ' a l f hel i g e le
    i ali e a d de a d b i e a eg . D ' I'm g i g
    e lai hem. I mea if a e i e e ed i alki g ab a eg ,
    b ha ' ha e a e d i g igh . The i e e i g hi g f me
    i hi c e i ha Sim had i e a ic defi i i f ha make a
    ma a ef l ma . A d hi i me hi g he a e ab he ma ha
    he ge h a i e e. I f e i i e c m a ie a d he ell me
    he e ma . I ge e ci ed a d a k l k. U f a el ha he
    h me a e all b a d i e diag am hich lack ba ic eleme f
    ma i g. F m a a egic i f ie he a e e ele .
    Ba icall ha ge a l f ca a i j me b e
    ff i . A d he Sim alk ab ma , he' alki g ab me hi g
    ha ha all f he e a ec . Hi c e - fi f all c e ecific.
    Like hi ma f he ba le f Them l ae. Tha e badl e e ed i
    he m 300 if ha e e e ee ha . S i ha al a bee c e

    View Slide

  15. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 146
    ecific. I ' i al ca ee hi g . The e a e hi g he ma .
    I ha c m e like a mie a d a ie . Tha ha e a i i ela i e
    a a ch i hi ca e h, h, ea / e . I c m e m e
    a d. Y ca hi g a d ee h he ela e each he .
    Pace la e ma ha e all f h e e ie . I ' c e ecific,
    i ' ab a a ic la d c a d e ice. I ' i al. I ha c m e
    he ma ha ha e a i i ela i e a ch he c fide ce a d
    ace dime i . A d he c m e m e a d he e ea ch
    i igh m e a d acc di g a i i le ha e defi e, he
    ac ice a d ac i e eed ake m e hi g ki d f f a d
    back a d d .
    O ce e a eei g i a a ma , e c ld a eei g he
    c ec i be ee diffe e hi g m ch m e ea il . A l g- e m
    e abli hed eed a c e migh d i e a medi m e m g al ab
    a i g da e. Which migh d i e l k a c me eed
    a d a e ifica i idge h ifica i Ale a
    ifica i . S e le ca a eei g c ec i be ee diffe e
    a ec f e ea ch a d d c k all i e lace. Which a ed
    le i g e e b d e ea ch d c de ig a d deli e a maki g e
    c ec i a li le bi m e ea il a d i h a li le bi m e c fide ce.
    If e ge a e i igh b e a i , e ca a a ki g
    e i a d d a i g e a i e c ec i e i i g e ea ch. Whe
    e ee a e able i igh e ca a a ki g ha he hi g migh
    e a l k a ha a e ' he b a d igh . A d ha ' he e
    ace la e ma i g i igh . Thi i he e he me j e ha g
    fa . I ha he e d? P babl . D ' ge m g, e ha e
    bee ki g i h eam h a e fi di g hi m del ef l igh , a d
    hel f l igh , b f lk a e ill a ki g i e e i g e i a d I'm
    e i ill be cha ged. I deed i i al ead diffe e i me diffe e

    View Slide

  16. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 147
    eam . I' e ee a b ch f blem a d, ai ed ha I d ' eall
    ha e g ea a e e . S I j a me i a fe hem
    ill a e hi g . The e i c e . C e i a blem ha Sim - a
    c ce ha Wa dle alk ab i h hi ma . S , clima e i a
    c ce ha Sim alk ab i h hi ma . Whe he e' a a al
    m eme me f he hi g he ma . A e he e a e ha e
    ca ee i he a i igh m e a d? Tha ca hel edic
    hi g ? The e i he ki d f mal mig a i f m he ki d f e
    i igh c mi g i m i g ac he b a d a e ge m e e ide ce a d
    m i g d a i abili e . We al ee hi g ki d f a a ed
    mig a i . I ' me hi g c me i a d ki d f hal a d he middle
    f a bi f i a d i a d a d he me ime e ge a b ch m e
    e ide ce a d i he he igh . A d me ime i fail a d fall
    back d a d g e back he b m lef .
    Ca e e - ca e fi d m e a e ? Ca e make edic i
    f m h e ki d f a e . Ca e e hem make ef l d c
    di ec i ? I d ' k e . We ha e ee e gh f hem.
    S me ime he e a e ga . I hi ace i hi ace a ace la e
    ma a ig e ca gh all he i igh ? Tha i a ig e eed m e
    e ea ch? The blem f e em ha i deli e ? A e e le ied
    ab addi g hi g he b a d? H d e k ? I d ' k . I
    ha e ee all f h e hi g i diffe e lace fig e a d
    hi g effec i el he e ee ha a e a ea . Need a bi m e
    k. Pace la e ma ha e m l e i ed all m al b a d a d
    ha e bee ed b i di id al eam . F c m a ie ha al e
    e ea ch e i ie ha ha mea me d lica i a d c a d
    aci g be ee he ace ma ie f he ld. D e i make e e
    ha e ace la e ma cale ac m l i le eam . F h e f h
    a ched R bi Bee ' alk a he a f he da I a ddi g al g

    View Slide

  17. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 148
    he he a alki g ab he a i e ea ch a efac i igh
    e i ie . I le ' f lk make ce ai ki d f deci i ea il . H
    d e a alk alki g ab ha le i ea ed he . The e a e
    hi g ma ea ch e i ie a e g d a d i g e a d I a
    la i h ha m e. C e . A he hi g f Sim ' li f ma . F
    hi ca e, i i he ba le f The m l. I he ca e la la e ma i '
    he e ice e a e deli e i g . H d e a ic la e he c e f a
    ma ch eei g hich i ha e i g. The mall cha ge he ma ca
    e l e he la ge cha ge he h le b i e m del i cha ge he ma
    bec me i alid. The blem i ha me middle. Tha ' ha de d e
    e e e e hi g? D e g h gh ff a ca e b ca e ba i ?
    S me hi g el e? D ' k . N ee i ha e e gh e .
    The c m e hem el e . O Sim - a he f he ma
    a ib e Sim ' li , k , i hi ca e i ' he A mie a d
    a ie a d he h ical l ca i . O he ace la e ma e le h a
    l f diffe e ff he e. A d he m l ea i he ame a . Tha '
    bee fa a ic f ge i g l f diffe e f lk c ib e b ca lead
    ki d f i e e i g di c i he e e ha e m l i le la e f
    ab ac i , ca l k he ame meb d c mi g i he ma i h
    c e h i ha b il . O e ca be a b e a i . A he i a
    f a l gi di al d g i g f a mbe f ea . Gi i g he
    hi g he ame eigh he cha i g a d ca be c f i g. H
    d e fi ha ? I d ' k . S ill i g ee he a e .
    I f ma i e l ad. S me ime he ma ge m ch ff hem
    make hi g me a d ha d make deci i f m. I ha
    c l f ha g e he b a d? I eadi g f hi g ha h ld
    be em ed? I a defi i i f he k i c e e le a e
    i g ff he e ha ' ele a ? D e eed a fil e i
    make i m e ef l? S ill fig i g all ha .

    View Slide

  18. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 149
    D e eed h e ec i g e ie e ha back ha e di ca ded
    ea lie he e i ched he ace la e ma i g? N , hi li f
    blem e e ce a e ha i e li . We ha e e i h
    i eg a e i h me f he e ea ch k ha e i g i he eam . H
    i a ace la la e ma f a d c e ice al ead i
    g e h f ame he c me a d c e be e . I ha e m ch
    ime amble a . The i i I d ' hi k hi i he e d f he
    l g me j e .
    The e i a e i f hi alk a URL f h e h a hi k
    ab hi m e al g i h li k me hi g I ha e me i ed. If
    d g a d la i h hi m del I ld eall l e hea ab i .
    E eciall if cha ge i . Beca e like I aid a he a , if a e
    g i g ake e hi g a a f m hi , emembe he me j e e
    k. Thi did ' c me f he e, i came f m a l f
    e e ime a i i h diffe e clie a d d c ace . I ' alm
    ce ai l fi i hed e l i g e . A d ha ' he le I a
    ake a a . The e ea ch a efac a d ac ice ha e i h
    eam h ld be ef l a d he he a e lea e cha ge hem il
    he a e.
    I h e ha made g ea e e. Tha k e m ch f
    a ie ce.
    STEVE BATY: Tha k m ch Ad ia . Tha a a g ea a cl e
    he da . Tha k
    ADRIAN HOWARD: We e he e a e i . I c ld ' ee he cha
    a i g a he c ee .
    STEVE BATY: A he m me e d ' ha e - Ka i a j a ked e a d

    View Slide

  19. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 150
    I hi k e ha e ime f ha e e i . S le ' me ead i . Ha i
    e e ha e ed ha i igh i ide ig e ec i ge m ed he
    ec i ? F i a ce, f e ha ' i g he hi g i he e?
    ADRIAN HOWARD: Tha ' a eall g d e i . I hi k he a e i
    e . B he hi g ha ha e m e f e i ha me hi g ha a
    headi g a d he ig e ec i , a i e e, e le g ai ha eem
    like i h ld be ef l, h a e ' e d i g me hi g i h hi ? A i
    e e. S a e le ee me hi g ha l k like i migh be ef l
    di a ea i g he ca - e le ca a ha i g he c e a i
    ab ai hi ac all ef l? A e e mi i g i he e?
    Thi me hi g ha ' g i g be ef l la e . Oka , le ' i e a
    emi de g ke a hi i like m h ime he e e ha e me
    b dge g la i h hi hi g. S , e , hi g d m e i b
    i ' he ajec ie I hi k ha a e m e i e e i g a d d i e ac i a
    li le bi m e ha he ac al l ca i .
    STEVE BATY: I feel like a g d a f a lea a achi g ha
    blem f a e i a d i ' bee me i ed ea lie , hi idea f a
    i igh e i , ha ge b il e ime. A d e f he hi g
    ha i diffic l i bec me a d m i g g d a he ha a c ed
    c llec i . A d hi feel like i c ld hel i h ha .
    ADRIAN HOWARD: Ye , a d I hi k he - I hi k me f he e le I
    ha e ked i h i e i ie ha he hi g ha f e af e i cale.
    The a all he ff ha ' c mi g i f m all he lace be i a
    lace. S if i ' g i g be ef l a me i e ha e g i he e
    hich i a fi e g al. The ai i I hi m e f e i h he e le I
    k i h i ha ' ele a he ff ha I'm d i g igh . A d

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  20. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i
    i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be
    c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i .
    Page 151
    ha ' me hi g ha e h gh a e m h ag ha
    be e f ha e e ea . We hi k h e a e he ai
    i ha ace la e ma i g hel i h m e a he ha he kee i g
    ack f all he hi g blem.
    STEVE BATY: Yeah. Oka . A d e a ked a e i , d he a efac
    a d he b a d eed be ic l i igh c ld he eb a h he i
    eed le a eme ?
    ADRIAN HOWARD: Ab l el . A d al ee he - I g e ac all
    hi i a ai i ha I did ' alki g ab , i like ha g e he
    b a d a i e e. M f he eam I ha e ked i h ha e bee e
    lai e fai e ab ha . Ki d f a hi g g e . I i like ki d f
    k , B b i c me a e h ld d hi a d e le el a d
    he he le el k , e ha e a h he i e ca alida e. Agai ,
    i ' d a i g he c ec i be ee h e hi g a d al me ime
    mig a i g he f m f me hi g a i m e a d he b a d. S
    me hi g c me i a a ki d f B b i c me a e ca d
    hi a d he a li le bi la e i ' "B b aid hi a d he e alk 10
    c me a d he aid, Oh, m G d I ha e ha ai i all he ime."
    A d he e ha e a bi la e a e ied hi , li le e e ime ee if
    e le a e ac all i e e ed i hi a d e , e e hi g clicked i . S
    i g e ime.
    STEVE BATY: Nice. We ill lea e i he e. Tha k m ch. I ' bee
    a lea e.
    ADRIAN HOWARD: Tha k .

    View Slide