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Green phytoplankton - University Technological of Sydney - March 2019

Green phytoplankton - University Technological of Sydney - March 2019

Daniel Vaulot

March 22, 2019
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  1. Green phytoplanton
    Daniel Vaulot
    Sydney - 2019-03-20

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  2. Outline
    Roscoff team
    Eukaryotic picoplankton
    Green picoplankton
    Prasinophytes clade VII
    Mamiellophyceae
    What's next ?
    2 / 46

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  3. La Station Biologique de Rosco
    4 / 46

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  4. 1872 - Antoine Lacaze-Duthiers
    CNRS and Sorbonne Université
    Staff: 350
    Students : 1,000-2,000 per year
    La Station Biologique de Rosco
    4 / 46

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  5. Scientists: 10
    Staff: ~ 40
    Research themes:
    Viruses
    Bacteria
    Cyanobacteria
    Symbioses
    Parasitism
    Ecologie of Marine Plankton team (ECOMAP)
    http://www.sb-roscoff.fr/en/team-diversity-and-interactions-oceanic-plankton 5 / 46

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  6. Eukaryotic picoplankton
    6 / 46

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  7. Diatoms and dino agellates: 20-200 µm
    7 / 46

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  8. Oceanic deserts
    8 / 46

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  9. Bathycoccus
    Described 10 years later by W. Eikrem
    1982 - Tiny eukaryotes
    John Sieburth - Electron microscopy
    Electron microscopy
    Johnson, P.W. & Sieburth, J.M. 1982. J. Phycol. 18:318–27. 9 / 46

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  10. Pico-eukaryote diversity
    Many new species/classes discovered in 3 last decades
    Not, F., Siano, R., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Simon, N., Vaulot, D. & Probert, I. 2012. In Piganeau, G. [Ed.] Genomic Insights Gained into the Diversity, Biology and
    Evolution of Microbial Photosynthetic Eukaryotes. Elsevier. 10 / 46

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  11. 1995 - Ostreococcus
    The smallest photosynthetic eukaryote (0.8 µm)
    Genome deciphered in 2006
    Now a biological model
    Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Courties, C., Vaquer, A., Neveux, J., Claustre, H., Lautier, J. & Machado, M.C. 1995. Phycologia. 34:285–92. 11 / 46

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  12. 1999 - Bolidomonas
    1.5 µm
    Close to diatoms phylogenetically
    12 / 46

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  13. 1999 - Bolidomonas
    1.5 µm
    Close to diatoms phylogenetically
    2011 - Triparma
    Group known since 1980
    First isolate in 2008
    Covered with silica as diatoms
    Confirm filiation of Bolidomonas
    Guillou, L., Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Medlin, L.K., Claustre, H., Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Vaulot, D. 1999. J. Phycol. 35:368–81.
    Ichinomiya, M., Yoshikawa, S., Kamiya, M., Ohki, K., Takaichi, S. & Kuwata, A. 2011. J. Phycol. 47:144–51.
    12 / 46

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  14. Green picoplankton
    13 / 46

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  15. Green vs. Red lineages
    Falkowski, P.G., Katz, M.E., Knoll, A.H., Quigg, A., Raven, J.A., Schofield, O. & Taylor, F.J. 2004. Science. 305:354–60. 14 / 46

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  16. What is the color of the ocean ?
    1. Why did the green lineage rapidly decline in ecological importance during the early Mesozoic?
    2. Why have terrestrial photoautotrophs not followed similar trajectories following the end-Permian
    extinction?
    15 / 46

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  17. What is the color of the ocean ?
    1. Why did the green lineage rapidly decline in ecological importance during the early Mesozoic?
    2. Why have terrestrial photoautotrophs not followed similar trajectories following the end-Permian
    extinction?
    But maybe the question should be: Is the ocean really red ?
    Falkowski, P.G., Schofield, O., Katz, M.E., van de Schootbrugge, B. & Knoll, A. 2004. In Thierstein, H. & Young, J. Eds. Coccolithophorids. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.
    429–53. 15 / 46

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  18. The green lineage
    Leliaert, F., Verbruggen, H. & Zechman, F.W. 2011. Bioessays. 33:683–92. 16 / 46

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  19. Metabarcoding
    Universal gene : 18S ribosomal RNA
    17 / 46

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  20. 40 stations
    Depths: 2
    Fractions: 4
    sequences
    Tara Oceans
    de Vargas, C., Audic, S., Henry, N., Decelle, J., Mahe, F., Logares, R., Lara, E. et al. 2015. Science. 348:1261605.
    >
    > 5.10
    6
    18 / 46

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  21. Ocean sampling day (OSD)
    150 stations
    1 million sequences
    >
    >
    19 / 46

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  22. Build a reference database
    18S rRNA GenBank sequences
    Tragin, M., Lopes dos Santos, A., Christen, R. & Vaulot, D. 2016. Perspect. Phycol. 3:141–54. 20 / 46

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  23. Data from OSD
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    21 / 46

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  24. Data from OSD
    Up to 94% ...
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    21 / 46

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  25. Data from OSD
    Up to 94% ...
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    Next question: What are the shade of green ?
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 21 / 46

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  26. Green algae: Oceanic vs. Coastal
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 22 / 46

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  27. Prasinophytes clade VII
    23 / 46

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  28. Potter et al. 1997 - Little green balls
    Prasinophytes clade VII
    24 / 46

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  29. Potter et al. 1997 - Little green balls
    Moon et al. 2001 - Equatorial Pacific
    Prasinophytes clade VII
    Potter, D., Lajeunesse, T.C., Saunders, G.W. & Andersen, R.A. 1997. Biodivers. Conserv. 6:99–107.
    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y., De Wachter, R. & Vaulot, D. 2001. Nature. 409:607–10.
    24 / 46

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  30. Prasinophytes clade VII dominates in oceanic waters
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 25 / 46

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  31. Prasinophytes clade VII - Diversity
    Two major clades A, B
    10 sub-clades: A1-A7, B1-B3
    Clade C : Picocystis
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 26 / 46

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  32. clade B1 dominates in the Pacific.
    clade A6 dominates in the Mediterranean Sea
    Prasinophytes clade VII - Niches
    27 / 46

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  33. clade B1 dominates in the Pacific.
    clade A6 dominates in the Mediterranean Sea
    Prasinophytes clade VII - Niches
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 27 / 46

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  34. Cultured strains
    RCC287 - Clade A3
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Pollina, T., Gourvil, P., Corre, E., Marie, D., Garrido, J.L., Rodríguez, F. et al. 2017. Sci. Rep. 7:14019. 28 / 46

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  35. ITS (Internally Transcribed Spacer)
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Pollina, T., Gourvil, P., Corre, E., Marie, D., Garrido, J.L., Rodríguez, F. et al. 2017. Sci. Rep. 7:14019. 29 / 46

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  36. Chloropicophyceae
    Picocystophyceae
    Chloropicon: 6 species
    Chloroparvula: 2 species
    New classes, new species
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Pollina, T., Gourvil, P., Corre, E., Marie, D., Garrido, J.L., Rodríguez, F. et al. 2017. Sci. Rep. 7:14019. 30 / 46

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  37. First genome
    Lemieux, C., Turmel, M. & Otis, C. 2018. Nat. Commun. Submitted. 31 / 46

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  38. Mamiellophyceae
    32 / 46

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  39. Mamiellophyceae
    Present everywhere in coastal waters, no obvious patterns.
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 33 / 46

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  40. Four major genera
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 34 / 46

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  41. Five clades:
    O. tauri
    O. mediterraneus
    O. "lucimarinus"
    clade B
    clade E
    Ostreococcus
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 35 / 46

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  42. Ostreococcus
    Clade E has no representative in culture.
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 36 / 46

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  43. Species:
    Four described
    M. pusilla
    M. commoda
    M. bravo
    M. polaris
    Two "candidate"
    sp. 1
    sp. 2
    Micromonas
    Simon, N., Foulon, E., Grulois, D., Six, C., Desdevises, Y., Latimier, M., Le Gall, F. et al. 2017. Protist. 168:612–35. 37 / 46

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  44. Metabarcodes:
    Nine clades/species
    M. pusilla
    M. commoda
    A1-A2
    M. bravo
    B1-B2
    M. polaris
    clades B3_B5
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 38 / 46

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  45. M. polaris only found in polar waters
    Micromonas
    39 / 46

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  46. M. polaris only found in polar waters B5 only found in tropical waters
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press 39 / 46

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  47. What is next ?
    40 / 46

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  48. Genomic adaptation to the environment
    Bathycoccus
    Bathycoccus
    Moreau, H., Verhelst, B., Couloux, A., Derelle, E., Rombauts, S., Grimsley, N., Van Bel, M. et al. 2012. Genome Biol. 13:R74. 41 / 46

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  49. Two different genomes
    Genomic adaptation to the environment
    Bathycoccus
    Bathycoccus
    42 / 46

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  50. Two different genomes
    Dispensable genes ?
    Genomic adaptation to the environment
    Bathycoccus
    Bathycoccus
    Vannier, T., ..., Vaulot, D. et al. 2016. Sci. Rep. 6:37900. 42 / 46

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  51. Interactions
    Worden, A.Z., Follows, M.J., Giovannoni, S.J., Wilken, S., Zimmerman, A.E. & Keeling, P.J. 2015. Science. 347:1257594. 43 / 46

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  52. Interactions
    Gérikas Ribeiro, C., Lopes dos Santos, A., Marie, D., Pereira Brandini, F. & Vaulot, D. 2018. ISME J. 12:1360–74. 44 / 46

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  53. Take home messages
    Green algae 25% of phytoplankton
    Mamiellophyceae vs. Chloropicophyceae
    Patterns emerge at species/clade level
    What's next ?
    Link genomes and environmental adaptation
    Study interactions
    45 / 46

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  54. Take home messages
    Green algae 25% of phytoplankton
    Mamiellophyceae vs. Chloropicophyceae
    Patterns emerge at species/clade level
    What's next ?
    Link genomes and environmental adaptation
    Study interactions
    Key resources
    Culture Collections
    Reference Gene Databases
    Genomes
    45 / 46

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  55. Acknowledgments
    EU projects
    PICODIV
    MicroB3
    MACUMBA
    ANR projects
    MALINA
    Green Edge
    Phytopol
    CNRS
    Sorbonne Université
    Nanyang Technological University
    46 / 46

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