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Mamiellophyceae diversity from metabarcoding

Mamiellophyceae diversity from metabarcoding

See paper in Scientific Reports https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41680-6

Daniel Vaulot

March 29, 2019
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  1. Mamiellophyceae diversity
    Margot Tragin, Daniel Vaulot
    NTU - 2019-03-29

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  2. Green vs. Red lineages
    Falkowski, P.G., Katz, M.E., Knoll, A.H., Quigg, A., Raven, J.A., Schofield, O. & Taylor, F.J. 2004. Science. 305:354–60. 2 / 18

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  3. Ocean sampling day (OSD)
    150 stations
    1 million sequences
    >
    >
    3 / 18

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  4. Data from OSD
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    4 / 18

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  5. Data from OSD
    Up to 94% ...
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    Next question: What are the shade of green ?
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 4 / 18

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  6. The green lineage
    Leliaert, F., Verbruggen, H. & Zechman, F.W. 2011. Bioessays. 33:683–92. 5 / 18

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  7. Green algae: Oceanic vs. Coastal
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 6 / 18

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  8. Mamiellophyceae
    Present everywhere in coastal waters, no obvious patterns.
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 7 / 18

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  9. Three major genera
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. 9:5190. 8 / 18

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  10. Micromonas
    First picoplankton species described in 1952
    M. pusilla (Chromulina pusilla)
    1.5 µm
    Flagellum
    Butcher, R.W. 1952. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 31:175–91.
    9 / 18

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  11. Micromonas
    First picoplankton species described in 1952
    M. pusilla (Chromulina pusilla)
    1.5 µm
    Flagellum
    Three more species recently described
    M. commoda
    M. bravo
    M. polaris
    Butcher, R.W. 1952. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 31:175–91.
    Simon, N., Foulon, E., Grulois, D., Six, C., Desdevises, Y., Latimier, M., Le Gall, F. et al. 2017. Protist. 168:612–35.
    10 / 18

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  12. Micromonas
    First picoplankton species described in 1952
    M. pusilla (Chromulina pusilla)
    1.5 µm
    Flagellum
    Three more species recently described
    M. commoda
    M. bravo
    M. polaris
    Two "candidate" species
    sp. 1
    sp. 2
    Butcher, R.W. 1952. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 31:175–91.
    Simon, N., Foulon, E., Grulois, D., Six, C., Desdevises, Y., Latimier, M., Le Gall, F. et al. 2017. Protist. 168:612–35.
    10 / 18

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  13. Bathycoccus
    Seen in natural samples in 1982
    Isolated and described 1990 by W. Eikrem
    1.5 µm
    Covered by spider web scales
    11 / 18

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  14. Bathycoccus
    Seen in natural samples in 1982
    Isolated and described 1990 by W. Eikrem
    1.5 µm
    Covered by spider web scales
    One species: Bathycoccus prasinos
    Johnson, P.W. & Sieburth, J.M. 1982. J. Phycol. 18:318–27.
    Eikrem, W. & Throndsen, J. 1990. Phycologia. 29:344–50.
    11 / 18

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  15. Ostreococcus
    Isolated and described in 1995 (Thau lagoon)
    The smallest photosynthetic eukaryote (0.8 µm)
    Genome deciphered in 2006
    Now a biological model
    12 / 18

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  16. Ostreococcus
    Isolated and described in 1995 (Thau lagoon)
    The smallest photosynthetic eukaryote (0.8 µm)
    Genome deciphered in 2006
    Now a biological model
    Three described species and one un-named clade
    O. tauri
    O. mediterraneus
    O. "lucimarinus"
    clade B
    Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Courties, C., Vaquer, A., Neveux, J., Claustre, H., Lautier, J. & Machado, M.C. 1995. Phycologia. 34:285–92. 12 / 18

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  17. Metabarcodes:
    Nine clades/species
    M. pusilla
    M. commoda
    A1-A2
    M. bravo
    B1-B2
    M. polaris
    clades B3-B5
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. 9:5190. 13 / 18

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  18. M. polaris only found in polar waters
    Micromonas
    14 / 18

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  19. M. polaris only found in polar waters B5 only found in tropical waters
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. 2019 14 / 18

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  20. Five clades:
    O. tauri
    O. mediterraneus
    O. "lucimarinus"
    clade B
    clade E
    Ostreococcus
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. 9:5190. 15 / 18

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  21. Ostreococcus
    Clade E has no representative in culture.
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. 9:5190. 16 / 18

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  22. Two different genomes
    Bathycoccus
    17 / 18

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  23. Two different genomes
    Dispensable genes ?
    Bathycoccus
    Vannier, T., ..., Vaulot, D. et al. 2016. Sci. Rep. 6:37900. 17 / 18

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  24. Take home messages
    Micromonas
    very diversified
    tropical and polar species/clades
    Ostreococcus
    new clade never isolated
    restricted to temperate/tropical areas
    Bathycococcus
    cannot be distinguished at 18S level
    2 species
    18 / 18

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