Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

A short history of picoplankton - JAMS - March 2019

A short history of picoplankton - JAMS - March 2019

Daniel Vaulot

March 20, 2019
Tweet

More Decks by Daniel Vaulot

Other Decks in Science

Transcript

  1. A short history of picoplankton... with some shades of green.
    Daniel Vaulot
    JAMS Symposium, Sydney - 2019-03-20

    View full-size slide

  2. Outline
    Eukaryotic picoplankton
    Green picoplankton
    Mamiellophyceae
    What's next ?
    2 / 30

    View full-size slide

  3. Eukaryotic picoplankton
    3 / 30

    View full-size slide

  4. Diatoms and dino agellates: 20-200 µm
    4 / 30

    View full-size slide

  5. Oceanic deserts
    5 / 30

    View full-size slide

  6. 1982 - Tiny eukaryotes
    John Sieburth - Electron microscopy
    Electron microscopy
    Johnson, P.W. & Sieburth, J.M. 1982. J. Phycol. 18:318–27. 6 / 30

    View full-size slide

  7. Pico-phytoplankton diversity
    Not, F., Siano, R., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Simon, N., Vaulot, D. & Probert, I. 2012. In Piganeau, G. [Ed.] Genomic Insights Gained into the Diversity, Biology and Evolution
    of Microbial Photosynthetic Eukaryotes. Elsevier. 7 / 30

    View full-size slide

  8. Pico-phytoplankton diversity
    Not, F., Siano, R., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Simon, N., Vaulot, D. & Probert, I. 2012. In Piganeau, G. [Ed.] Genomic Insights Gained into the Diversity, Biology and Evolution
    of Microbial Photosynthetic Eukaryotes. Elsevier. 8 / 30

    View full-size slide

  9. 1990 - Bathycoccus
    Isolated from 100 m off Naples
    1.5 µm
    Eikrem, W. & Throndsen, J. 1990. Phycologia. 29:344–50. 9 / 30

    View full-size slide

  10. 1995 - Ostreococcus
    Isolated from Thau lagoon (oyster production)
    The smallest photosynthetic eukaryote (0.8 µm)
    Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Courties, C., Vaquer, A., Neveux, J., Claustre, H., Lautier, J. & Machado, M.C. 1995. Phycologia. 34:285–92. 10 / 30

    View full-size slide

  11. 1999 - Bolidomonas
    1.5 µm
    Close to diatoms phylogenetically
    11 / 30

    View full-size slide

  12. 1999 - Bolidomonas
    1.5 µm
    Close to diatoms phylogenetically
    2011 - Triparma
    Group known since 1980
    First isolate in 2008
    Covered with silica as diatoms
    Confirm filiation of Bolidomonas
    Guillou, L., Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Medlin, L.K., Claustre, H., Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Vaulot, D. 1999. J. Phycol. 35:368–81.
    Ichinomiya, M., Yoshikawa, S., Kamiya, M., Ohki, K., Takaichi, S. & Kuwata, A. 2011. J. Phycol. 47:144–51.
    11 / 30

    View full-size slide

  13. Green picoplankton
    12 / 30

    View full-size slide

  14. Green vs. Red lineages
    Falkowski, P.G., Katz, M.E., Knoll, A.H., Quigg, A., Raven, J.A., Schofield, O. & Taylor, F.J. 2004. Science. 305:354–60. 13 / 30

    View full-size slide

  15. What is the color of the ocean ?
    1. Why did the green lineage rapidly decline in ecological importance during the early Mesozoic?
    2. Why have terrestrial photoautotrophs not followed similar trajectories following the end-Permian
    extinction?
    14 / 30

    View full-size slide

  16. What is the color of the ocean ?
    1. Why did the green lineage rapidly decline in ecological importance during the early Mesozoic?
    2. Why have terrestrial photoautotrophs not followed similar trajectories following the end-Permian
    extinction?
    But maybe the question should be: Is the ocean really red ?
    Falkowski, P.G., Schofield, O., Katz, M.E., van de Schootbrugge, B. & Knoll, A. 2004. In Thierstein, H. & Young, J. Eds. Coccolithophorids. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.
    429–53. 14 / 30

    View full-size slide

  17. 150 stations
    1 million
    sequences
    Ocean sampling day (OSD)
    >
    >
    15 / 30

    View full-size slide

  18. 40 stations
    Depths: 2
    Fractions: 4
    sequences
    Tara Oceans
    de Vargas, C., Audic, S., Henry, N., Decelle, J., Mahe, F., Logares, R., Lara, E. et al. 2015. Science. 348:1261605.
    >
    > 5.10
    6
    16 / 30

    View full-size slide

  19. Build a reference database
    18S rRNA GenBank sequences
    Tragin, M., Lopes dos Santos, A., Christen, R. & Vaulot, D. 2016. Perspect. Phycol. 3:141–54. 17 / 30

    View full-size slide

  20. Data from OSD
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    18 / 30

    View full-size slide

  21. Data from OSD
    Up to 94% ...
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    18 / 30

    View full-size slide

  22. Data from OSD
    Up to 94% ...
    The green lineage represents 25% of marine phytoplankton
    Next question: What are the shade of green ?
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 18 / 30

    View full-size slide

  23. Green algae: Oceanic vs. Coastal
    Lopes dos Santos, A., Gourvil, P., Tragin, M., Noël, M.-H., Decelle, J., Romac, S. & Vaulot, D. 2017. ISME J. 11:512–28. 19 / 30

    View full-size slide

  24. Mamiellophyceae
    20 / 30

    View full-size slide

  25. Mamiellophyceae
    Present everywhere in coastal waters, no obvious patterns.
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2018. Sci. Rep. 8:14020. 21 / 30

    View full-size slide

  26. Four major genera
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 22 / 30

    View full-size slide

  27. Species:
    Four described
    M. pusilla
    M. commoda
    M. bravo
    M. polaris
    Two "candidate"
    sp. 1
    sp. 2
    Micromonas
    Simon, N., Foulon, E., Grulois, D., Six, C., Desdevises, Y., Latimier, M., Le Gall, F. et al. 2017. Protist. 168:612–35. 23 / 30

    View full-size slide

  28. Metabarcodes:
    Nine clades/species
    M. pusilla
    M. commoda
    A1-A2
    M. bravo
    B1-B2
    M. polaris
    clades B3-B5
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press. 24 / 30

    View full-size slide

  29. M. polaris only found in polar waters
    Micromonas
    25 / 30

    View full-size slide

  30. M. polaris only found in polar waters B5 only found in tropical waters
    Micromonas
    Tragin, M. & Vaulot, D. 2019. Sci. Rep. in press 25 / 30

    View full-size slide

  31. What is next ?
    26 / 30

    View full-size slide

  32. Genomic adaptation to the environment
    Bathycoccus
    Bathycoccus
    27 / 30

    View full-size slide

  33. Dispensable genes ?
    Genomic adaptation to the environment
    Bathycoccus
    Bathycoccus
    Moreau, H., Verhelst, B., Couloux, A., Derelle, E., Rombauts, S., Grimsley, N., Van Bel, M. et al. 2012. Genome Biol. 13:R74.
    Vannier, T., ..., Vaulot, D. et al. 2016. Sci. Rep. 6:37900.
    27 / 30

    View full-size slide

  34. Interactions
    Gérikas Ribeiro, C., Lopes dos Santos, A., Marie, D., Pereira Brandini, F. & Vaulot, D. 2018. ISME J. 12:1360–74. 28 / 30

    View full-size slide

  35. Take home messages
    Green algae 25% of phytoplankton
    Mamiellophyceae vs. Chloropicophyceae
    Patterns emerge at species/clade level
    What's next ?
    Link genomes and environmental adaptation
    Study interactions
    29 / 30

    View full-size slide

  36. Acknowledgments
    EU projects
    PICODIV
    MicroB3
    MACUMBA
    ANR projects
    MALINA
    Green Edge
    Phytopol
    CNRS
    Sorbonne Université
    Nanyang Technological University
    30 / 30

    View full-size slide