Hong Xu
January 05, 2018
340

# The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem

The presentation slides of the paper "Hong Xu, Xin-Zeng Wu, Cheng Cheng, Sven Koenig, and T. K. Satish Kumar. The Buss reduction for the k-weighted vertex cover problem. In Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics (ISAIM). 2018."

More details: http://www.hong.me/papers/xu2018.html

January 05, 2018

## Transcript

1. ### The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem Hong

Xu Xin-Zeng Wu Cheng Cheng Sven Koenig T. K. Satish Kumar {hongx, xinzengw, chen260, skoenig}@usc.edu [email protected] January 5, 2018 University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, the United States of America The 15th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics (ISAIM 2018) Fort Lauderdale, Florida, the United States of America
2. ### Summary • For an NP-hard problem, it is desirable to

have an algorithm that reduces problem sizes in polynomial time (but does not necessarily solve the problem). This is called a kernelization method. • The Buss reduction has been known as a kernelization method for the k-vertex cover (k-VC) problem. • We explicitly generalize it to the k-weighted vertex cover (k-WVC) problem and empirically study its properties. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 1 / 21
3. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 2 / 21
4. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion
5. ### Motivation: the k-Weighted Vertex Cover (k-WVC) Problem The k-WVC problem:

Find a vertex cover with a weight no more than k on a vertex-weighted undirected graph. Applications: • Combinatorial auctions (Sandholm 2002) • Kidney exchange (McCreesh et al. 2017) • Error correcting code (McCreesh et al. 2017) • Solving and understanding weighted constraint satisfaction problems (Kumar 2008a, 2016, 2008b) Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 3 / 21
6. ### Motivation: Kernelization and the Buss Reduction • The k-WVC problem

is known to be NP-hard. • To solve such a problem, an algorithm that reduces the size of the problem in polynomial time is desirable. • A kernelization method is one such algorithm. • The Buss reduction is one kernelization method for the k-VC problem. • Can we generalize the Buss reduction to the k-WVC problem? Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 4 / 21
7. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion
8. ### The k-WVC Problem Given a vertex-weighted undirected graph G =

V, E, w , • A vertex cover is a set S ⊆ V such that every edge in G has at least one endpoint vertex in S. • The k-WVC problem asks for a vertex cover S with a weight no more than k on G, i.e., v∈S w(v) ≤ k. • The k-VC problem is equivalent to the k-WVC problem with all weights equal to 1. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 5 / 21
9. ### The k-WVC Problem: Example Example: (k = 4) 1 2

2 0 1 1 (a)  1 2 2 0 1 1 (b)  1 2 2 0 1 1 (c)  1 2 2 0 1 1 (d)  Red vertices are those vertices in the vertex cover. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 6 / 21
10. ### The Buss Reduction for the k-VC problem Intuition: If a

vertex has a degree larger than k, it has to be in the vertex cover. Otherwise, all its neighbors have to be in the vertex cover and result in a vertex cover larger than k. k = 3 Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 7 / 21
11. ### The Buss Reduction for the k-VC problem The Buss reduction

for the k-VC problem on G (Buss et al. 1993): • Find a vertex v with a degree larger than k and add it to the vertex cover. • Remove vertex v from G, and the remaining problem is the (k − 1)-VC problem on the resulting graph. • Repeat the steps above until k < 0 or no vertex can be added to the vertex cover. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 8 / 21
12. ### The Buss Reduction for the k-WVC problem Intuition: If a

vertex whose neighbors have a total weight larger than k, it has to be in the vertex cover. Otherwise, all its neighbors have to be in the vertex cover and result in a vertex cover with weight larger than k. 4 1 1 1 1 k = 5 Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 9 / 21
13. ### The Buss Reduction for the k-WVC problem The Buss reduction

for the k-WVC problem on G: • Find a vertex v whose neighbors have a total weight larger than k and add it to the vertex cover. • Remove vertex v from G, and the remaining problem is the (k − w(v))-WVC problem on the resulting graph. • Repeat the steps above until k < 0 or no vertex can be added to the vertex cover. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 10 / 21
14. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion
15. ### Benchmark Instances We generated 18 benchmark instance sets with 1,000

benchmark instances each, by using one from each of the following properties: • Random graph model: Erdős-Rényi (ER) and Barabási-Albert (BA) • ER: Connectivity c = 8 • BA: m = m0 = 2 • Probabilistic distribution of vertex weights: constant, exponential with λ = 1 and λ = 100 • “Constant distribution” can be somehow viewed as the exponential distribution with λ → +∞ since both of them have zero variance. • Note that the exponential distribution with λ = 100 has a very low variance. • Number of vertices: 1,000, 500, and 100 Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 11 / 21
16. ### No Benchmark Instance Solved • Experiments showed that no benchmark

instance was solved directly using the Buss reduction. • The Buss reduction typically does not reduce ER or BA graphs to empty kernels if a k-WVC exists. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 12 / 21
17. ### 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 k/W 0.0 0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (a) The ER Instances 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 k/W 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (b) The BA Instances The fraction of instances η for which the Buss reduction outputs “NO” (no vertex cover with weight not larger than k exists) versus k/W for different weight distributions, where W is the total weight of the vertices in the graph. Only instances with 1,000 vertices are used here. The blue, orange, and green curves represent graphs that have constant, exponential-1, and exponential-100 weights, respectively. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 13 / 21
18. ### 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 k/W 0.0 0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (a) The ER Instances 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 k/W 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (b) The BA Instances Observations: • By changing constant weights to weights sampled by exponential distributions, the critical range (where the phase transition takes place) shifts to larger k’s for the ER model and broadens for the BA model. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 14 / 21
19. ### 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 k/W 0.0 0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction 100 500 1000 (a) The ER Instances 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 k/W 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fraction 100 500 1000 (b) The BA Instances The fraction of instances η for which the Buss reduction outputs “NO” (no vertex cover with weight not larger than k exists) versus k/W for graphs of different sizes. Only instances with exponential-1 weights are used here. Observation: As the graph size increases, the critical range narrows and shifts to smaller k’s. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 15 / 21
20. ### Average reduction rate measures how much the problem size has

been reduced. (average number of vertices removed divided by number of vertices in the input graph) 10 1 100 k/W 0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010 Average Reduction Rate constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (a) The ER Instances 10 1 100 k/W 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 Average Reduction Rate constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (b) The BA Instances The average reduction rate as a function of k/W for different weight distributions. Only instances with 1,000 vertices are used here. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 16 / 21
21. ### Average component reduction rate measures how much the hardness of

the problem has been reduced. (one minus the ratio of the number of vertices in the largest connected component of the kernel to the number of vertices in the input graph) 10 1 100 k/W 0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 Average Component Reduction Rate constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (a) The ER Instances 10 1 100 k/W 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 Average Component Reduction Rate constant exponential-1 exponential-100 (b) The BA Instances Shows the average component reduction rate as a function of k/W for different weight distributions. Only instances with 1,000 vertices are used here. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 17 / 21
22. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion
23. ### Analytical Approximation of Average Reduction Rate Consider the k-VC problem

on a graph with N vertices. • The Buss reduction starts with k = k0 . • The Buss reduction stops when k = k1 . If we assume that the number of neighbors of vertices does not change from iteration to iteration, then we have 1 − Fd (k1 ) = k0 − k1 N , where Fd (k1 ) is the fraction of vertices that have degrees less or equal to k1 . Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 18 / 21
24. ### Analytical Approximation of Average Reduction Rate Similar argument for the

k-WVC problem on a graph with N vertices, we have 1 − FΩ (k1 ) = k0 − k1 N w , where • w is the average vertex weight, and • FΩ (·) is the CDF of Ω(v) = u∈∂v w(u). Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 19 / 21
25. ### 10-2 10-1 100 k 0 /N 0 2 4 6

8 10 Reduction Rate 10-4 ER (Poisson) BA (Power-law) The plots of the reduction rates as a function of k0/N obtained by solving 1 − Fd (k1) = k0−k1 N , for N = 1, 000 numerically for ER graphs with parameter c = 8 and BA graphs with parameters m0 = m = 2. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 20 / 21
26. ### Agenda Motivation The Buss Reduction for the k-Weighted Vertex Cover

Problem Experimental Results Analysis Conclusion
27. ### Conclusion • We generalized the Buss reduction to the k-WVC

problem. • We empirically studied it on ER and BA random graphs: • The Buss reduction typically does not reduce ER or BA graphs to empty kernels if a k-WVC exists. • By changing constant weights to weights sampled by exponential distributions, the critical range shifts to larger k’s for the ER model and broadens for the BA model. • As the graph size increases, the critical range narrows and shifts to smaller k’s. • The reduction rate and the component reduction rate drop to near zero quickly for ER instances and more gradually for BA instances. Xu et al. (University of Southern California) The Buss Reduction forthe k-Weighted Vertex Cover Problem 21 / 21
28. ### References I J. F. Buss and J. Goldsmith. “Nondeterminism within

P∗”. In: SIAM Journal on Computing 22.3 (1993), pp. 560–572. T. K. S. Kumar. “A Framework for Hybrid Tractability Results in Boolean Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems”. In: the International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming. 2008, pp. 282–297. T. K. S. Kumar. “Kernelization, Generation of Bounds, and the Scope of Incremental Computation for Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems”. In: the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics. 2016. T. K. S. Kumar. “Lifting Techniques for Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems”. In: the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics. 2008. C. McCreesh, P. Prosser, K. Simpson, and J. Trimble. “On Maximum Weight Clique Algorithms, and How They Are Evaluated”. In: the International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming. 2017, pp. 206–225. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-66158-2_14.
29. ### References II T. Sandholm. “Algorithm for Optimal Winner Determination in

Combinatorial Auctions”. In: Artificial Intelligence 135.1 (2002), pp. 1–54. doi: 10.1016/S0004-3702(01)00159-X.