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AAS 241 Dissertation Talk

Adina
January 11, 2023

AAS 241 Dissertation Talk

American Astronomical Society (AAS) 241 dissertation talk in the session "Young Transiting Exoplanets & Architectures"

Adina

January 11, 2023
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  1. arXiv: 2109:07011 PRL, under review GLEAM November 12, 2021 NSF

    Graduate Research Fellow, University of Chicago Adina Feinstein, Darryl Seligman, Max Günther, & Fred Adams Dissertation Talk @afeinstein20 AAS 241 January 11, 2023 NSF Graduate Research Fellow, University of Chicago Advisor: Jacob Bean Adina Feinstein 1 A multi-wavelength investigation of young stellar & planetary systems
  2. arXiv: 2109:07011 PRL, under review GLEAM November 12, 2021 NSF

    Graduate Research Fellow, University of Chicago Adina Feinstein, Darryl Seligman, Max Günther, & Fred Adams Dissertation Talk @afeinstein20 AAS 241 January 11, 2023 2 Star and planets are both cool, so why not study both? NSF Graduate Research Fellow, University of Chicago Advisor: Jacob Bean Adina Feinstein
  3. “Know thy star, know thy planet” is triply true for

    young systems. 3
  4. “Know thy star, know thy planet” is triply true for

    young systems. 3
  5. “Know thy star, know thy planet” is triply true for

    young systems. 3
  6. 4

  7. 4 David+ 2016 David+ 2019 Newton+ 2019 David+2020 Zhou+ 2020

    Carleo+ 2021 Mann+ 2021 Martioli+ 2021 Bouma+ 2022 Wood+ 2022
  8. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 5
  9. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 5
  10. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 5
  11. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 6
  12. Using TESS to understand flare statistics. 7

  13. We developed a new convolutional neural network to identify flares

    in 2-minute TESS data. 8 (Feinstein et al. 2020a,b) TIC 13955147 TIC 269797536 Time [BJD - 2457000] Normalized Flux Github: afeinstein20/stella
  14. Flare amplitudes and rates are higher for then coolest stars

    across all ages, with noticeable evolution in other temperature bins. 9 (Feinstein et al. 2020a,b) ≤ 50 Myr > 50 Myr Sample size = 3200 stars
  15. Flare amplitudes and rates are higher for then coolest stars

    across all ages, with noticeable evolution in other temperature bins. 9 (Feinstein et al. 2020a,b) ≤ 50 Myr > 50 Myr Sample size = 3200 stars
  16. 10 · M = ηR3 p LHE 4a2GMcore (Owen &

    Wu, 2017; Owen & Campos Estrada, 2020) To inject flares, we changed the instantaneous value of the high energy luminosity (LHE ).
  17. Inputting these flare rates into mass-loss calculations, we find an

    effect on the resulting fraction of atmospheric mass retained. 11 (Feinstein et al. 2020b)
  18. Inputting these flare rates into mass-loss calculations, we find an

    effect on the resulting fraction of atmospheric mass retained. 11 (Feinstein et al. 2020b)
  19. Inputting these flare rates into mass-loss calculations, we find an

    effect on the resulting fraction of atmospheric mass retained. 11 (Feinstein et al. 2020b)
  20. We see no flare dependence as a function of rotational

    phase, which indicates these flares happen everywhere! 12 (Feinstein et al. 2020b) Flare Amplitude < 5% Flare Amplitude ≥ 5% Sample size = 3200 stars
  21. We see no flare dependence as a function of rotational

    phase, which indicates these flares happen everywhere! 12 (Feinstein et al. 2020b) Flare Amplitude < 5% Flare Amplitude ≥ 5% Sample size = 3200 stars
  22. Faster rotating stars with stronger preferential braiding should produce shallower

    flare-frequency distributions (i.e. more high- energy flares). 13 (Seligman, Rogers, Feinstein et al. 2022) Fast Rotators Slow Rotators
  23. Faster rotating stars with stronger preferential braiding should produce shallower

    flare-frequency distributions (i.e. more high- energy flares). 13 (Seligman, Rogers, Feinstein et al. 2022) Fast Rotators Slow Rotators
  24. Faster rotating stars with stronger preferential braiding should produce shallower

    flare-frequency distributions (i.e. more high- energy flares). 13 (Seligman, Rogers, Feinstein et al. 2022) Fast Rotators Slow Rotators
  25. We applied the neural network to all 2-minute targets from

    the nominal TESS mission (~200,000 stars). 14 (Feinstein et al. 2022a)
  26. Using HST to understand FUV flare contributions. 15

  27. We observed AU Mic with HST/COS and identified 13 flares

    over 5 hours (2.5 flares hour-1)! 16 (Feinstein et al. 2022b)
  28. We observed AU Mic with HST/COS and identified 13 flares

    over 5 hours (2.5 flares hour-1)! 16 (Feinstein et al. 2022b)
  29. The presence of super flares (> 1033 erg/s) can increase

    the instantaneous mass loss by six orders of magnitude. 17 (Feinstein et al. 2022b)
  30. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 18 We’re seeing enhanced mass-loss in the presence of flares, and potential instantaneous mass-loss changes of ~6 orders or magnitude.
  31. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 19
  32. 20 Distribution of transiting exoplanets (3800 planets) Planets < 100

    Myr (12 planets)
  33. 20 Distribution of transiting exoplanets (3800 planets) Planets < 100

    Myr (12 planets)
  34. 20 Distribution of transiting exoplanets (3800 planets) Planets < 100

    Myr (12 planets) V1298 Tau c
  35. 21 V1298 Tau (Feinstein et al. 2022c)

  36. 22 We observed V1298 Tau c with Gemini-N/GRACES, and weirdly

    enough, we found Hɑ to vary smoothly with its transit. (Feinstein et al. 2021)
  37. 1.85% depth from line fit 22 We observed V1298 Tau

    c with Gemini-N/GRACES, and weirdly enough, we found Hɑ to vary smoothly with its transit. (Feinstein et al. 2021)
  38. 23 And 10 months later, we saw it again…? (Schlawin,

    Ilyin, Feinstein et al. 2021) LBT/PEPSI Gemini-N/GRACES
  39. 24 However, the Hɑ trend could be recreated using a

    toy model including starspots and facular regions. (Feinstein et al. 2021)
  40. 24 However, the Hɑ trend could be recreated using a

    toy model including starspots and facular regions. (Feinstein et al. 2021)
  41. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 25 We still don’t know!
  42. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 26
  43. 1. How does stellar activity affect atmospheric mass-loss? 
 2.

    What do young exoplanet atmospheres look like? 26 So… What’s next?
  44. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features

  45. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features AU Mic b

    with HST/COS V1298 Tau c with HST/COS (PI P. W. Cauley)
  46. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features Hɑ monitoring? AU

    Mic b with HST/COS V1298 Tau c with HST/COS (PI P. W. Cauley)
  47. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features Hɑ monitoring? AU

    Mic b with HST/COS V1298 Tau c with HST/COS (PI P. W. Cauley) 2 young planets (< 50 Myr) with Palomar/He filter (PI W. Levine)
  48. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features Hɑ monitoring? AU

    Mic b with HST/COS V1298 Tau c with HST/COS (PI P. W. Cauley) 2 young planets (< 50 Myr) with Palomar/He filter (PI W. Levine) High-res spectroscopy for DS Tuc Ab & HIP 67522b (PI Mansfield; PI Feinstein)
  49. 27 Lower spot contrast More chromospheric features Hɑ monitoring? AU

    Mic b with HST/COS V1298 Tau c with HST/COS (PI P. W. Cauley) 2 young planets (< 50 Myr) with Palomar/He filter (PI W. Levine) High-res spectroscopy for DS Tuc Ab & HIP 67522b (PI Mansfield; PI Feinstein)
  50. 28 Takeaways [email protected] @afeinstein20 • We developed the first convolutional

    neural network to detect flares in TESS 2-minute data. • We found TESS flare rates of cool (< 4000 K) stars to show minimal evolution in their flare rates over ~800 Myr. • We observed 13 (+ some) FUV flares on AU Mic and used these priors to understand instantaneous atmospheric mass loss. • We found Hɑ to vary smoothly during two transits of V1298 Tau c, separated by 10 months. While this could be evidence of an escaping hydrogen atmosphere, its more likely to be drive by stellar activity. • We have lots of new data sets to still explore in the FUV with HST/COS and NIR with ground-based high-res! So stay tuned… t a e s l l Github: afeinstein20/stella Github: afeinstein20/eleanor