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Measuring and Logging Everything in Real Time

Measuring and Logging Everything in Real Time

Do you know what is happening in your web application right now, this second, how many requests, logins, exceptions you have, how many and what data your users are generating and what the click through rate of each of your registration step is? Or do you know exactly which exception with which stack trace caused the error your users are seeing? If not, this talk will show how you can easily measure and log everything that happens in your application with the help of open source tools, such as Graphite, StatsD, Graylog2 and Logstash, without influencing your production environment.

Dutch PHP Conference 2013

Bastian Hofmann

June 08, 2013
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  1. Measuring and Logging Everything in Real-Time @BastianHofmann As the title

    says in the next hour we are going to talk about two very important aspects of any web application that are often overlooked in the beginning:
  2. Logging 1st is logging, so that you actually now, what's

    happening in your application if you have to track down an error
  3. Measuring And 2nd is measuring and monitoring constantly how your

    application is behaving
  4. Many roads Of course as with many things there are

    many roads to accomplish that and many tools available, that help you with it. i'll not going to show you all of them, but just what we ended up using at ResearchGate. They work great for us, but depending on your use cases other tools may be more suited to your needs. The important thing to get out of this talk: take care of it
  5. A few words about me before that ...

  6. i work at researchgate, the social network for scientists and

    researchers
  7. ResearchGate gives science back to the people who make it

    happen. We help researchers build reputation and accelerate scientific progress. On their terms. ‟ the goal is to give...
  8. over 2.9 million users

  9. here some impressions of the page

  10. None
  11. http://gigaom.com/2013/06/05/heres-how-bill-gatess- researchgate-investment-might-change-the-world-for-the- better http://venturevillage.eu/researchgate

  12. have this, and also work on some cool stuff

  13. None
  14. in addition to this i also speak frequently on conferences

    throughout the world
  15. work and live in berlin

  16. Questions? Ask by the way, if you have any questions

    throughout this talk, if you don't understand something, just raise your hand and ask. probably my fault anyways since i spoke to quickly or my accent was too bad
  17. Logging So 1st: Logging

  18. For when something goes wrong

  19. server error log access log debug logs slow query log

    ... Let's start with a simple setup: we have one server with an apache and some database on it. Of course all of these services are writing logs somewhere
  20. $ ssh my_simple_server getting at these is very simple, just

    ssh into the server
  21. $ tail -f error.log $ cat error.log | grep Exception

    and use your favorite unix command line tools to view the logs
  22. Error Logs Let's look at the application related logs a

    bit more closely, for example the ... as it says, Apache and PHP log all errors that happen in your application there
  23. ErrorLog /var/logs/apache/error.log The location is specified in your Apache configuration

    somewhere like this
  24. php.ini •error_reporting •display_errors •display_startup_errors •log_errors •error_log And there are some

    ini settings in PHP for configuring how errors should be handled, just read up on them in the documentation
  25. callable set_exception_handler( callable $exception_handler ); Since you probably don't want

    to display an exception to the user (or a blank page) but a nice error page, you should set a custom exception handler in your application
  26. callable set_error_handler( callable $error_handler [, int $error_types = E_ALL |

    E_STRICT ] ); and while you are at it, also set a custom error_handler, hey it's PHP
  27. bool error_log ( string $message [, int $message_type = 0

    [, string $destination [, string $extra_headers ]]] ) You can then log to the apache error log with the error_log function
  28. and the user can get then such a nice error

    page, looking at this screenshot: first you may notice is the http response code displayed there
  29. HTTP Response Codes http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616- sec6.html Please read up on it

    and choose correct ones for your application. helps you greatly with filtering the important stuff from the unimportant later on: a 503 may be much more serious then a 404
  30. on the screenshot here you also see some additional codes

    and ids displayed that help to identify the error in your system later on
  31. Log additional info of course you should not only display

    this information but also write it to your log files, you can easily do this in your custom error handler, and if you need to find the error that resulted in this error page you can just grep for the error code
  32. Not only error codes

  33. Request Information

  34. But what about fatal errors A bit earlier I said,

    you should actually write your own error handler to catch them show an error page and add custom information to the error logs, but what about fatal error, the php script is aborted then
  35. Use error_get_last() in a Shutdown Handler http://php.net/manual/en/function.error- get-last.php

  36. Access Logs Another important log is the access log, which

    logs each incoming request
  37. 192.168.56.1 - - [09/Jul/2012:19:18:19 +0200] "GET /rg_trunk/webroot/c/af10c/ images/template/rg_logo_default.png HTTP/ 1.1"

    200 882 "http://devm/rg_trunk/webroot/ directory/publications/" this is what it usually looks like
  38. LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" custom CustomLog

    /var/logs/apache/access.log custom http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/ mod_log_config.html#logformat and you configure it in apache like this, there is already lots of information from the request you can put in there, like url, response code, request time etc
  39. http://de.php.net/apache_note string apache_note ( string $note_name [, string $note_value =

    "" ] ) but with the apache_note function you can add additional information from your application. by the way this is of course also possible with nginx, there you just set some response headers in php, in nginx you can then access these upstream headers, log them, and then filter them out so the clients don't get them
  40. LogFormat "...\"%{referer}i\" \"%{user- agent}i\" %{session_id}n %{account_id}n..." custom but back to

    apache: these notes then can be referenced in your log format like this
  41. Debug Logs next log type that your application can write

    are plain debug logs that are not related to errors
  42. https://github.com/Seldaek/monolog/ a good library recommendation for doing this instead of

    writing to a file manually is monolog
  43. <?php use Monolog\Logger; use Monolog\Handler\StreamHandler; // create a log channel

    $log = new Logger('name'); $log->pushHandler( new StreamHandler( 'path/to/your.log', Logger::WARNING ) ); // add records to the log $log->addWarning('Foo'); $log->addError('Bar');
  44. Handlers •Stream •Mail •FirePHP •ChromePHP •Socket •Roating File •MongoDB •Syslog

    •Gelf •Null •Test •FingersCrossed nice thing is: it supports multiple handlers out of the box, to log wherever you need it, especially useful: the fingers crossed handler: you just put your logs in this handler but it does not log them directly to a file, only when a certain condition was met, like a threshold all already written logs and all further logs are written to a file
  45. Log in a structured way one thing that can help

    you greatly with managing huge amount of logs with lot's of different additional information in it is logging in a structured way (not only for debug but also for error logs)
  46. JSON http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt in my opinion a good format is json,

    since it is still human readable
  47. <?php use Monolog\Logger; use Monolog\Handler\StreamHandler; use Monolog\Formatter\JsonFormatter; $log = new

    Logger('name'); $handler = new StreamHandler( 'path/to/your.log', Logger::WARNING ); $handler->setFormatter(new JsonFormatter()); $log->pushHandler($handler); in monolog you can just set a formatter for this
  48. Logs from other services but of course your application probably

    is a bit more complex, soa anyone? so you have also other services somewhere logging something
  49. web server http service http service http service http service

    user request log log log log log the setup may look like this, a request comes to a webserver and your php application on there calls other services. each of them have their own logs. for example the http service there. now if an error happens in the http service we are probably going to display an error as well in our php app. but how can we identify then which exception on the http service lead to the displayed error on the web server?
  50. Correlation / Tracing ID a nice way of doing this

    in a generlized, non-custom way is by using a common correlation or tracing id
  51. web server http service http service http service http service

    create unique trace_id for request user request trace_id trace_id trace_id trace_id log log log log log so when the user request first hits your system you generate a unique trace_id for this request and you then pass this to all underlying services through an http header.
  52. X-Trace-Id: bbr8ehb984tbab894

  53. web server http service http service http service http service

    create unique trace_id for request user request trace_id trace_id trace_id trace_id log log log log log everyone then puts these tracing id in every logs they write. so if you have a tracing id you can easily find all logs for this request by just greping for the trace_id
  54. but... usually your application does not look like this

  55. but more like this: you have multiple servers lying around

  56. which means ssh-ing into all of these servers (dsh...) and

    then grepping for information over multiple logs (access log, error log, debug logs, ...) can become quite tedious and time consuming
  57. Aggregate the logs in a central place so to make

    it easier: work on a central log management and ...
  58. Make them easily full-text searchable also ...

  59. Make them aggregate-able and make different kind of logs aggregateable

  60. Always Log to file but whatever you do and whatever

    we are going to talk about...
  61. Seriously...

  62. Always Log to file because this is your backup when

    your central log management solution will fail (network errors, etc). and i'll guarantee you, it will fail sometime, probably at the worst moment
  63. Directly to a database first naive approach to central log

    management is to log directly from you application to a database (you saw the mongoDbHandler from Monolog)
  64. webserver webserver webserver DB setup would look like this: everything

    in one place, easily searchable, great, finished
  65. Disadvantages not quite, it has some disadvantages

  66. Database is down? what happens if

  67. Database is slow?

  68. Database is full?

  69. How to integrate access logs?

  70. Influences application performance because of all the database queries you

    are doing, and chances are if there are problems on your platform and multiple errors are occurring, directly writing to a database will make your problems worse
  71. Frontend? also there is still no frontend to easily search

    and monitor exceptions, of course there are sql clients, phpmyadmin, rockmongo etc, but they are multi purpose tools and not really made for displaying and filtering logs
  72. Better solutions? are there ...

  73. graylog2 http://graylog2.org/ on tool that I quite like for this

    is called graylog2
  74. Full text search it comes out of the box with

    a very nice interface to do...
  75. Structured Messages in ...

  76. Metrics & Alarms and offers metrics, alarms on your logs

  77. that's what the interface looks like, you'll see this in

    action in a minute
  78. https://github.com/bashofmann/ vm_graylog2_amqp_logstash_apache

  79. Graylog2 UDP GELF Messages elasticsearch webserver webserver webserver the easiest

    approach is to just send the messages in a special format (gelf, supported by a monolog handler) with a upd request from your app servers to graylog which stores them in elasticsearch. udp is quite nice since it is fire and forget, so it does not influence our application too much (if you reuse connections and don't create a new one for each log)
  80. { "version": "1.0", "host": "www1", "short_message": "Short message", "full_message": "Backtrace

    here\n \nmore stuff", "timestamp": 1291899928.412, "level": 1, "facility": "payment-backend", "file": "/var/www/somefile.rb", "line": 356, "_user_id": 42, "_something_else": "foo" } a typical graylog gelf message looks like this, some default fields, and user specific fields prepended with an underscore
  81. Disadvantages but ...

  82. Graylog/ elasticsearch is down? still if graylog/es is down you

    are using logs
  83. Graylog/ elasticsearch is full?

  84. Packet loss udp has the disadvantage that because of network

    errors your logs possibly don't arrive
  85. Graylog2 elasticsearch webserver webserver webserver AMQP GELF GELF GELF GELF

    better approach, put a queue in between, also good for load balancing
  86. Don't influence your application by logging but still if you

    push something in a queue you are still influencing your production system unnecessarily
  87. Always Log to file and remember you should log to

    file anyways
  88. logstash http://logstash.net/ enter the next tool we are using, logstash

    is a very powerful tool to handle log processing
  89. input filter output basic workflow is that you have some

    input where logstash gets log messages in, on this input you can execute multiple filters that modify the message and then you can output the filtered message somewhere
  90. Very rich plugin system to do this it offers a

    very large and rich plugin system for all kinds of inputs, filters and outputs, and you can also write your own
  91. Graylog2 elasticsearch webserver webserver webserver AMQP log log log logstash

    logstash logstash so our setup would look like this, logstash instances on each app server take the local log files, parse and filter them and send them to the queue
  92. input { file { type => "error" path => [

    "/var/logs/php/*.log" ] add_field => [ "severity", "error" ] } file { type => "access" path => [ "/var/logs/apache/*_access.log" ] add_field => [ "severity", "info" ] } } input configuration
  93. filter{ grok { match => ["@source", "\/%{USERNAME:facility}\.log$"] } grok {

    type => "access" pattern => "^%{IP:OriginalIp} \s[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+\s[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+\s\[.*? \]\s\"%{DATA:Request}..." } } filter configuration
  94. output { amqp { host => "amqp.host" exchange_type => "fanout"

    name => "logs" } } output configuration
  95. Measuring now that you have all the log messages in

    a central, searchable, aggregateable place: lets go to measuring
  96. For knowing what happens so that you know what actually

    happens in your application and in your system
  97. Technical Metrics and with that i mean technical metrics like

    load on your servers, available memory, requests, exceptions, response times (a bit more on that later)
  98. Business Metrics but also and probably even more important, business

    metrics
  99. Define your KPIs or so called key performance indicators, example:

    signups, profile views, messages, uploaded images, average volume per sale, ... it really depends on your application
  100. Graphite http://graphite.wikidot.com/ again there are many tools available to collect

    and display these metrics: one i want to highlight is graphite
  101. webserver webserver webserver graphite UDP easiest way to use it

    is just sending udp requests with the metric you want to count to graphite, but if you're collection and measuring lots of stuff this could put quite a high load on graphite
  102. StatsD https://github.com/etsy/statsd/ etsy wrote a great small tool called statsd

    to help you with that
  103. webserver webserver webserver graphite UDP statsd you can just hook

    it in between your servers and graphite as a small load balancing daemon. it receives all messages, aggregates them and then flushes them in a certain interval, like very 10 seconds to graphite
  104. webserver webserver webserver statsd statsd statsd graphite aggregated UPD message

    of course you also can run one statsd on every webserver, so that your statsd gets not overloaded
  105. webserver webserver webserver statsd statsd statsd graphite aggregated UPD message

    statsd and you even can arrange different statsd in a row
  106. Metric? what is a metric: three different types

  107. Counters counters (how often did something happen)

  108. Timers timer (how long did something take)

  109. Gauges gauges (collect arbitrary values (amount of a sale)

  110. graphite comes with a powerful interface where you can plot

    and aggregate this data into graphs and perform different mathematical functions on it to get it exactly the way you want to display your data
  111. https://metrics.librato.com/ and if you don't want to be bothered with

    setting graphite up, you can also use hosted solutions like librato (statsd comes with different backends to push data to)
  112. http://mashable.com/2010/10/13/etsy-office-pics/ and if you have all of this, you should

    make your graphs really visible, here a picture from the etsy office
  113. Remember: Response Times last but not least:

  114. Easiest approach: Get it out of the access log

  115. 192.168.56.1 - - [09/Jul/2012:19:18:19 +0200] "GET /rg_trunk/webroot/c/af10c/ images/template/rg_logo_default.png HTTP/ 1.1"

    200 882 "http://devm/rg_trunk/webroot/ directory/publications/" this is what it usually looks like
  116. Is this actually what we want to measure? Is this

    really the response time the user sees?
  117. External Resources CSS JavaScript Images Slow connections Slow Browsers SSL

    Handshakes DNS resolving so for the users the actual response time is actually when all this finished loading
  118. That is what we want to measure!

  119. https://github.com/lognormal/boomerang

  120. browser JS: boomerang logstash trackingServer access log requests tracking image

    with timing information as query parameters graphite statsd boomerang collects from various sources load times of the current page (e.g. window.performance api), and with them requests a tracking image from a tracking server you specify (should be on another domain, so that you don't send unnecessary cookies there). on this tracking server a logstash can parse the access logs and then send the collected timers via statsd to graphite
  121. http://twitter.com/BastianHofmann http://profiles.google.com/bashofmann http://lanyrd.com/people/BastianHofmann http://speakerdeck.com/u/bastianhofmann https://github.com/bashofmann https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bastian_Hofmann/ mail@bastianhofmann.de thanks, you can

    contact me on any of these platforms or via mail. please go to joind.in and rate the talks you have seen