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fundamental-causes-dsu

 fundamental-causes-dsu

Invited talk at Delaware State University's Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice

C07da636fa8428f90daa78b89c90bafb?s=128

Christopher Prener

April 15, 2021
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Transcript

  1. Fundamental Causes Race, Class, and COVID-19 Health Disparities in St.

    Louis, MO Christopher Prener, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Sociology Saint Louis University
  2. Fundamental Access Race, Class, and COVID-19 Health Disparities in St.

    Louis, MO Christopher Prener, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Sociology Saint Louis University
  3. Acknowledgments Saint Louis University Department of Computer Science Especially Chair

    Michael Goldwasser, Ph.D. and David Ferry, Ph.D. Capstone students Alvin Do, Metta Pham, and Eric Quach have contributed code this year. Delaware State University Xuanren Goodman, Ph.D. Tanya Whittle, Ph.D.
  4. AGENDA 1. Preface 2. Situating Public Science 3. Tracking a

    Pandemic 4. Fundamental Causes & COVID-19 5. Where We Go From Here 1. PREFACE
  5. ▸ Medical and urban sociologist with an interest in spatial

    and computational methods ▸ Affiliations: • SLU’s Advanced HEAlth Data Research Institute • SLU’s Institute for Healing Justice and Equity • Northeastern University’s Institute for Health Equity and Social Justice Research 1. PREFACE “HI, I’M CHRIS”
  6. 1. PREFACE INTELLECTUAL TRAJECTORY Precarity

  7. 2 SITUATING PUBLIC SCIENCE

  8. 2. SITUATING PUBLIC SCIENCE PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY MICHAEL BURAWOY Indiana University

  9. IT ENTAILS, THEREFORE, A DOUBLE CONVERSATION… [BETWEEN] WHAT I CALL

    TRADITIONAL PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY… [AND] ORGANIC PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY Michael Burawoy “For Public Sociology” (2005)
  10. Wikimedia Commons W.E.B. DU BOIS JANE ADDAMS

  11. 2. SITUATING PUBLIC SCIENCE PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY MICHAEL BURAWOY “presenting findings

    in an accessible manner” Indiana University
  12. 2. SITUATING PUBLIC SCIENCE PUBLIC SCIENCE “presenting findings in an

    accessible manner”
  13. 2. SITUATING PUBLIC SCIENCE PUBLIC SCIENCE “presenting findings in an

    accessible manner” engaging in descriptive research that moves public discourse forward
  14. 3 TRACKING A PANDEMIC

  15. Everybody's got a dashboard these days… Unsplash

  16. DASHBOARDS ≠ OPEN DATA Few dashboards provide easy access to

    underlying data, though it is there if you know where to look. There is also little to no standardization.
  17. DIFFERENT TOOLS Dashboards are being powered by a number of

    different commercial tools, including ESRI, Microsoft, Tableau, and in-house solutions.
  18. 3. TRACKING A PANDEMIC DATA ARE OFTEN POORLY VISUALIZED Basic

    rules, like using per capita rates, are often ignored.
  19. Similar fabric panels with jagged edges that we need to

    stitch together. Data Seams. Unsplash
  20. 3. TRACKING A PANDEMIC PULLING THE FABRIC TOGETHER New York

    Times COVID-19 Database (via GitHub) County Public Health Zip Code Data (via scrapers+API calls) Missouri COVID Tracking Data Sets State of Missouri and Illinois (via scrapers) CMS Nursing Home Data & HHS Hospitalization Data (via API) Census Bureau (via API)
  21. Sewing these seams requires an array of computational tools for

    scraping and standardizing various jurisdictions’ data, plus a communications strategy. Unsplash
  22. 3. TRACKING A PANDEMIC PULLING THE FABRIC TOGETHER

  23. THE TWEET THAT LAUNCHED… MANY MORE TWEETS

  24. None
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  26. 4 FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES & COVID-19

  27. FOR THE PROBLEM OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY IS THE PROBLEM

    OF COLOR LINE W.E.B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk (1903) Wikimedia Commons
  28. 4. FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES & COVID-19 FOCUSING ON SOUTHERN CITIES Urban

    sociology has focused on a relatively small number of cities, and we often view them as a research site rather than an institution. We need to broaden literatures into the literal and figurative American South and produce deeper literatures on specific cities.
  29. A LABORATORY FOR RACISM INDIGENOUS EXPULSION THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE DRED

    SCOTT BLEEDING KANSAS Clockwise from Upper-left: Author’s Work; Smithsonian Institution; Wikipedia; Wikipedia
  30. A LABORATORY FOR RACISM DEED COVENANTS EXCLUSIONARY ZONING “SLUM” CLEARANCE

    REDLINING Clockwise from Upper-left: Erenow; Google; Wikipedia; Missouri Bar Association
  31. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” C -

    “Definitely Declining” D - “Hazardous”
  32. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” C -

    “Definitely Declining” D - “Hazardous” “‘homogeneous,’ and were in demand in ‘good times or bad’” (Hillier 2005:216) Hillier, Amy. 2005. “Residential Security Maps and Neighborhood Appraisals.” Social Science History 29(2):207-233.
  33. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” C -

    “Definitely Declining” D - “Hazardous” “In St. Louis, the white middle class suburb of Ladue was colored green because…it had ’not a single foreigner or negro.’” (Rothstein 2017) Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
  34. REDLINING A - “Best” C - “Definitely Declining” D -

    “Hazardous” B - “Still Desirable” “‘They are like a 1935 automobile—still good, but not what the people are buying today who can afford a new one.’” (Hillier 2005:217) Hillier, Amy. 2005. “Residential Security Maps and Neighborhood Appraisals.” Social Science History 29(2):207-233.
  35. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” D -

    “Hazardous” C - “Definitely Declining” “‘infiltration of a lower grade population’” (Hillier 2005:217) Hillier, Amy. 2005. “Residential Security Maps and Neighborhood Appraisals.” Social Science History 29(2):207-233.
  36. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” C -

    “Definitely Declining” D - “Hazardous” Hillier, Amy. 2005. “Residential Security Maps and Neighborhood Appraisals.” Social Science History 29(2):207-233. “‘detrimental influences in a pronounced degree,’ and ‘undesirable population or an infiltration of it’” (Hillier 2005:217)
  37. REDLINING A - “Best” B - “Still Desirable” C -

    “Definitely Declining” D - “Hazardous” Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co. “Lincoln Terrace was colored red because ‘it had little or no value today…due to the colored element now controlling the district’” (Rothstein 2017)
  38. None
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  40. Relationship with Redlining: r = 0.750 (p < 0.001)

  41. 4. FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES & COVID-19 MEASURING SEGREGATION The Index of

    Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) provides a sub-county measure of segregation that produces scores per feature from -1 (total segregation of the marginalized group) to 1 (total segregation of the privileged group). Formula: ICEi = (Ai - Pi )/Ti Where: Ai = Privileged [white] Pi = Marginalized [Black] Ti = Total Population Massey, Douglas. 2001. “The prodigal paradigm returns: ecology comes back to sociology.” Pp. 41-48 in Does It Take a Village? Community Effects on Children, Adolescents, and Families, edited by A. Booth and A. Crouter. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Krieger, Nancy, et al. 2017. "Measures of local segregation for monitoring health inequities by local health departments." American Journal of Public Health 107(6): 903-906.
  42. No Population

  43. Relationship with Redlining: r = -0.525 (p < 0.001)

  44. FOUR ‘PECULIAR’ INSTITUTIONS Instituion Form of Labor Core of Economy

    Dominant Social Type Slavey (1619-1865) Unfree fixed labor Plantation Slave Jim Crow (South,1865-1965) Free fixed labor Agrarian and extractive Sharecropper Ghetto (North, 1915-1968) Free mobile labor Industrial manufacturing Menial worker Hyperghetto and Prison (1968-) Fixed surplus labor Postindustrial services Welfare recipient and criminal Loïc Wacquant (2002) argues that there are four successive institutions - particular to the U.S. - that link slavery with contemporary racial inequality. Wacquant, Loïc. 2002. “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration.” New Left Review 13:41-60.
  45. FOUR ‘PECULIAR’ INSTITUTIONS Instituion Form of Labor Core of Economy

    Dominant Social Type Slavey (1619-1865) Unfree fixed labor Plantation Slave Jim Crow (South,1865-1965) Free fixed labor Agrarian and extractive Sharecropper Ghetto (North, 1915-1968) Free mobile labor Industrial manufacturing Menial worker Hyperghetto and Prison (1968-) Fixed surplus labor Postindustrial services Welfare recipient and criminal Loïc Wacquant (2002) argues that there are four successive institutions - particular to the U.S. - that link slavery with contemporary racial inequality. COVID-19 (2020-present) Wacquant, Loïc. 2002. “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration.” New Left Review 13:41-60.
  46. These layers form the structure on which health disparities are

    built. Unsplash
  47. 4. FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES & COVID-19 FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE THEORY segregation (Williams

    & Collins 2001 and Sewell 2016) structural racism (Gee & Ford 2011) systematic racism (Phelan & Link 2015) racial capitalism (Pirtle 2020)
  48. None
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  50. March-June: r = -0.736 (p < 0.001) July-September: r =

    0.047 (p = 0.718) October-December: r = 0.642 (p < 0.001)
  51. March-June: r = 0.644 (p < 0.001) July-September: r =

    -0.063 (p = 0.628) October-December: r = -0.633 (p < 0.001)
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  57. St. Louis City

  58. 5 WHERE WE GO FROM HERE

  59. Karl Marx The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) Wikimedia

    Commons MEN MAKE THEIR OWN HISTORY, BUT THEY DO NOT MAKE IT AS THEY PLEASE; THEY DO NOT MAKE IT UNDER SELF-SELECTED CIRCUMSTANCES, BUT UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES EXISTING ALREADY, GIVEN AND TRANSMITTED FROM THE PAST. THE TRADITION OF ALL DEAD GENERATIONS WEIGHS LIKE A NIGHTMARE ON THE BRAINS OF THE LIVING.
  60. 5. WHERE WE GO FROM HERE PARTING THOUGHTS ▸ Research,

    data, and communication have not been the most pressing concerns for local public health agencies in MO. ▸ Public science and public sociology can help cut through the most pressing issues we face right now - COVID, racism, poverty. ▸ COVID-19 patterns that appear durable as cross-sections have important period effects that we need to interrogate. ▸ We need to focus on how power relations influence COVID risk. ▸ Iterating on analyses is not something we always get to do, but it is tremendously gratifying.
  61. Slides available via SpeakerDeck Follow on the web: speakerdeck.com/chrisprener/ fundamental-causes-dsu

    Raw data, code available via GitHub github.com/slu-openGIS/ MO_HEALTH_Covid_Tracking chris.prener@slu.edu chris-prener.github.io LEARN MORE THANKS FOR COMING! @chrisprener Visualization code available via GitHub github.com/slu-openGIS/ covid_daily_viz slu-opengis.github.io/ covid_daily_viz/ chrisprener.substack.com