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[Openmind 2012] The National Digital Library of Finland - Public Interface FINNA by Aki Lassila (Head of Development, National Library of Finland)

September 19, 2012

[Openmind 2012] The National Digital Library of Finland - Public Interface FINNA by Aki Lassila (Head of Development, National Library of Finland)

Openmind 2012 / Open Knowledge Festival 2012


September 19, 2012

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  1. The National Digital Library of Finland – Public Interface FINNA

    Aki Lassila Head of Development National Library of Finland / Library Network Services
  2. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Outline  What Finna is all

    about – Linkage to National Digital Library  Open Source Software viewpoint  Customer-driven development  Software as a Service  Summing it all up
  3. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES National Digital Library of Finland National

    Digital Library means:  Common user interface for the information resources of libraries, archives and museums (beta version in operation 2012).  Digitisation of the most essential cultural heritage materials of libraries, archives and museums.  Development of a long-term preservation solution for electronic cultural heritage materials (in planning phase).  National Digital Library works as an aggregator for the European Digital Library Europeana.

     Search information from archive, library and museum systems and databases.  Retrieve materials, such as pictures, documents, newspapers, research documents, video and audio recordings.  Access digital services, such as renew loans, buy pictures and order documents. One system and one metadata index, multiple views and services:  National view for all content.  Local and sector specific views (museum’s view).  Institutions’ own views.
  5. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Software Architecture of Finna  Finna

    is based on several software modules that are integrated together; therefore new modules can be added to the system if necessary  Finna consists of two main parts: – End users’ national interface or portal – Archives’, libraries’, and museums’ administrator tools  Main modules of the Finna system are: – End users’ interface based on VuFind – Administrator panel for organisations, customisation and statistics – Search engine Solr – Metadata harvesting and processing module RecordManager – Finnish linguistics module Voikko – External index and external APIs
  6. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES  VuFind’s role as the user

    interface is central.  Admin panel handles statistics and upkeep.  More functionality and modules can be added in the future.  Finna’s demo: www.kdk.fi/en/public-interface
  7. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES The Drivers of Open Source Software

    (Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), www.itaa.org)  The advent of the Internet: – One driver of open source development is the availability of the modern Internet to serve as a mechanism for the growth in open source development communities that are necessary for successful development and continued improvements in the programs.  Software license cost: – There is a perception that open source software products cost less than products developed by companies following a closed source software development model. Both software development models are in flux today as each works to serve the needs of customers by focusing on different pricing models; licensing is only part of the total value equation.  Flexibility: – Supporters frequently argue that because the source code is viewable to all, the underlying technology can be used in many innovative ways, offering a flexible platform to meet present and future software needs.  Global innovation: – With many more developers able to view the source code, supporters argue that the pace of innovation is greater as the barriers to software modification are lower.  Security: – Source code transparency is argued to promote more secure software because a wider group of people may inspect the software for flaws.  Customer involvement: – Supporters suggest that open source development models may provide more opportunities for customer-driven innovation than the traditional proprietary approach.
  8. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Private vs. Collective Innovation Model (von

    Hippel and von Krogh 2003) Private investment  Restrict access to source code  Protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) via intellectual property law mechanisms: patents, copyrights and trade secrets  Private good  Induce innovation by fostering IPRs: companies and individuals invest in creating innovations in return for future profits (private investment&returns)  Organization: cathedral  Innovators: SW manufacturers  Problems: market failure, social loss Collective action  Free/open access to the source code  Free revealing of innovation: distribute knowledge  Public good: nonrivalry, nonexcludability  Prevent market failures: avoid social loss, benefit from spillover and network externalities effects  Organization: bazaar  Innovators: (sophisticated) users  Problems: freeriding, prisoner's dilemma
  9. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES "Private-Collective" Innovation Model (von Hippel and

    von Krogh 2003)  Free revealing and distribution of innovations but still retain copyrights.  Free revealing of innovation does not represent loss, it can increase adoption and diffusion => benefits from spillover and network externalities effects.  Open source software is information (digital product) and as such has the same characteristics as an public good (nonrivalry, nonexcludability).  Prevents market failures: avoid social loss (why societies fund academic research?).  Users carry out the entire innovation process: from design to distribution to field support and product improvement.
  10. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Main Principles Steering the Development of

    Finna  Development is based on the requirements defined together with libraries, archives, and museums.  Organisations will become users of the software in phases.  Development occurs in development cycles.  The services are planned together with the customers.  The user interface software is based on VuFind and additional open source software modules.  National Library is responsible of the development of the software.
  11. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Customer driven development and Finna 

    Why open source software (OSS) and agile development method? – Value of software is in how it enhances (existing) activities or enables (more efficient) new ways of doing things. – Above mentioned issues rely on e.g. how easily or efficiently users can utilize the system/software in question. – Note that software’s functionality is not enough but usability, integratability (related to openness, APIs), and customization are also important.  Development progresses in development cycles and issues are priorised according to users’ needs.  NDL’s user interface Finna will need to continue to develop also in the future.  Agile development methods (Scrum in this case) and OSS based development fully support ongoing, customer driven service development work.
  12. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Overview of the SaaS Model (Lassila

    2012)  Software as a Service definition: Software as a Service is time and location independent online access to a remotely managed server application, that permits concurrent utilisation of the same application installation by a large number of independent users (customers, subscribers), offers an attractive payment logic compared to the customer value received, and makes a continuous flow of new and innovative software possible.  SaaS characteristics: 1) For the customer SaaS enables online access to an application over the network (availability anywhere, anytime) 2) SaaS application usage is both provided and consumed simultaneously (hence the term "service") 3) The customer gains only the access to use the application(s), the ownership of the software is not transferred to the customer (signifying the change of emphasis from owning to using the application) 4) The SaaS solution is centrally managed and offered as one-to-many service to the customers (thus providing the benefits of economies of scale) 5) The SaaS provider alone is responsible to the customer for the service, even if other stakeholders are involved in creating the service (one party is responsible for the whole service)
  13. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Overview of the SaaS Model (continued)

    (Lassila 2012)  SaaS concept from the organisation’s point-of-view – How a project-based and product-based organisation can expand its operation with the Software as a Service (SaaS) model?  Some issues concerning the Software as a Service model: – The increasing demand for services instead of products (servicisation of the products trend) – The SaaS model changes the focus from owning the software to using the software  enable and enhance usage across organisations and end-users – The difficulty of creating and managing the necessary partner network in order to create SaaS service offerings  The major challenges of the SaaS model are: 1) how to achieve returns from scale, 2) while holding on to scope economies, 3) benefit from its partners complementary skills and assets, and 4) at the same time fulfill customers’ requirements of customisation?
  14. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Benefits of the National Digital Library

    to the Society  Improves availability of electronic information resources and services and makes their use easier.  Strengthens cooperation across organisational and sectoral borders.  Reduces overlapping expenses from digitisation and management, distribution and preservation of electronic material.  Improves interoperability, manageability, and efficiency of processes.  Preserves the potential of cultural heritage material far into the future.
  15. NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES Key Factors behind Finna’s Success 

    Central funding for infrastructure services.  Tradition of collaboration especially in library domain.  Systematic development of centralised services.  Customer organisations involved in steering centralised services.  Flexible, customer-driven agile development.  Software architecture is based on modular design with good APIs.  International collaboration fastens development.