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Quality seed

Quality seed

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Deependra Dhakal

November 07, 2020
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  1. Seed quality Deependra Dhakal 2019/04/15 (updated: 2020-11-06)

  2. Seed systems in Nepal

  3. Broadly, two types of seed system are recognized in Nepal

    1. Informal Seed System Characterized by farmers producing and preserving their own seeds for subsequent planting. Farmers exchange small amount of seeds with other farmers as gift, and for both monetary and non monetary value. Most traditional and local landraces are product of such selection and maintenance process, these land races are important genetic resources for modern plant breeding. Seed production process is usually managed as a part of crop production and seed distribution as per farmers' choice and demand among neighbors. Use of retained seeds from their own production, farmers to farmers' seed exchange, informal purchase, gifts etc. 2. Formal seed system Characterized by a vertically organized production and distribution of tested and released/registered varieties by public and private organizations using agreed quality control mechanism. Comprises different phases of seed cycle: Breeder, Foundation, Certified and Improved seeds. Formal system: It comprises public or private sector organizations that are linked to the national seed system. NARC, DOA, NSC, Seed companies, NGOs, DISSPRO and CBSP groups etc are under this category. 3 / 14
  4. Seed versus Grain

  5. SN Seed Grain 1 Result of well planned seed programme,

    sound scientific knowledge, organized effort, investment on processing, storage and marketing facilities. It is the part of commercial product and no such knowledge and efforts are used. 2 Production and maintenance of quality is the main aim of seed producer. It must be true to its type. During production effort is made to rogue out off-types, diseased plants, objectionable weeds and other crop plants at appropriate stage of crop growth which ensures satisfactory seed purity and health. In case of grain production, maximizing of yield is the main aim of producer. It may not be true to type. The purity and health status may be inferior. 3 The history or pedigree of the seed is ensured. Varietal purity is unknown. 4 Field inspection is done properly by the seed inspector in seed production plot in different stages of crop No any scientific inspection is done in the growing period of crop. 5 The seed is scientifically processed, treated and packed and labelled with proper lot identity. Processing and labeling is not scientific. 6 Seed testing (germination test, purity, seed health and seed moisture) is done before planting. Routine seed testing is not done before planting. 7 The quality of seed is controlled by seed certifying agency. There is no quality control. 8 The standard quality is marked by the certification tags on the seed container. The quality is not described and is therefore not known. 5 / 14
  6. Seed policy, 1999 Ownership of traditional varieties and conservation of

    Agrobiodiversity Technical support in seed production and supply by organizing farmers groups in remote areas to enhance access of quality seeds to small farmers Subsidy on source seed production and transportation of seeds to remote hills and mountain regions; seed supply will be expanded in coordination with private producers and traders including by giving some support. Involvement of private sectors in source seed production and seed supply in remote areas and seed quality assurance services Research on Biotechnology and regulation of GMO; Research and studies on biotechnology, genetic engineering, GMO, transgenic plant and tissues culture will proceed in Nepal also but biotechnology regulations will be prepared and implemented for the sake of the general public. Seed supply: There will be a buffer stock of seed at the national level, which may be utilized under conditions of natural calamity. Institutional strengthening: This will be fulfilled by the strengthening of the NSB Secretariat, and establishment of non-government laboratories, besides including institutional management in the contracting system whilst the semi-government agency involved in seed will be commercialized. 6 / 14
  7. National Seed Vision (2013-2025) Self-sufficiency, import substitution and export promotion

    Conservation of indigenous varieties and traditional knowledge for crop improvement (sustainable use) Formulate and amend policy and act for ensuring farmers' rights on seeds Develop policy for breeders rights to provide incentives and investment in competent seed industry development Provision of contract farming act including seed insurance and mechanization for seed production Harmonization of seed policy with other Nepalese Policies, laws and also with neighbouring countries Focus on hybrid variety development to provide adequate options and access of HYVs to farmers by encouraging both public and private sectors Simplify variety approval, release and registration of indigenous and farmers varieties Decentralize source seed production for enhancing access to quality seeds and strengthening capacity of private sector and communities in seed production and supply. Public-private partnership (Public sector in breeding and private sector in marketing) 7 / 14
  8. Classes of seed

  9. 1. Breeder seed Genetic purity of the variety: 99.9% Golden

    yellow tag (as of new seed certification guidelines, it is ?brown) with breeder's signature. 2. Foundation seed Not available for sales/purchase at farmer's level SQCC or specialized organization having granted permit from the SQCC performs the field inspection and certification White colored tag with black letters 3. Certified seed In self pollinated crops two generations may be grown, however only one generation is allowed in cross pollinated species CS-I and CS-II (Blue letters in white tag and blue border, and green letters in white tag with green borders, respectively) 4. Improved seed In cross pollinated and highly CP species, direct production of improved seed from foundation seed is also practiced (Maize, vegetable, pigeonpea). Production takes place in farmer's field or by seed producing organizations. Yellow colored tag 9 / 14
  10. Normally, genetic purity of FS is 99.5 and that of

    CS is 99%. For longer storage in cereals, vegetables, legumes and oilseeds, and orthodox seeds, optimum moisture content: 12% or less. In recalcitrant seeds, moisture content is best kept close to 20%. In the moisture regime between 5-14%, for every drop in 1% storage life of the seed is doubled (Jems F Herington) Forbidden diseases of crops: Cauliflower: Black rot, Alternaria leaf spot Table: Number of seeds per 10 gram of vegetable crops Crop Number of seeds Carrot 8280 Chinese cabbage 6480 Turnip 5400 Tomato 4140 Onion 3420 Pea 3263 Cabbage, cauliflower 3240 Brinjal 2340 Capsicum 1620 Radish 1440 Chukandar 576 Muskmelon 470 Cucumber 400 Okra 180 Watermelon 75 10 / 14
  11. Two certification/authentication system are practiced in Nepal 1. Seed certification:

    Official body responsible for certifying seed in the SQCC. Three classes of seeds are identified: Foundation, Certified-I, Certified-II and Improved under this system. 2. Truthful labelling Following activities are carried out in various stages of a crop are crucial for inspection by a seed inspector: Standing crop: By licenced inspector, for field inspection check for crop's source and seed class, purity, isolation distance, seed affecting diseases, weed and type of varieties. At harvest: Threshing, processing, transporation and storage. After processing: To verify that minimun quality meets, insect damage (In legume: and maize: 1% and other crops: 0.5%), seed moisture, weed and off type seeds, germination percentage Seed is sampled and taken to lab Lab should return results within 30 days of receiving a sample. If suspected, sample may be subjected to grow out test by the tester. If farmer isn't convinced of the results of the seed testing, s/he may file for recertification. Tagging storage container with certification tag, with signature of certifying inspector. If the seed is to be stored for more than 1 season, the storage sample must be re-certified for quality standards. There are some steps to be followed in prolonging the validity of certification. 11 / 14
  12. 1. Minimum standard certification: Location and land requirement fulfilment certification

    In terai, a minimum of 1 hectares is required for cereal and cash crops. In terai, for vegetables, a minimum of 0.25 hectares is required. In hills, for cereal, a minimum of 0.25 hectare is the necessary criterion. In hills, for vegetables, a minimum of 0.1 ha land should be cultivated with seed under the question. Maximum distance between plots of same certification lot should not exceed 50 m. 2. Location and locality of specification 3. Source of seed verification 4. Timing of inspector assignment 12 / 14
  13. Certification standards Field standards of standing crop for certification Crop

    Isolation distance_FS Isolation distance_C Maximum off type plant %_FS Maximum off type plant %_C Maximum disease plant %_FS Maximum disease plant %_C Objectionable disease Objectionable weed Paddy (Oryza sativa) 3 3 0.05 0.2 0.2 0.5 Neck blast Oryza sativa L. Var fatua prain Maize (Zea mays) 300 200 1.00 2.0 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 3 3 0.05 0.3 0.1 0.5 Loose smut Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) 5 5 0.10 0.2 Barley and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 3 3 0.05 0.3 Lentil 10 5 0.10 0.2 Chickpea 10 5 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.5 Fusarium wilt Blackgram 10 5 0.10 0.2 Greengram 10 5 0.10 0.2 Cowpea 10 5 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.5 Anthracnose, BCMV Pigeonpea 200 100 0.10 0.2 Rapeseed 300 200 0.10 0.5 0.2 0.2 Sclerotinia Mustard 50 25 0.10 0.5 0.2 0.5 Alternaria spot of pods Soybean 3 3 0.10 0.5 Groundnut 3 3 0.10 0.5 0.2 0.5 Anthracnose Radish (For both tuber and seed propagule) 1600 1000 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.5 Alternaria spot of pods, Black rot Turnip (For both tuber and seed propagule) 1600 1000 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.5 Alternaria spot of pods, Black rot Carrot (For both tuber and seed propagule) 1000 500 0.10 0.2 Fruit crops (Solanaceous; Brinjal, tomato) 50 25 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.2 TMV (Tomato Mosaic) Cole crops 1600 1000 0.10 0.2 0.1 0.2 Alternaria leaf spot, Black spot of pods 13 / 14
  14. Minimum seed standards for certification Crop Minimum purity %_FS Minimum

    purity %_C Maximum Inert matter %_FS Maximum Inert matter %_C Other crop seed (grain/ kg )_FS Other crop seed (grain/ kg )_C Objectionable weed seed (grain/kg )_FS Objectionable weed seed (grain/kg )_C Paddy 98 98 2 2 10 20 2 5 Maize 98 98 2 2 5 10 0 0 Wheat 98 98 2 2 10 20 2 5 Millet 97 97 3 3 10 20 10 20 Barley 98 98 2 2 10 20 10 20 Minimum seed standards for certification Crop Other variety seed (seed/kg)_FS Other variety seed (seed/kg)_C Minimum germination %_FS Minimum germination %_C Maximum moisture %_FS Maximum moisture %_C Paddy 10 20 80 80 13 13 Maize 10 20 85 85 12 12 Wheat 10 20 85 85 12 12 Millet 0 0 75 75 11 11 Barley 10 20 85 85 12 12 14 / 14