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Configuring Android Project

Configuring Android Project

Project template available on GitHub: https://github.com/dmytrodanylyk/template

Dmytro Danylyk

February 23, 2017
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  1. Configuring
    Android Project
    Dmytro Danylyk
    Atlassian

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  2. gitignore
    To quickly generate .gitignore files I recommend you to use gitignore.io site

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  3. gitignore
    1. Type in necessary keywords like — Android, Intellij
    2. Click Generate button

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  4. gitignore
    # Built application files
    *.apk
    *.ap_
    # Files for the ART/Dalvik VM
    *.dex
    # Generated files
    bin/
    gen/
    out/
    ...

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  5. tools folder
    If you have some 3rd party scripts, rulesets or other files don’t just drop them in root
    directory — it will create a mess.

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  6. tools folder
    Try to create a folder and put all those files inside this folder.

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  7. flavors
    Flavors are used to create builds with different set-up. In most cases two flavors are
    enough  —  dev and prod.

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  8. flavors
    Different set-up usually means usage of separate:
    - applicationId
    - versionCode / versionName
    - server endpoints
    - google services keys
    - ...

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  9. flavors
    productFlavors {
    dev {
    signingConfig signingConfigs.debug
    versionCode 1
    versionName "1.0-dev"
    applicationId "com.dd.template.dev"
    }
    prod {
    signingConfig signingConfigs.release
    versionCode gitVersionCode
    versionName gitVersionName
    applicationId "com.dd.template"
    }
    }

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  10. keystore
    A keystore is a binary file that contains one or more private keys used to sign your
    application.

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  11. keystore
    When running or debugging your project from the IDE, Android Studio automatically
    signs your APK with a debug certificate generated by the Android SDK tools.

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  12. keystore
    Issues when using local debug keystore:
    - expiration date of 365 days

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  13. keystore
    Issues when using local debug keystore:
    - expiration date of 365 days
    - installing application from multiple computers require uninstalling first

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  14. keystore
    Issues when using local debug keystore:
    - expiration date of 365 days
    - installing application from multiple computers require uninstalling first
    - google services require keystore SHA-1 fingerprint

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  15. keystore
    Generate debug keystore and commit it to version control system.
    signingConfigs {
    debug {
    keyAlias 'androiddebugkey'
    keyPassword 'android'
    storePassword 'android'
    storeFile file('../keystore/debug.keystore')
    }
    release {
    ...
    }
    }

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  16. proguard
    On Android proguard is used for three things:
    - shrink unused code  —  helps you to survive the 64k limit

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  17. proguard
    On Android proguard is used for three things:
    - shrink unused code  —  helps you to survive the 64k limit
    - optimize code & APK

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  18. proguard
    On Android proguard is used for three things:
    - shrink unused code  —  helps you to survive the 64k limit
    - optimize code & APK
    - obfuscate code  —  makes your APK difficult to reverse engineer

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  19. proguard
    Obfuscation and code optimization significantly increase compilation time and makes
    debugging harder.

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  20. proguard
    Use different proguard rules for release and debug build:
    - rules-proguard.pro
    - rules-proguard-debug.pro

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  21. proguard
    buildTypes {
    release {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard.pro"
    }
    debug {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard-debug.pro"
    }
    }

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  22. proguard
    buildTypes {
    release {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard.pro"
    }
    debug {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard-debug.pro"
    }
    }

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  23. proguard
    buildTypes {
    release {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard.pro"
    }
    debug {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard-debug.pro"
    }
    }

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  24. proguard
    buildTypes {
    release {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard.pro"
    }
    debug {
    minifyEnabled true
    proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),
    "$project.rootDir/tools/rules-proguard-debug.pro"
    }
    }

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  25. proguard
    # rules-proguard-debug.pro
    -ignorewarnings
    -dontobfuscate
    -dontoptimize

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  26. proguard
    # rules-proguard.pro
    # Remove logs
    -assumenosideeffects class android.util.Log {
    public static boolean isLoggable(java.lang.String, int);
    public static int v(...);
    public static int i(...);
    public static int w(...);
    public static int d(...);
    public static int e(...);
    }
    # Proguard configurations for common Android libraries:
    # https://github.com/krschultz/android-proguard-snippets

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  27. Configure proguard on early stages, it will be a lot easier.
    android dev tip

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  28. strict mode
    Android StrictMode helps you to detect different kinds of problems:
    - closable object is not closed
    - file reading / network requests performed on main thread
    - uri exposed
    - ...

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  29. strict mode
    Turn on StrictMode only for debug build:
    if (BuildConfig.DEBUG) {
    StrictMode.setThreadPolicy(new StrictMode.ThreadPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(new StrictMode.VmPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    }

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  30. strict mode
    Turn on StrictMode only for debug build:
    if (BuildConfig.DEBUG) {
    StrictMode.setThreadPolicy(new StrictMode.ThreadPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(new StrictMode.VmPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    }

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  31. strict mode
    Turn on StrictMode only for debug build:
    if (BuildConfig.DEBUG) {
    StrictMode.setThreadPolicy(new StrictMode.ThreadPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(new StrictMode.VmPolicy.Builder()
    .detectAll()
    .penaltyLog()
    .build());
    }

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  32. StrictMode:
    A resource was acquired at attached stack trace but never released.
    See java.io.Closeable for information on avoiding resource leaks.
    java.lang.Throwable: Explicit termination method 'close' not called
    at dalvik.system.CloseGuard.open(CloseGuard.java:184)
    at android.database.CursorWindow.(CursorWindow.java:111)
    at android.database.clearOrCreateWindow(AbstractCursor.java:198)
    at android.database.sqlite.SQLiteCursor.fillWindow(SQLiteCursor.java:139)
    at android.database.sqlite.SQLiteCursor.getCount(SQLiteCursor.java:133)
    at android.database.AbstractCursor.moveToPosition(AbstractCursor.java:197)
    at android.database.AbstractCursor.moveToFirst(AbstractCursor.java:237)
    at com.dd.template.MainActivity.onCreate(MainActivity.java:124)
    strict mode
    Example of log when you forgot to close SQLiteCursor:

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  33. StrictMode:
    A resource was acquired at attached stack trace but never released.
    See java.io.Closeable for information on avoiding resource leaks.
    java.lang.Throwable: Explicit termination method 'close' not called
    at dalvik.system.CloseGuard.open(CloseGuard.java:184)
    at android.database.CursorWindow.(CursorWindow.java:111)
    at android.database.clearOrCreateWindow(AbstractCursor.java:198)
    at android.database.sqlite.SQLiteCursor.fillWindow(SQLiteCursor.java:139)
    at android.database.sqlite.SQLiteCursor.getCount(SQLiteCursor.java:133)
    at android.database.AbstractCursor.moveToPosition(AbstractCursor.java:197)
    at android.database.AbstractCursor.moveToFirst(AbstractCursor.java:237)
    at com.dd.template.MainActivity.onCreate(MainActivity.java:124)
    strict mode
    Example of log when you forgot to close SQLiteCursor:

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  34. defaultConfig {
    versionCode 1
    versionName "1.0"
    }
    Version Name & Code
    Developers usually hard code values for android versionName & versionCode.

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  35. Version Name & Code
    Issues with usage of hard coded values for android versionName & versionCode.
    - you never know which commit represent specific version

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  36. Version Name & Code
    Issues with usage of hard coded values for android versionName & versionCode.
    - you never know which commit represent specific version
    - whenever you increment versionCode and change versionName you have to
    modify build.gradle file

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  37. Version Name & Code
    v0.1 v0.2 v0.3
    It’s a common practice to use git tags to indicate release of new version.

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  38. Version Name
    For versionName we can use git describe command.
    a. The command finds the most recent tag that is reachable from a
    commit.
    b. If the tag points to the commit, then only the tag is shown.
    c. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of additional
    commits on top of the tagged object and the abbreviated object name of
    the most recent commit.

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  39. Version Name
    For versionName we can use git describe command.
    a. The command finds the most recent tag that is reachable from a
    commit.
    b. If the tag points to the commit, then only the tag is shown.
    c. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of additional
    commits on top of the tagged object and the abbreviated object name of
    the most recent commit.

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  40. Version Name
    For versionName we can use git describe command.
    a. The command finds the most recent tag that is reachable from a
    commit.
    b. If the tag points to the commit, then only the tag is shown.
    c. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of additional
    commits on top of the tagged object and the abbreviated object name of
    the most recent commit.

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  41. Version Name
    For versionName we can use git describe command.
    a. The command finds the most recent tag that is reachable from a
    commit.
    b. If the tag points to the commit, then only the tag is shown.
    c. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of additional
    commits on top of the tagged object and the abbreviated object name of
    the most recent commit.

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  42. Version Name
    1.0 65a9e77 dca226a
    tag commit 1 commit 2
    git describe

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  43. Version Name
    > 1.0-2-gdca226a
    1.0 65a9e77
    tag commit 1 commit 2
    git describe
    dca226a

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  44. Version Name
    1.0 65a9e77 dca226a
    tag commit 1 commit 2
    1.0-2-gdca226a

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  45. Version Name
    1.0-2-gdca226a
    Tag name.
    1.0 65a9e77 dca226a
    tag commit 1 commit 2

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  46. Version Name
    1.0-2-gdca226a
    Number of commits made after tagged commit.
    tag commit 1 commit 2
    1.0 65a9e77 dca226a

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  47. Version Name
    1.0-2-gdca226a
    Short form of commit hash with “g” prefix (stands for git).
    tag commit 1 commit 2
    1.0 65a9e77 dca226a

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  48. Version Name
    Using git commit hash “1.0-2-gdca226a” you can easily find out from which specific
    commit build was made.

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  49. Version Name
    65a9e77 dca226a 1.0
    commit 1 commit 2 tag
    git describe

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  50. Version Name
    65a9e77 dca226a 1.0
    commit 1 commit 2 tag
    git describe
    > 1.0

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  51. Version Code
    For versionCode we can use total number of tags.
    Because every git tag indicate some version, versionCode for next version will be
    always greater than previous.

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  52. Version Code
    1.0 2.0 3.0
    tag tag tag
    versionCode = 3

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  53. Version Code
    Are we going to create git tag for every intermediate version?
    - No, for intermediate builds we can use timestamp of HEAD commit

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  54. Version Code
    Are we going to create git tag for every intermediate version?
    - No, for intermediate builds we can use timestamp of HEAD commit

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  55. Version Code
    65a9e77 dca226a HEAD
    commit 1 commit 2 commit 3
    versionCode = 1484407970

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  56. Version Code
    65a9e77 dca226a HEAD
    commit 1 commit 2 commit 3
    versionCode = 1484407970
    > Sat Jan 14 2017 15:32:50 UTC

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  57. Groovy way to use Git
    To work with git we are going to use great library called grgit.

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  58. Groovy way to use Git
    # script-git-version.gradle
    buildscript {
    repositories {
    jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
    classpath 'org.ajoberstar:grgit:1.5.0'
    }
    }
    import org.ajoberstar.grgit.Grgit
    ...

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  59. Groovy way to use Git
    # script-git-version.gradle
    ext {
    git = Grgit.open(currentDir: projectDir)
    gitVersionName = git.describe()
    gitVersionCode = git.tag.list().size()
    gitVersionCodeTime = git.head().time
    }
    task printVersion() {
    println("Version Name: $gitVersionName")
    println("Version Code: $gitVersionCode")
    println("Version Code Time: $gitVersionCodeTime")
    }

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  60. Groovy way to use Git
    # script-git-version.gradle
    ext {
    git = Grgit.open(currentDir: projectDir)
    gitVersionName = git.describe()
    gitVersionCode = git.tag.list().size()
    gitVersionCodeTime = git.head().time
    }
    task printVersion() {
    println("Version Name: $gitVersionName")
    println("Version Code: $gitVersionCode")
    println("Version Code Time: $gitVersionCodeTime")
    }

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  61. Groovy way to use Git
    >./gradlew printVersion
    Version Name: 1.0-6-gd2bef6b
    Version Code: 1
    Version Code Time: 1486290177

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  62. Version Name & Code
    # build.gradle
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply from: "$project.rootDir/tools/script-git-version.gradle"
    ...

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  63. Version Name & Code
    # build.gradle
    productFlavors {
    dev {
    versionCode gitVersionCodeTime
    versionName gitVersionName
    }
    prod {
    versionCode gitVersionCode
    versionName gitVersionName
    }
    }

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  64. Version Name & Code
    Run your project and verify app version.

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  65. Static Code Analysis Tools
    Static code analysis tool - is source code analyzer. It finds common programming
    flaws like unused variables, empty catch blocks, unnecessary object creation, and so
    forth.

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  66. Static Code Analysis Tools
    Static code analysis tool - is source code analyzer. It finds common programming
    flaws like unused variables, empty catch blocks, unnecessary object creation, and so
    forth.
    - Lint
    - Findbugs
    - PMD

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  67. Lint
    # script-lint.gradle
    android {
    lintOptions {
    lintConfig file("$project.rootDir/tools/rules-lint.xml")
    htmlOutput file("$project.buildDir/outputs/lint/lint.html")
    warningsAsErrors true
    xmlReport false
    }
    }

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  68. Lint
    # build.gradle
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply from: "$project.rootDir/tools/script-lint.gradle"
    ...

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  69. Lint
    >./gradlew lint
    Execution failed for task ':app:lint.
    Lint found errors in the project; aborting build.
    Wrote HTML report to: template/app/build/outputs/lint/lint.html

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  70. Lint
    # template/app/build/outputs/lint/lint.html
    ...
    Priority: 3 / 10
    Category: Security
    Severity: Error
    Explanation: AllowBackup/FullBackupContent Problems.
    The allowBackup attribute determines if an application's data can be
    backed up and restored. It is documented at
    http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.attr.html#allowBackup
    ...

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  71. Lint
    # tools/rules-lint.xml




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  72. Lint
    >./gradlew lint
    BUILD SUCCESSFUL
    Ran lint on variant release: 0 issues found
    Wrote HTML report to: template/app/build/outputs/lint/lint.html

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  73. Findbugs
    # script-findbugs.gradle
    apply plugin: 'findbugs'
    task findbugs(type: FindBugs) {
    excludeFilter = file("../tools/rules-findbugs.xml")
    classes = fileTree("$project.buildDir/intermediates/classes/")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    classpath = files()
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html"
    }
    }

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  74. Findbugs
    # script-findbugs.gradle
    apply plugin: 'findbugs'
    task findbugs(type: FindBugs) {
    excludeFilter = file("../tools/rules-findbugs.xml")
    classes = fileTree("$project.buildDir/intermediates/classes/")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    classpath = files()
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html"
    }
    }

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  75. Findbugs
    # script-findbugs.gradle
    apply plugin: 'findbugs'
    task findbugs(type: FindBugs) {
    excludeFilter = file("../tools/rules-findbugs.xml")
    classes = fileTree("$project.buildDir/intermediates/classes/")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    classpath = files()
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html"
    }
    }

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  76. Findbugs
    # script-findbugs.gradle
    apply plugin: 'findbugs'
    task findbugs(type: FindBugs) {
    excludeFilter = file("../tools/rules-findbugs.xml")
    classes = fileTree("$project.buildDir/intermediates/classes/")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    classpath = files()
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html"
    }
    }

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  77. Findbugs
    # build.gradle
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply from: "$project.rootDir/tools/script-findbugs.gradle"
    ...

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  78. Findbugs
    # MainActivity.class
    ...
    private void someMethod(int variable) {
    switch (variable) {
    case 1:
    System.out.println("1");
    case 2:
    System.out.println("2");
    }
    }
    ...

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  79. Findbugs
    >./gradlew findbugs
    Execution failed for task ':app:findbugs'.
    FindBugs rule violations were found. See the report at:
    template/app/build/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html

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  80. Findbugs
    # template/app/build/outputs/findbugs/findbugs.html
    ...
    SF_SWITCH_NO_DEFAULT Switch statement found in
    MainActivity.someMethod(int) where one case falls through to the next
    case
    SF_SWITCH_FALLTHROUGH Switch statement found in
    MainActivity.someMethod(int) where default case is missing
    ...

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  81. Findbugs
    # rules-findbugs.xml




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  82. Findbugs
    >./gradlew findbugs
    BUILD SUCCESSFUL

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  83. PMD
    # script-pmd.gradle
    apply plugin: 'pmd'
    task pmd(type: Pmd) {
    ruleSetFiles = files("$project.rootDir/tools/rules-pmd.xml")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/pmd/pmd.html"
    }
    }

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  84. PMD
    # script-pmd.gradle
    apply plugin: 'pmd'
    task pmd(type: Pmd) {
    ruleSetFiles = files("$project.rootDir/tools/rules-pmd.xml")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/pmd/pmd.html"
    }
    }

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  85. PMD
    # script-pmd.gradle
    apply plugin: 'pmd'
    task pmd(type: Pmd) {
    ruleSetFiles = files("$project.rootDir/tools/rules-pmd.xml")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/pmd/pmd.html"
    }
    }

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  86. PMD
    # script-pmd.gradle
    apply plugin: 'pmd'
    task pmd(type: Pmd) {
    ruleSetFiles = files("$project.rootDir/tools/rules-pmd.xml")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination = "$project.buildDir/outputs/pmd/pmd.html"
    }
    }

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  87. PMD
    # build.gradle
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply from: "$project.rootDir/tools/script-pmd.gradle"
    ...

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  88. PMD
    # MainActivity.class
    ...
    private void someMethod(int a, int b, int c, int d) {
    if (a > b) {
    if (b > c) {
    if (c > d) {
    if (d > a) {
    // some logic
    }
    }
    }
    }
    }

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  89. PMD
    >./gradlew pmd
    Execution failed for task ':app:pmd.
    1 PMD rule violations were found. See the report at:
    template/app/build/outputs/pmd/pmd.html

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  90. PMD
    # template/app/build/outputs/pmd/pmd.html
    ...
    File
    MainActivity.java
    ...
    Line
    31
    Problem
    Deeply nested if..then statements are hard
    to read

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  91. PMD
    # rules-pmd.xml







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  92. PMD
    >./gradlew pmd
    BUILD SUCCESSFUL

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  93. Code Coverage
    Code coverage basically tests how much of your code is covered under tests.
    So, if you have 90% code coverage than it means there is 10% of code that is not
    covered under tests.

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  94. Code Coverage
    # script-java-code-coverage.gradle
    apply plugin: 'jacoco'
    task javaCodeCoverage(type: JacocoReport, dependsOn: 'testDebugUnitTest') {
    reports {
    xml.enabled = false
    html.enabled = true
    html.destination "$project.buildDir/outputs/jacoco/"
    }
    ...
    }

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  95. Code Coverage
    # script-java-code-coverage.gradle
    def classFileTree = fileTree(
    dir: "${buildDir}/intermediates/classes/",
    excludes: ['**/R.class', '**/R$*.class'],
    includes: ['**/*Presenter*.class']
    )
    classDirectories = files([classFileTree])
    sourceDirectories = files("${project.projectDir}/android/src/main/java")
    executionData = files("${buildDir}/jacoco/testDevDebugUnitTest.exec")

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  96. Code Coverage
    # script-java-code-coverage.gradle
    def classFileTree = fileTree(
    dir: "${buildDir}/intermediates/classes/",
    excludes: ['**/R.class', '**/R$*.class'],
    includes: ['**/*Presenter*.class']
    )
    classDirectories = files([classFileTree])
    sourceDirectories = files("${project.projectDir}/android/src/main/java")
    executionData = files("${buildDir}/jacoco/testDevDebugUnitTest.exec")

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  97. Code Coverage
    # build.gradle
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
    apply from: "$project.rootDir/tools/script-java-code-coverage.gradle"
    ...

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  98. Code Coverage
    >./gradlew javaCodeCoverage
    BUILD SUCCESSFUL

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  99. Code Coverage
    # template/app/build/outputs/jacoco/jacoco.html
    ...
    Element
    MainPresenter(MainView)
    onExitClicked()
    ...
    Lines
    3
    2
    Coverage
    100%
    100%

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  100. Continuous Integration
    Continuous Integration (CI) is the process of automating the build and testing of code
    every time a team member commits changes to version control.

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  101. Continuous Integration
    Continuous Integration (CI) is the process of automating the build and testing of code
    every time a team member commits changes to version control.

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  102. GitHub repository setup
    Webhooks allow external services to be notified when certain events happen within
    your repository. (push, pull-request, etc.)
    Protect branches to disable force pushing, prevent branches from being deleted, and
    optionally require status checks before merging.

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  103. Continuous Integration
    Build Triggered
    Workflow is Executed
    App Ready

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  104. Continuous Integration
    Trigger define when to build what.

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  105. Continuous Integration

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  106. Continuous Integration
    Workflow defines the steps of a Build process. You can customize it the way you want
    to suite your build process.

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  107. Continuous Integration

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  108. Continuous Integration

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  109. Continuous Integration

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  110. Continuous Integration
    # build logs
    +---+---------------------------------------------------+----------+
    | ✓ | [email protected] | 4.84 sec |
    +---+---------------------------------------------------+----------+
    | ✓ | assembleProdRelease | 118 sec |
    +---+---------------------------------------------------+----------+
    | x | lintProdRelease (exit code: 1) | 35 sec |
    +---+---------------------------------------------------+----------+

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  111. Continuous Integration

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  112. Resources
    www.github.com/dmytrodanylyk/template
    www.pmd.sourceforge.net/integrations.html
    www.findbugs.sourceforge.net
    www.developer.android.com/studio/write/lint.html
    www.guardsquare.com/en/proguard
    www.bitrise.io
    - sample project
    - pmd official site
    - findbugs official site
    - lint user guide
    - proguard official site
    - continuous integration

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  113. @dmytrodanylyk
    slides.com/dmytrodanylyk
    www.dmytrodanylyk.com
    S
    speakerdeck.com/dmytrodanylyk
    S

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