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Design Patterns, Metaphors and Visualisation

Ed de Quincey
October 17, 2013

Design Patterns, Metaphors and Visualisation

Ed de Quincey

October 17, 2013
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  1. Design Patterns,
    Metaphors and
    Visualisation
    Dr Ed de Quincey
    @EddeQuincey

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  2. What is usability?
    “Usability is a quality attribute that
    assesses how easy user interfaces are
    to use. The word "usability" also refers
    to methods for improving ease-of-use
    during the design process.”

    (Nielsen, 2003)

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  3. The user/human part
    Useful human strengths and weaknesses to consider include:
    •  Memory - people can remember 7 (plus or minus 2) “chunks” of
    information.
    •  Visual perception e.g. colour blindness
    •  Motor skills e.g. mouse skills
    •  Learning and skill acquisition
    •  Motivation
    •  User’s conceptual models
    •  Population stereotypes
    •  Human diversity e.g. accessibility issues for disabled users

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  4. http://www.vischeck.com/examples/

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  5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xKdOMgu0C5Q

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  6. Banner Blindness: Old and New
    Findings
    Jakob Nielsen
    http://www.useit.com/alertbox/banner-blindness.html

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  7. Creating interface
    designs on “feeling”
    What is that feeling?

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  8. Golden Section/Divine Proportion (?)

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  9. http://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/comments/ ve-simple-steps-to-designing-grid-systems-preface

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  10. Grids
    http://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/comments/ ve_simple_steps_to_designing_grid_systems_part_1/

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  11. The effects of screen ratio and order on information retrieval in web pages
    Paul van Schaik, Jonathan Ling (2004)
    “According to Fechner who was the first to examine the GS from a
    psychological perspective, individuals will have a preference for
    rectangles that have a ratio of 1:1.618 for their width to height”
    however …
    “… the current research failed to support the idea that the GS is an
    important factor in aesthetic judgements. In fact, of all the ratios
    presented to participants we found that the GS was least preferred”

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  12. “The present findings indicate that
    the best ratio is 28:72 for aesthetic
    value and 23:77 for performance.
    Given the lesser impact on aesthetic
    measures of 23:77, we recommend
    that this ratio be used.”
    The effects of screen ratio and order on information retrieval in web pages
    Paul van Schaik, Jonathan Ling (2004)

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  13. Grid Layouts

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  14. “The grid is the conceptual embodiment of the design
    program [13]. It allows the discovered determinants to
    be codified and propagated consistently across a series
    of screens in a GUI. A grid is the geometrical division
    of a space into precisely measured columns, spaces and
    margins; it is the backbone of screen design.
    Composing and designing spaces with a grid have
    become an essential tool for the practicing designer
    [14]. Jude [15] states that ‘the primary purpose of the
    grid is to create order out of chaos; it is an aid to
    readability, recognition, and understanding.”
    Eugene Ch’ng, David Chek Ling Ngo (2003)
    Screen design: a dynamic symmetry grid based approach

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  15. http://www.1kbgrid.com/

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  16. The basic configuration is a 12 column grid system spread out
    over 960 pixels. Each column is 60 pixels wide with a 20 pixel
    gutter in between.
    http://www.usabilitypost.com/2009/05/29/the-1kb-css-grid-part-1/

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  17. http://books.alistapart.com/products/css3-for-web-designers

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  18. .multiplecolumns {
    -moz-column-width: 130px;;
    -webkit-column-width: 130px;
    -moz-column-gap: 20px;
    -webkit-column-gap: 20px;
    -moz-column-rule: 1px solid #ddccb5;
    -webkit-column-rule: 1px solid
    #ddccb5;
    }

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  19. Design Patterns

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  20. “Design patterns were first described
    in the 1960s by Christopher
    Alexander, an architect who noticed
    that many things in our lives happen
    according to patterns.”
    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2009/06/23/10-ui-
    design-patterns-you-should-be-paying-attention-to/

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  21. “design patterns are solutions to
    recurring problems. By extension,
    UI design patterns are solutions to
    common user interface problems.”
    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2009/06/23/10-ui-
    design-patterns-you-should-be-paying-attention-to/

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  22. Lazy Registration
    Users can use all of the service’s functions to edit their photos online.
    They are asked to register only before saving their work.

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  23. Progressive Disclosure

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  24. “Google Maps allows users to search by city, street, zip
    code and even latitudinal and longitudinal values.”
    Forgiving Format

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  25. Subscription Plans

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  26. Auto-Complete
    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort- lter/

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  27. http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns/

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  28. http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns/
    http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/paginator/
    “When searches return too many results to display on a single
    page, separate the information into a sequence of pages.
    Provide pagination control, as a row of links, to enable the user
    to browse through more results than can be displayed on a
    single page.”

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  29. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/07/04/web-form-design-patterns-sign-up-forms/

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  30. Web form design
    guidelines: an
    eyetracking study
    http://www.cxpartners.co.uk/thoughts/web_forms_design_guidelines_an_eyetracking_study.htm

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  31. Form Design Guidelines
    •  Use a simple vertical layout with labels above the input elds.
    •  If vertically aligned labels are not possible, make them bold and left-aligned.
    •  If you put more than one eld on a row (e.g. rst and last name) make them look like
    a single piece of information.
    •  Emphasize section headings (via color or shading) if you want people to read them.
    •  Only ask for required information. Identify optional elds rather than required elds
    (don't use asterisks).
    •  Use a single input eld for numbers and postal codes, and allow input in various
    forms.
    •  Avoid displaying unnecessary information and make sure important information
    stands out.
    •  Real time feedback may be distracting — good implementation is key.
    •  Place instructions to the side of the eld.
    •  For multi-page forms tell users how many steps remain before completion.

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  32. The user/human part
    Useful human strengths and weaknesses to consider include:
    •  Memory - people can remember 7 (plus or minus 2) “chunks” of
    information.
    •  Visual perception e.g. colour blindness
    •  Motor skills e.g. mouse skills
    •  Learning and skill acquisition
    •  Motivation
    •  User’s conceptual models
    •  Population stereotypes
    •  Human diversity e.g. accessibility issues for disabled users

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  33. Icons and
    Metaphors

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  34. “The physical appearance of objects
    such as icons can significantly affect
    navigational performance.
    For example, Rogers (1987) found that icons with abstract
    but simple symbols that represented concrete objects
    resulted in the fewest number of errors and requests for
    help. In addition, Byrne (1993) found that large and simple
    icons outperformed complex ones by a significant margin.
    Byrne suggests that icons need to be simple, large, and easy
    to discriminate in order to be effective.”
    Bernard, M. (2006) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability)
    http://uwf.edu/ddawson/d3net/documents/web_usability/optimal%20web%20design.pdf

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  35. Tips for using icons in interface design
    http://www.icon nder.com/blog/4/

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  36. “Each icon presents us
    with a mini-story with an
    intertwined plot. The
    problem is that in small
    size you are unable to
    work out what is depicted.
    Even in larger sizes, it is
    not always that easy to
    decipher the icons.”
    10 Mistakes in Icon Design
    http://turbomilk.com/blog/cookbook/
    icon_design/10_mistakes_in_icon_design/

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  37. Principles of Icon Design
    http://hicksdesign.co.uk/speaking/principles-of-icon-design
    Icon Design Explained (Quickly)
    http://hicksdesign.co.uk/speaking/icon-design-explained-quickly

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  38. http://www.ajaxload.info/

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  39. Showing Hyperlink Cues with CSS
    a[href $='.pdf'] {
    padding-right: 18px;
    background: transparent
    url(icon_pdf.gif) no-repeat center right;
    }
    http://askthecssguy.com/articles/showing-hyperlink-cues-with-css/

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  40. 15 Great Icon Sets for Web & Mobile Apps
    http://designfestival.com/15-great-icon-sets-for-web-mobile-apps/

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  41. 12 Fantastic, Fresh and Free Icon Sets
    http://designshack.net/articles/freebies/wf-free-icons-2012/

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  42. http://www.delicious.com/eddequincey/icons

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  43. Visualisation

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  44. “Visualisation concerns the graphical
    (or semi-graphical) representation of
    information in order to assist human
    comprehension of and reasoning
    about that information”
    Petre, M., de Quincey, E. (2006) A gentle overview of software visualization.
    Computer Society of India Communications. August, 6-11. ISSN 0970-647X
    Available at: http://www.ppig.org/newsletters/2006-09.html

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  45. Pattern Matching
    A A A

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  46. Charles Joseph Minard's 1861 diagram of
    Napoleon's March
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_design

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  47. Sparklines by Edward Tufte
    http://thedoublethink.com/2009/08/tufte%E2%80%99s-principles-for-visualizing-quantitative-information/

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  48. http://www.edwardtufte.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?msg_id=0001yB&topic_id=1

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  49. Data journalism at the Guardian: what is it and how do we do it?
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/jul/28/data-journalism

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  50. Data visualisation DIY: our top tools
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/mar/28/data-visualisation-tools-free

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  51. http://visual.ly/

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  52. Google Chart Tools
    https://developers.google.com/chart/

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  53. IBM Many Eyes
    http://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/

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  54. Visualisation of a collection of tweets that contain the word
    hayfever collected in June and July 2012
    http://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/visualizations/visualisation-of-tweets-containing

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  55. My Heatmap
    http://www.myheatmap.com

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  56. The top 20 data visualisation tools
    http://www.netmagazine.com/features/top-20-data-visualisation-tools

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  57. Pinterest
    http://pinterest.com/eddequincey/infographics-and-visualisations/

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  58. Patent: Rugg and de Quincey (Wo2010015829) Method Of And
    Apparatus For Analysing Data Files

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  59. www.SearchVisualizer.com

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  60. Search Visualisation of:
    http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Author/5199116/ed-de-quincey

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  61. Icons and Metaphors
    + Visualisation

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  62. LEARNING ANALYTICS
    & DASHBOARDS
    IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF DATA AND METAPHORS
    Dr Ed de Quincey & Dr Ray Stoneham, University of Greenwich

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  63. RETENTION AND THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT
    ENGAGEMENT ARE LONG STANDING PROBLEMS

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  64. LOOKS SET TO BE A KEY CONCERN WITH THE RAPID
    DEVELOPMENT OF MOOCS WITHIN HE WORLDWIDE

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  65. TRADITIONALLY A STUDENT’S PROGRESS AND LEVEL OF
    ENGAGEMENT HAS BEEN MEASURED BY ASSESSMENT

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  66. HOW ELSE CAN WE MEASURE ENGAGEMENT
    AND PROGRESS IN REAL-TIME?

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  67. LEARNING ANALYTICS (LA)
    Explicit & Implicit data collection and analysis

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  68. Learning Analytics
    has been de ned as a method for
    “deciphering trends
    and patterns from
    educational big data
    … to further the
    advancement of a
    personalized,
    supportive system
    of higher education.”
    (Johnson et al., 2013)
    Co-authorship network map of physicians publishing on hepatitis C (detail)
    Source: http://www. ickr.com/photos/speedo ife/8274993170/

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  69. PRESENTING STUDENT DATA BACK TO STUDENTS and LECTURERS,
    USING USER CENTRIC FORMATS and METAPHORS

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  70. OVERVIEW of the CMS INTRANET
    WHAT DATA are we COLLECTING?

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  71. We have collected the usage data
    of 3,576 students across the
    School (UG and PG) since
    September 2011. During
    this time there have been
    7,899,231 interactions
    with the student intranet.

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  72. We also have stored in our
    systems, detailed attendance
    data, programme and
    course information and
    coursework marks.

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  73. PERIOD UNDER STUDY: September 1st 2012 to May 29th 2013
    2,544,374 interactions with
    65 different le types from 2,634 students.
    2,131,278
    18,974
    157,607
    128,676
    6,368
    66,129
    1,851
    19,561

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  74. COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming
    1st Year Course with 53 students
    Correlation between Average Mark and Attendance % = 0.638
    0  
    10  
    20  
    30  
    40  
    50  
    60  
    70  
    80  
    90  
    100  
    0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100  
    A"endance  %  
    Average  Mark  

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  75. COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming
    1st Year Course with 53 students
    Correlation between Average Mark and Intranet Activity = 0.601
    0  
    500  
    1000  
    1500  
    2000  
    2500  
    3000  
    3500  
    0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100  
    Number  of  interac7ons  with  Intranet  
    Average  Mark  

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  76. COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming
    1st Year Course with 53 students
    Correlation
    Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.601614385
    Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.637771689
    Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.438059389
    COMP1314  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.627753051
    Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark 0.480171638
    Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.45670929
    Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.229025047

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  77. COMP1640: Enterprise Web Software Development
    3rd Year Course with 109 students
    Correlation
    Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.168484881
    Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.418583626
    Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.234846724
    COMP1640  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.188256752
    Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark -0.067577432
    Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.183237816
    Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.378425564

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  78. Average Mark Attendance %
    Total Intranet
    Interactions
    Intranet Files
    Downloaded
    COMP1314
    Intranet
    Interactions
    COMP1314
    Lecture/Tutorial
    Views
    COMP1314 CW
    Speci cation
    Views
    86   75  
    5.3  per  day  
    1,439  
    213   278   103   8  
    Average “First” Student on COMP1314
    Average Mark Attendance %
    Total Intranet
    Interactions
    Intranet Files
    Downloaded
    COMP1314
    Intranet
    Interactions
    COMP1314
    Lecture/Tutorial
    Views
    COMP1314 CW
    Speci cation
    Views
    21   40  
    2.6  per  day  
    696  
    121   118   52   5  
    Average “Failing” Student on COMP1314
    from September 1st, 2012 to May 29th, 2013

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  79. “First” Students vs “Failing” Students
    COMP1314 Average Intranet Interactions  
    0  
    10  
    20  
    30  
    40  
    50  
    60  
    Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May  
    Average  Number  of  Intranet  Interac7ons  
    First  Logs  
    Fail  Logs  

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  80. Reading
    Barry, N. (2009) How To Use Icons To Support Content In Web Design. Smashing Magazine.
    Carayon, P. (2007) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety (Human Factors and Ergonomics Series)
    (Human Factors and Ergonomics Series). L. Erlbaum Assoc. Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, USA.
    Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D. and Shneiderman, B. (Eds.) (1999) Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Morgan Kaufmann
    Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Charles, T., Bustard, D., Black, M. (2009) ELEGANT: Enhanced eLearning Engagement using Game Absorption Techniques. In Novel Approaches
    to Promoting Student Engagement. HEA Subject Centre for Information & Computer Sciences.
    Choemprayong, S., Oh, S., Sheble, L (2006). Interfaces for the personal pregnancy health records (PregHeR) system: Facets in time. Annual
    symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association.
    Dibben, C., Watson, J., Smith, T., Cox, M., Manley, D., Perry, I., Rolfe, L., Barnes, H., Wilkinson, K., Linn, J., Liu, L., Sims, A., and Hill, A. (2008)
    The Health Poverty Index. The NHS Information Centre. Leeds, UK.
    de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P., Farrell, D. (2009) Visualising web server logs for a Web 1.0 audience using Web 2.0 technologies: eliciting attributes
    for recommendation and profiling systems. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization for Web 2.0 in connection with
    UMAP 2009, June 22-26, 2009, Trento, Italy
    Esterhay Jr., R.J. (1994) User metaphors for health care professional workstations. International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing, Volume 34,
    Issues 1-4, The Health Care Professional Workstation, January 1994, Pages 95-113
    Garner, R. (2005) Humor, Analogy, and Metaphor: H.A.M. it up in Teaching. Radical Pedagogy, Vol. 6, No. 2, Winter 2005.
    Glenn, R. (2002) Brain research: Practical Applications for the classroom. Teaching for Excellence, 21(6), 1-2.
    Marcus, A. (1995) Metaphor design in user interfaces: how to effectively manage expectation, surprise, comprehension, and delight.
    In Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '95), I. Katz, R. Mack, and L. Marks (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA,
    373-374.
    Marcus, A. (2003) Icons, symbols, and signs: visible languages to facilitate communication. interactions 10, 3 (May 2003), 37-43.
    Hallett, C., Power, R. and Scott, D. (2006). Summarisation and visualisation of e-Health data repositories. In: UK E-Science All-Hands Meeting,
    18-21 Sept 2006, Nottingham, UK.
    Krieger, J., Parrott, R., Nussbaum, J. (2010) Metaphor Use and Health Literacy: A Pilot Study of Strategies to Explain Randomization in Cancer
    Clinical Trials. Journal of Health Communication, 2010; 1
    Petre, M., de Quincey, E. (2006) A gentle overview of software visualisation. Computer Society of India Communications (CSIC)
    Rugg, G., Petre, M. (2006) A Gentle Guide to Research Methods. Open University Press
    Shneiderman, B. (1983) Direct manipulation: a step beyond programming languages, Computer, 16, 8, pp. 57-60, Aug. 1983.
    Tufte, E. (2001) Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 2001.
    Ward, M.C. (2002) Systematic selection and implementation of graphical user interface metaphors. Comput. Educ. 38, 4 (May 2002), 385-397.
    Young, P., and Munro, M. (2003) Visualising software in virtual reality. IEEE First International Workshop on Visualizing Software for
    Understanding and Analysis. IEEE Computer Society Press.

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  81. de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P., Farrell, D. (2009) Visualising web server logs for a Web 1.0 audience
    using Web 2.0 technologies: eliciting attributes for recommendation and pro ling systems. In
    the Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization for Web 2.0 in
    connection with UMAP 2009, June 22-26, 2009, Trento, Italy.
    Available at: http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-485/

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