Design Patterns, Metaphors and Visualisation

Dafb8db748341892bda61117ecd16a43?s=47 Ed de Quincey
October 17, 2013

Design Patterns, Metaphors and Visualisation

Dafb8db748341892bda61117ecd16a43?s=128

Ed de Quincey

October 17, 2013
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    What is usability? “Usability is a quality attribute that assesses

    how easy user interfaces are to use. The word "usability" also refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process.” 
 (Nielsen, 2003)
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    The user/human part Useful human strengths and weaknesses to consider

    include: •  Memory - people can remember 7 (plus or minus 2) “chunks” of information. •  Visual perception e.g. colour blindness •  Motor skills e.g. mouse skills •  Learning and skill acquisition •  Motivation •  User’s conceptual models •  Population stereotypes •  Human diversity e.g. accessibility issues for disabled users
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    The effects of screen ratio and order on information retrieval

    in web pages Paul van Schaik, Jonathan Ling (2004) “According to Fechner who was the first to examine the GS from a psychological perspective, individuals will have a preference for rectangles that have a ratio of 1:1.618 for their width to height” however … “… the current research failed to support the idea that the GS is an important factor in aesthetic judgements. In fact, of all the ratios presented to participants we found that the GS was least preferred”
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    “The present findings indicate that the best ratio is 28:72

    for aesthetic value and 23:77 for performance. Given the lesser impact on aesthetic measures of 23:77, we recommend that this ratio be used.” The effects of screen ratio and order on information retrieval in web pages Paul van Schaik, Jonathan Ling (2004)
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    “The grid is the conceptual embodiment of the design program

    [13]. It allows the discovered determinants to be codified and propagated consistently across a series of screens in a GUI. A grid is the geometrical division of a space into precisely measured columns, spaces and margins; it is the backbone of screen design. Composing and designing spaces with a grid have become an essential tool for the practicing designer [14]. Jude [15] states that ‘the primary purpose of the grid is to create order out of chaos; it is an aid to readability, recognition, and understanding.” Eugene Ch’ng, David Chek Ling Ngo (2003) Screen design: a dynamic symmetry grid based approach
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    The basic configuration is a 12 column grid system spread

    out over 960 pixels. Each column is 60 pixels wide with a 20 pixel gutter in between. http://www.usabilitypost.com/2009/05/29/the-1kb-css-grid-part-1/
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    “Design patterns were first described in the 1960s by Christopher

    Alexander, an architect who noticed that many things in our lives happen according to patterns.” http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2009/06/23/10-ui- design-patterns-you-should-be-paying-attention-to/
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    “design patterns are solutions to recurring problems. By extension, UI

    design patterns are solutions to common user interface problems.” http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2009/06/23/10-ui- design-patterns-you-should-be-paying-attention-to/
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    Lazy Registration Users can use all of the service’s functions

    to edit their photos online. They are asked to register only before saving their work.
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    “Google Maps allows users to search by city, street, zip

    code and even latitudinal and longitudinal values.” Forgiving Format
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    http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns/ http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/paginator/ “When searches return too many results to display

    on a single page, separate the information into a sequence of pages. Provide pagination control, as a row of links, to enable the user to browse through more results than can be displayed on a single page.”
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    Form Design Guidelines •  Use a simple vertical layout with

    labels above the input elds. •  If vertically aligned labels are not possible, make them bold and left-aligned. •  If you put more than one eld on a row (e.g. rst and last name) make them look like a single piece of information. •  Emphasize section headings (via color or shading) if you want people to read them. •  Only ask for required information. Identify optional elds rather than required elds (don't use asterisks). •  Use a single input eld for numbers and postal codes, and allow input in various forms. •  Avoid displaying unnecessary information and make sure important information stands out. •  Real time feedback may be distracting — good implementation is key. •  Place instructions to the side of the eld. •  For multi-page forms tell users how many steps remain before completion.
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    The user/human part Useful human strengths and weaknesses to consider

    include: •  Memory - people can remember 7 (plus or minus 2) “chunks” of information. •  Visual perception e.g. colour blindness •  Motor skills e.g. mouse skills •  Learning and skill acquisition •  Motivation •  User’s conceptual models •  Population stereotypes •  Human diversity e.g. accessibility issues for disabled users
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    “The physical appearance of objects such as icons can significantly

    affect navigational performance. For example, Rogers (1987) found that icons with abstract but simple symbols that represented concrete objects resulted in the fewest number of errors and requests for help. In addition, Byrne (1993) found that large and simple icons outperformed complex ones by a significant margin. Byrne suggests that icons need to be simple, large, and easy to discriminate in order to be effective.” Bernard, M. (2006) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability) http://uwf.edu/ddawson/d3net/documents/web_usability/optimal%20web%20design.pdf
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    vs

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    “Each icon presents us with a mini-story with an intertwined

    plot. The problem is that in small size you are unable to work out what is depicted. Even in larger sizes, it is not always that easy to decipher the icons.” 10 Mistakes in Icon Design http://turbomilk.com/blog/cookbook/ icon_design/10_mistakes_in_icon_design/
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    Showing Hyperlink Cues with CSS a[href $='.pdf'] { padding-right: 18px;

    background: transparent url(icon_pdf.gif) no-repeat center right; } http://askthecssguy.com/articles/showing-hyperlink-cues-with-css/
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    “Visualisation concerns the graphical (or semi-graphical) representation of information in

    order to assist human comprehension of and reasoning about that information” Petre, M., de Quincey, E. (2006) A gentle overview of software visualization. Computer Society of India Communications. August, 6-11. ISSN 0970-647X Available at: http://www.ppig.org/newsletters/2006-09.html
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    Data journalism at the Guardian: what is it and how

    do we do it? http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/jul/28/data-journalism
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    Visualisation of a collection of tweets that contain the word

    hayfever collected in June and July 2012 http://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/visualizations/visualisation-of-tweets-containing
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    !

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    LEARNING ANALYTICS & DASHBOARDS IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF DATA AND

    METAPHORS Dr Ed de Quincey & Dr Ray Stoneham, University of Greenwich
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    LOOKS SET TO BE A KEY CONCERN WITH THE RAPID

    DEVELOPMENT OF MOOCS WITHIN HE WORLDWIDE
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    Learning Analytics has been de ned as a method for

    “deciphering trends and patterns from educational big data … to further the advancement of a personalized, supportive system of higher education.” (Johnson et al., 2013) Co-authorship network map of physicians publishing on hepatitis C (detail) Source: http://www. ickr.com/photos/speedo ife/8274993170/
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    We have collected the usage data of 3,576 students across

    the School (UG and PG) since September 2011. During this time there have been 7,899,231 interactions with the student intranet.
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    We also have stored in our systems, detailed attendance data,

    programme and course information and coursework marks.
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    PERIOD UNDER STUDY: September 1st 2012 to May 29th 2013

    2,544,374 interactions with 65 different le types from 2,634 students. 2,131,278 18,974 157,607 128,676 6,368 66,129 1,851 19,561
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation between Average Mark and Attendance % = 0.638 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   A"endance  %   Average  Mark  
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation between Average Mark and Intranet Activity = 0.601 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   Number  of  interac7ons  with  Intranet   Average  Mark  
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.601614385 Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.637771689 Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.438059389 COMP1314  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.627753051 Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark 0.480171638 Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.45670929 Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.229025047
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    COMP1640: Enterprise Web Software Development 3rd Year Course with 109

    students Correlation Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.168484881 Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.418583626 Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.234846724 COMP1640  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.188256752 Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark -0.067577432 Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.183237816 Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.378425564
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    Average Mark Attendance % Total Intranet Interactions Intranet Files Downloaded

    COMP1314 Intranet Interactions COMP1314 Lecture/Tutorial Views COMP1314 CW Speci cation Views 86   75   5.3  per  day   1,439   213   278   103   8   Average “First” Student on COMP1314 Average Mark Attendance % Total Intranet Interactions Intranet Files Downloaded COMP1314 Intranet Interactions COMP1314 Lecture/Tutorial Views COMP1314 CW Speci cation Views 21   40   2.6  per  day   696   121   118   52   5   Average “Failing” Student on COMP1314 from September 1st, 2012 to May 29th, 2013
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    “First” Students vs “Failing” Students COMP1314 Average Intranet Interactions  

    0   10   20   30   40   50   60   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Average  Number  of  Intranet  Interac7ons   First  Logs   Fail  Logs  
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    Reading Barry, N. (2009) How To Use Icons To Support

    Content In Web Design. Smashing Magazine. Carayon, P. (2007) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety (Human Factors and Ergonomics Series) (Human Factors and Ergonomics Series). L. Erlbaum Assoc. Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, USA. Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D. and Shneiderman, B. (Eds.) (1999) Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA. Charles, T., Bustard, D., Black, M. (2009) ELEGANT: Enhanced eLearning Engagement using Game Absorption Techniques. In Novel Approaches to Promoting Student Engagement. HEA Subject Centre for Information & Computer Sciences. Choemprayong, S., Oh, S., Sheble, L (2006). Interfaces for the personal pregnancy health records (PregHeR) system: Facets in time. Annual symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association. Dibben, C., Watson, J., Smith, T., Cox, M., Manley, D., Perry, I., Rolfe, L., Barnes, H., Wilkinson, K., Linn, J., Liu, L., Sims, A., and Hill, A. (2008) The Health Poverty Index. The NHS Information Centre. Leeds, UK. de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P., Farrell, D. (2009) Visualising web server logs for a Web 1.0 audience using Web 2.0 technologies: eliciting attributes for recommendation and profiling systems. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization for Web 2.0 in connection with UMAP 2009, June 22-26, 2009, Trento, Italy Esterhay Jr., R.J. (1994) User metaphors for health care professional workstations. International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing, Volume 34, Issues 1-4, The Health Care Professional Workstation, January 1994, Pages 95-113 Garner, R. (2005) Humor, Analogy, and Metaphor: H.A.M. it up in Teaching. Radical Pedagogy, Vol. 6, No. 2, Winter 2005. Glenn, R. (2002) Brain research: Practical Applications for the classroom. Teaching for Excellence, 21(6), 1-2. Marcus, A. (1995) Metaphor design in user interfaces: how to effectively manage expectation, surprise, comprehension, and delight. In Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '95), I. Katz, R. Mack, and L. Marks (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 373-374. Marcus, A. (2003) Icons, symbols, and signs: visible languages to facilitate communication. interactions 10, 3 (May 2003), 37-43. Hallett, C., Power, R. and Scott, D. (2006). Summarisation and visualisation of e-Health data repositories. In: UK E-Science All-Hands Meeting, 18-21 Sept 2006, Nottingham, UK. Krieger, J., Parrott, R., Nussbaum, J. (2010) Metaphor Use and Health Literacy: A Pilot Study of Strategies to Explain Randomization in Cancer Clinical Trials. Journal of Health Communication, 2010; 1 Petre, M., de Quincey, E. (2006) A gentle overview of software visualisation. Computer Society of India Communications (CSIC) Rugg, G., Petre, M. (2006) A Gentle Guide to Research Methods. Open University Press Shneiderman, B. (1983) Direct manipulation: a step beyond programming languages, Computer, 16, 8, pp. 57-60, Aug. 1983. Tufte, E. (2001) Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 2001. Ward, M.C. (2002) Systematic selection and implementation of graphical user interface metaphors. Comput. Educ. 38, 4 (May 2002), 385-397. Young, P., and Munro, M. (2003) Visualising software in virtual reality. IEEE First International Workshop on Visualizing Software for Understanding and Analysis. IEEE Computer Society Press.
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    de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P., Farrell, D. (2009) Visualising web

    server logs for a Web 1.0 audience using Web 2.0 technologies: eliciting attributes for recommendation and pro ling systems. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptation and Personalization for Web 2.0 in connection with UMAP 2009, June 22-26, 2009, Trento, Italy. Available at: http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-485/