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DiLEO presentation (english)

DiLEO presentation (english)

Evaluation is a very vital research interest in the digital library domain. This has been exhibited by the growth of the literature in the main conferences and journal papers. However it is very difficult for one to navigate in this extended corpus. For these reasons the DiLEO ontology has been developed in order to assist the exploration of important concepts and the discovery of trends in the evaluation of digital libraries. DiLEO is a domain ontology, which aims to conceptualize the DL evaluation domain by correlating its key entities and provide reasoning paths that support the design of evaluation experiments.

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Giannis Tsakonas

March 24, 2011
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  1. DiLEO a domain ontology for the evaluation of digital libraries

    dbis/dlib/ionio
  2. 2 structure - Introduction - On the evaluation of digital

    libraries - Modeling the evaluation of digital libraries - An ontological representation of the digital library evaluation domain - Ontologies - DiLEO presentation
  3. in short - an ontology - for comparing instances -

    for the support of digital library evaluation planning 3
  4. motive - e development of a schema for the description

    and the comparison of evaluation instances. - Outmost aim is to cover the disagreement among evaluation models through a structured and formal meta-model. “the lack of globally accepted abstract evaluation models and methodologies can be counterbalanced by collecting, publishing and analyzing current research activities” [Führ et al., 2007] - At the same time to develop a digital library evaluation planning tool. “Every evaluation should begin with a well-crafted plan. Writing an evaluation plan is not just common sense. It is an essential roadmap to successful evaluation!” [Reeves et a., 2003]. 4
  5. on the evaluation of digital libraries part a

  6. modeling evaluation - We do not refer to digital library

    evaluation models, but to the modeling of the process itself. - Five main works: - In Tefko Saracevic’s classi cation [2004] - In the Evaluation Computer [Kovacs & Micsik, 2004] - In the PRET A Rapporter framework [Blandford et al., 2007] - In the 5SQual model [Gonçalves et al., 2007] - In the Zachman Framework 6
  7. Saracevic’s Classi cation - A classi cation of evaluation studies

    according to: - what elements have been evaluated (Constructs) - which were the goals, the perspectives and so on (Context) - which were the perspectives that interested us (Criteria) - how the evaluation was conducted (Methodology) 7
  8. Saracevic’s Classi cation - Divided the evaluation studies to these

    proposing evaluation models and to these reporting results of evaluation initiatives. - Saracevic formed the concept of Context to encapsulate all high- level questions, such as why one evaluates, what is his/her target, etc. - At the same time he developed a category to classify studies according to what was evaluated (Constructs) and two categories (Criteria, Methodology) to classify the studies according to how these are conducted. 8
  9. the evaluation computer - A faceted classi cation of different

    views, which synthesize an instance of an evaluation or an ‘evaluation atom’. - A calculation of the distance between two ‘atoms’ in a space. 9
  10. the evaluation computer - Five facets: - System - Content

    - Organization - User - Evaluation 10
  11. PRET A Rapporter - An evaluation framework that emphasized on

    the context of work. - According to the authors the framework holds features that assist the planning of an evaluation. - e framework structures the evaluations according to: - the purpose of evaluation - the resources and the constrains - the ethical considerations - the data gathering - the analysis of data - the reporting of ndings 11
  12. PRET A Rapporter - PRET A Rapporter is moving case

    study-wise. In practice this means it focuses on particular dimensions in each of the three indicative studies that presents. - a formative evaluation of a system - a comparative evaluation of two interfaces of the same database - a qualitative study of a system in actual use. 12
  13. 5SQual - e model is based on the well-known framework

    for the description of the digital libraries 5S (Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, & Societies). - e model de nes some dimensions (criteria) that correspond to constituting elements of the digital libraries. - e authors refer to a series of studies, where these criteria are applied on digital libraries, such as ACM DL, CITIDEL and NDLTD. 13
  14. 14 Digital library concept Quality dimension 5S Concepts Digital object

    Accessibility Societies (actor), Structures (metadata speci cation), Streams + Structures (structured streams) Pertinence Societies (actor), Scenarios (task) Preservability Streams, Structures (structural metadata), Scenarios (process (e.g., migration) Relevance Streams + Structures (structured streams), Structures (query), Spaces (Metric, Probabilistic, Vector) Similarity Same as in relevance, Structures (citation/link patterns) Signi cance Structures (citation/link patterns) Timeliness Streams (time), Structures (citation/link patterns) Metadata speci cation Accuracy Structure (properties, values) Completeness Structure (properties, schema) Conformance Structure (properties, schema) Collection Completeness Structure (collection) Catalog Completeness Structure (collection) Consistency Structure (collection) Repository Completeness Structure (collection) Consistency Structure (catalog, collection) Services Composability See Extensibility, reusability Efficiency Streams (time), Spaces (operations, contraints) Effectiveness See Pertinence, Relevance Extensibility Societies + Scenarios (extends, inherits_from, rede nes) Reusability Societies + Scenarios (includes, reuses) Reliability Societies + Scenarios (uses, executes, invokes)
  15. the Zachman framework - Zachman Framework is a framework for

    enterprise architecture, developed by John Zachman, IBM, early 1980. - e framework re ects a formal and high-level structured view of an organization. A taxonomy for the organization of structural elements of the organization under the lens of speci c perspectives. - It classi es and organizes in a two-dimensional space all the concepts needed to be homogeneous and to express different planning perspectives. - According to the participants (alternative perspectives). - According to processes (questions). 15
  16. 16 What Data How Process Where Location Who Worker When

    Timing Why Motivation Scope [Planner] Core Business Concepts Major Business Transformations Business Locations Principal Actors Business Events Mission & Goals Business Model [Owner] Fact Model Tasks Business Connectivity Map Work ow Models Business Milestones Policy Charter System Model [Evaluator] Data Model Behavior Allocation Platform & Communication s Map BRScripts State Transition Diagrams Rule Book Technology Model [Evaluator] Relational Database Design Program Speci cations Technical Plat- form & Commu- nications Design Procedure & Interface Speci cations Work Queue & Scheduling Designs Rule Speci cations Detail representation [Evaluator] Database Schema Source Code Network Procedures & Interfaces Work Queues & Schedules Rule Base Functioning Bus [Evaluator] Operational Database Operational Object Cod Operational Network Operational Procedures & Interfaces Operational Work Queues & Schedules Operational Rules the Zachman framework
  17. an ontological representation of the digital library evaluation domain part

    b
  18. why an ontology? - Formal models that help us: -

    understand a domain of knowledge; in this case the domain of digital library evaluation. - to structure a knowledge base to collate different instances; in this case instances portraying evaluations of digital libraries. - to infer a logical development; in this case to assist digital library evaluation planning. 18
  19. why an ontology? - e previous schemas are located vertically

    in speci c research areas. For example the PRET A Rapporter framework has a HCI view of things or the 5SQual examines the dimension of quality. - ey de ne concepts (constituents), either of the digital libraries, or of the evaluation, but not their in-between relationships. - e purpose is to use the ontology relationships and to highlight the links between the concepts and to semantically strengthen them. - It has the potential to express paths, which will reveal alternative or complementary concepts and threads. 19
  20. ontologies - We use elements such as: – classes (representing

    concepts, entities, etc.) – relationships (linking the concepts together) – functions (constraining the relationships in particular ways) – axioms (stating true facts) – instances (re ecting examples of reality) 20
  21. engineering process - DiLEO is the result of some process:

    - Literature review and study - selecting the proper concepts - continuously exploring the proper relationships - Expressed in OWL - Validation - through discussion and practice in the “Exploring perspectives on the evaluation of digital libraries” tutorial in ECDL 2010. - through a focus group with eld researchers. 21
  22. a typical presentation of an evaluation - Development in OWL

    with Protégé Ontology Editor - http://protege.stanford.edu/ 22
  23. the higher levels Dimensions effectiveness, performance measurement, service quality, technical

    excellence, outcomes assessment Subjects Objects Characteristics Levels content level, processing level, engineering level, interface level, individual level, institutional level, social level Goals describe, document, design Research Questions Dimensions Type formative, summative, iterative hasDimensionsType isAffecting / isAffectedBy isCharacterizing/ isCharacterizedBy isFocusingOn isAimingAt isOperatedBy isOperating isDecomposedTo 23 isCharacterizing/ isCharacterizedBy
  24. the lower levels Activity record, measure, analyze, compare, interpret, report,

    recommend Means Comparison studies, expert studies, laboratory studies, eld studies, logging studies, surveys Factors cost, infrastructure, personnel, time Means Types qualitative, quantitative Instruments devices, scales, software, statistics, narrative items, research artifacts Findings Criteria speci c aims, standards, toolkits Metrics content initiated, system initiated, user initiated Criteria Categories isSupporting/isSupportedBy hasPerformed/isPerformedIn hasSelected/isSelectedIn hasMeansType isMeasuredBy/isMeasuring isUsedIn/ isUsing isGrouped/isGrouping isSubjectTo isDependingOn isReportedIn/isReporting 24
  25. connection of the levels Dimensions effectiveness, performance measurement, service quality,

    technical excellence, outcomes assessment Subjects Levels content level, processing level, engineering level, interface level, individual level, institutional level, social level Research Questions Activity record, measure, analyze, compare, interpret, report, recommend Means Comparison studies, expert studies, laboratory studies, eld studies, logging studies, surveys Findings Objects Metrics content initiated, system initiated, user initiated isAddressing isAppliedTo hasConstituent /isConstituting hasInitiatedFrom 25
  26. Relations Domain Range isCitedIn / inverse: isCiting Appellations/study identi er

    (AP/ stid) Appellations/study reference (AP/ strf) Constraints: max cardinality=1 Constraints: max cardinality=1 Constraints: max cardinality=1 hasDimensionsType Dimensions (D) Dimensions Type (DT) Constraints: min cardinality=1, ∃ (formative ∪ summative ∪ iterative) Constraints: min cardinality=1, ∃ (formative ∪ summative ∪ iterative) Constraints: min cardinality=1, ∃ (formative ∪ summative ∪ iterative) isAffecting inverse: isAffectedBy Dimensions (D) Level (L) min cardinality =1, ∃ (content level ∪ engineering level ∪ processing level ∪ interface level ∪ individual level ∪ institutional level ∪ social level) min cardinality =1, ∃ (content level ∪ engineering level ∪ processing level ∪ interface level ∪ individual level ∪ institutional level ∪ social level) min cardinality =1, ∃ (content level ∪ engineering level ∪ processing level ∪ interface level ∪ individual level ∪ institutional level ∪ social level) hasConstituent / inverse: isConstituting Dimensions (D) Activities (A) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) isSupporting / inverse: isSupportedBy Instruments (I) Activities (A) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) Constraints: min cardinality =1, ∃ (record ∪ measure ∪ analyze ∪ compare ∪ interpret ∪ report ∪ recommend) relationships - Some of the forty (40) relationships 26
  27. use of ontology - We use threads of the ontology

    — paths — to express explicitly a process or a requirement. For example: - Activities/analyze - isPerformedIn - Means/logging studies- hasMeansType - Means Type/quantitative 27 Activity record, measure, analyze, compare, interpret, report, recommend Means Comparison studies, expert studies, laboratory studies, eld studies, logging studies, surveys Means Types qualitative, quantitative isPerformedIn hasMeansType
  28. use of ontology - Level/individual level - isAffectedBy - Dimensions/performance

    measurement - isFocusingOn - Objects/usage of content/usage of data - isOperatedBy - Subjects/human agents - isCharacterizedby - Characteristics/experience - ... isCharacterizedby - Characteristics/discipline - ... isCharacterizedby - Characteristics/age 28 Dimensions effectiveness, performance measurement, service quality, technical excellence, outcomes assessment Subjects system agents, human agents Objects usage of content: usage of data, usage of metadata Characteristics age, count, discipline, experience, profession, Levels content level, processing level, engineering level, interface level, individual level, institutional level, social level isAffectedBy isFocusingOn isOperatedBy isCharacterizedby
  29. instances - Entry of instances in Protégé. 29

  30. query examples - We ask the knowledge base by issuing

    SPARQL queries - Assuming that we want to plan an evaluation with log les. - During the evaluation planning we are interested in knowing which were the research questions of relevant studies. - To mine this information from the knowledge base we need to submit a SPARQL query. 30
  31. SPARQL query SELECT DISTINCT ?Research_QuestionsInst ?Means WHERE { ?Research_QuestionsInst a<Research_Questions>.

    ?Dimensions a<Technical_Excellence>. ?Activity a <Record>. ?Means a <Logs>. ?Research_QuestionsInst<isBelongingTo> ?Dimensions. ?Dimensions<hasConstituent> ?Activity. ?Activity<isPerformedIn> ?Means } query examples - the query and the answers will have this form: 31 answers the research questions (in the rst column) from two studies (wm2008c and nzdl2000) that used log les (in second column).
  32. sources - more on DiLEO: - G. Tsakonas & C.

    Papatheodorou (2011). “An ontological representation of the digital library evaluation domain”. Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology 62(8), 1577–1593. - related readings are located in: - http://www.mendeley.com/groups/731821/dileo/ 32