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Vietnamese Word Segmentation

Vietnamese Word Segmentation

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自然言語処理研究室

October 25, 2016
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  1. 1 文献紹介 (2016.10.25) 長岡技術科学大学  自然言語処理    Nguyen Van Hai Vietnamese Word

    Segmentation Dinh Dien, Hoang Kiem, Nguyen Van Toan Faculty of Information Technology National University of HCM City 227 Nguyen Van Cu, Dist. 5, HCM City, VIETNAM ddien@saigonnet.vn Proceedings of the Sixth Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symposium
  2. 2 Abstract • Vietnamese is Asian languages which use whites

    spaces be used to determine syllable. • This paper present a model combining WFST approach and Neural Network • The algorithm achieves 97% of accuracy.
  3. 3 Problems • In Vietnamese whitespaces are no used to

    identify the word boundaries. • Problem with the word segmentation – Local ambiguity in compound words – No comprehensive dictionaries – Recognition of proper nouns and names – Morphemes and reduplicatives
  4. 4 Vietnamese Linguistics • Linguistic unit called “ti ng”. It

    is constructed from phonemes under ế the following structure • the syllable “tu n” (week) has a tone mark (grave accent), a first ầ consonant (t), a secondary vowel (u), a main vowel (â) and a last consonant (n).
  5. 5 Vietnamese Linguistics • “ti ng” may be: ế –

    A word “tôi” – A morpheme “hoa” (flow) and “h ng” (pink) in a word ồ “hoa h ng” (rose) ồ – A sub-morpheme “bù” and “nhìn” in a word “bù nhìn” (puppet)
  6. 6 Previous Works • Rule-based approach: – Longest Matching, Greedy

    Matchin Models (Yuen Poowarawan, 1986 ; Sampan Rarunrom, 1991). – Maximum matching models: • Thai, Sornlertlamvanich (1993) • Chinese, Chih-Hao Tsai (1996), MMSeg 2000; accurate 98% in a corpus with 1300 simple sentences without solution for proper nouns and unknown words.
  7. 7 Previous Works • Statistics-based approach: – HMM, based on

    Viterbi algorithm (Asanee Kawtraku, 1995 ; Surapant, 1995). – Expectation-Maximization (EM). This method is based on the resolvement of the “chicken and egg” question through its repetition (Xianping, 1996).
  8. 8 Propose model

  9. 9 WFST Model • Apply WFST model for Chinese Word

    segmentation into our task as follows (Richard Sproat, 1996): • Represent the dictionary D as a Weighted Finite State Transducer. Supposed: – H: set of “ti ng” (syllables). ế – p: no use, due to characteristic of “ti ng” ế – P: set of grammatical Part-of-speech (POS) labels.
  10. 10 Dictionaries • Each word will be attributed to it

    such additional details as POS, word frequency, and syntactic features. • the weight is assigned through the logarithm of the probability of a concrete word:
  11. 11 Dictionaries

  12. 12 Dictionaries • The probability of words is calculated based

    on a corpus of 2,000,000 words. – 1.6 MB from Complete works of Ho Chi Minh. – 0.6 MB from Vietnam PC-WORLD magazines. – 0.9 MB from newspapers in Science and Technology. – 0.5 MB from famous works of Vietnamese poets. – 3.7 MB from Vietnamese literary works. • And a dictionary of 34,000 words based on the one of the Center of Lexicography (under the National Center of Social Sciences and Humanities).
  13. 13 Identification of proper name • Found out some peculiar

    rules
  14. 14 Identification of proper name • the ambiguity here is

    that the initial letter of a sentence is also capitalized and besides. Ex: B Chính tr , B chính tr , or B Chính Tr ộ ị ộ ị ộ ị (politburo). • They make use of heuristic to attribute appropriate weights to these words and then consider them as conventional words to be processed at WFST with a very satisfactory result.
  15. 15 Method of selecting the best sentences

  16. 16 Neural network • This sentence after the WFST processing

    “H c ọ sinh h c sinh h c”. ọ ọ
  17. 17 Neural network

  18. 18 Parameter in the Neural Network

  19. 19 Results • The following table show the result of

    applying above model.