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Pulling up the ladder? Migrants’ choices about helping others migrate or not

Jørgen Carling
September 26, 2013

Pulling up the ladder? Migrants’ choices about helping others migrate or not

Presented at Examining Migration Dynamics: Networks and Beyond. University of Oxford, 24-26 September 2013. Like all my slide decks, this one is a visual aid to an oral presentation, not a self-exlanatory document. There's more information on my publications and work in progress on my web site: www.jorgencarling.com.

Jørgen Carling

September 26, 2013
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  1. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Examining Migration Dynamics: Networks and Beyond. University
    of Oxford, 24-26 September 2013
    Pulling up the ladder?
    Migrants’ choices
    about helping others
    migrate or not
    Jørgen Carling
    Jennifer Wu
    The views expressed here are those of the
    authors. They are not necessarily those of
    the THEMIS project or NORFACE.

    View full-size slide

  2. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    What is help?
    • Actions
    • Objective
    • Aspirations
    • Request
    • Potential beneficiary
    • Potential provider

    View full-size slide

  3. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    What is help?
    Decision
    to request
    help or not
    Decision
    to offer
    help or not

    View full-size slide

  4. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Decision
    to request
    help or not
    Decision
    to offer
    help or not
    Potential
    beneficiary
    Potential
    provider
    External environment(s)

    View full-size slide

  5. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Decision
    to request
    help or not
    Decision
    to offer
    help or not
    Potential
    beneficiary
    Potential
    provider
    External environment(s)

    View full-size slide

  6. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Design
    • 3 origins
    • 4 destinations
    • 12 corridors
    • Expanding
    • Stagnating

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  7. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Survey data
    • N = 2860 in
    destination
    countries
    • Pooling by
    origin
    • Controlling
    for desti-
    nation

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  8. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Brazilians Moroccans Ukrainians
    Netherlands … … …
    Norway … … …
    Portugal … … …
    UK … … …
    Other variables … … …
    Observations 1040 887 933
    Regression models, determinants of help

    View full-size slide

  9. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances

    View full-size slide

  10. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Obtained information from
    a person at the destination
    Came to destination to be
    with partner (spouse)
    Motivated by culture or
    education
    Motivated by opportunities
    for work

    View full-size slide

  11. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Strong tie to destination-
    country native
    Spends free time primarily
    with co-nationals
    Resource commitment to
    country of origin

    View full-size slide

  12. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances

    View full-size slide

  13. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary

    View full-size slide

  14. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    Obtained
    information from
    a person at the
    destination

    View full-size slide

  15. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    Obtained
    information from
    a person at the
    destination
    Brazilians
    2.748*

    View full-size slide

  16. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    Obtained
    information from
    a person at the
    destination
    Moroccans

    View full-size slide

  17. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    • Destination
    country
    • Migration
    experience
    • Current
    circumstances
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    Obtained
    information from
    a person at the
    destination
    Ukrainians
    2.748*

    View full-size slide

  18. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Having been asked
    for help with
    documents
    Having provided
    help with docu-
    ments, if asked
    Intention to help
    with documents,
    if asked
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary

    View full-size slide

  19. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary
    0 1 2 3 4 5
    Close family member
    Sibling
    Other relative
    Friend or colleague
    Other non-relative
    Odds ratios for providing migration help
    Ref

    View full-size slide

  20. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary
    0 1 2 3 4 5
    Close family member
    Sibling
    Other relative
    Friend or colleague
    Other non-relative Brazilians
    Odds ratios for providing migration help
    Ref
    NS

    View full-size slide

  21. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary
    0 1 2 3 4 5
    Close family member
    Sibling
    Other relative
    Friend or colleague
    Other non-relative Moroccans
    Odds ratios for providing migration help
    Ref
    NS
    NS

    View full-size slide

  22. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Outcome of
    specific requests
    for migration help
    • Potential
    beneficiary
    0 1 2 3 4 5
    Close family member
    Sibling
    Other relative
    Friend or colleague
    Other non-relative Ukrainians
    Odds ratios for providing migration help
    Ref
    NS
    NS

    View full-size slide

  23. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Conclusion
    • Having been helped ⇒
    inclined to help others
    (but not if Moroccan)

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  24. Theorizing the Evolution of European
    Migration Systems (THEMIS)
    Financial support from NORFACE
    research programme on Migration in
    Europe is acknowledged.
    Thank You!
    [email protected]
    [email protected]

    View full-size slide