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Hellenistic Art

nichsara
September 20, 2012

Hellenistic Art

Lecture given Thursday September 20, 2012.

nichsara

September 20, 2012
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    A,A?+#%@?/'>2$(BC"(--,%+,-@2$/?+%+$ %&$C"%C%".%+-2$#%"/2$DE?"%FG(2H$ I#%*(@>2$I#%*(@?,/2$J>-,CC?+2$$ ;,&<8"&+)/%.+() !  764K2$!*(B?+1("$#'($L"(?#$ <%+&"%+#-$M?",G-$NNN$?#$#'($;?O*($ %&$N--%-2$P%@?+$@%-?,/$?Q("$ L"((R$%",A,+?*2$J?#($<*?--,/?*2$/9$ :3S$;<=9$ !  767T2$U,R($%&$V?@%#'"?/(2$ V?+/#G?">$%&$#'($L"(?#$L%1-2$ V?@%#'"?/(2$)(**(+,-./2$/9$3WS$ ;<=$$ !  76742$!#'(+?$?O?/R,+A$#'($L,?+#-2$ L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$I("A?@%+2$XG"R(>2$ )(**(+,-./2$387637S$;<=9$ !  76752$=C,A+%-$YZ[2$M>,+A$L?**,/$ X"G@C(#("2$)(**(+,-./2$55S$;<=9$
  2. <'"%+%*%A,/?*$\]("],(^$

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  5. the empire to ratify official and personal documents and to

    claim ownership of commodities. They demonstrate the choice by an individual of a single artistic emblem to indicate him or herself. The most frequently depicted image in Achaemenid art (both monumental and small-scale) is the figure of a hero, often to be identified as a king, mastering beasts. In individual as well as official imperial art the image of the king exerting control over nefarious forces to maintain a balanced, symmetrical whole, was widely favoured. Art had therefore become a 78 role traditionally attributed to deities was repeated time and time again, in many different contexts throughout the empire. Drawing from different local traditions, the king is depicted as godhead on architectural and free-standing sculptures, on seal-stones and coins and on embossed metal vessels. Imperial texts make it clear that the kings saw themselves as in direct communication with the deity Ahuramazda, holding their positions because of divine favour. It is a recurrent theme both on imperial architectural sculpture and on Achaemenid seal-stones. stone and brick, glazed bricks, wall paintings on wood and stone and plaster, rock reliefs and free-standing sculpture in stone and metal. On a smaller scale, there are seals (preserved both as stone artefacts and also as impressions left on the documents they ratified), coins, jewellery, weapons, horse trappings, vessels of stone and glass and metal, personal effects such as mirrors, ornamental wood and ivory carvings and textiles. These artistic remains complement the Greek and Near Eastern texts to provide a complex image of the empire. THE ART OF KINGSHIP The concept of a harmonious world order is the central theme of the entire programme of 1 THE ACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE (c.550–330), founded by Cyrus II, centred on southwest Iran and lower Mesopotamia. Under Darius I (521–486) it reached its greatest extent, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, from Egypt to the modern Central Asian republics. When Alexander of Macedon conquered the empire in 331, he retained much of the Persian administrative system and made use of many pre-existing artistic channels to propagate his new ideology of empire. 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 70˚ 80˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Gordium Halicarnassus Kelaenae Güre Meydancikkâle Deve Hüyük Taxila Tyre Jerusalem Tarsus Damascus Samaria Sidon Jericho Ascalon Lachish Sais Bubastis Pazarlı Erzincan Aleppo Thapsacus Mari Nimrud Nineveh Kharga Oasis Ur Uruk Ashur Hasanlu Al Mina Ctesiphon Bisitun Godin Tepe Baba Jan Anshan Carchemish Altıntepe Byblos Kerkenes Dagı ˇ Bactra (Balkh) Merv Peshawar Multan Cyropolis Kabul Ai-Khanoum Samarkand Rhagae Gaza Miletus Thebes Sogdian Rock Susa Babylon Seleucia Sardis Ecbatana Persepolis Elephantine Ain Manawir Pasargadae Dascylium Larisa am Hermos Elmalı Limyra Xanthus Hacımusalar Afyon Labraunda Pasa Tepe ¸ Erzurum Köskerbaba Höyük ¸ Sinop Panticapaeum (Kerch) Memphis Priene Bayindir Magnesia ad Maeandrum Ephesus Abusir Alexandria ad Issum Alexandria Charax Alexandria (in Carmania) Alexandria Margiana Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar) Alexandria Oreiton Alexandria (south of Kabul) Alexandria ad Caucasum Alexandria Eschate Alexandria Oxiana Nicaea Bucephala 326BC Alexandria ad Indum Alexandria (in Egypt) Tigris N ile In dus Za radros (Sutlej) Acesines Hydaspes (Jhelum) (C henab) O xus (Syr Dar ya) A raxes Cy rus (Kura) Euphr ate s Red Sea Canal J axartes (A m u Darya) B L A C K S E A C A S P I A N S E A M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A RED SEA PER S IA N G U LF ARAL SEA A R A B I A N S E A AEGEAN SEA C A U C A S U S HIN DU KU SH ZAGROS MTS T H A R D E S E R T I R A N I A N P L A T E A U PERSIS SATTAG YDIA HYRCANI A ASSYRIA CAPPADOCIA PHRYGIA PAPHLAGONIA PISIDIA LYCIA CARIA LYDIA CYPRUS BITHYNIA DRANGIANA CILICIA SOGDIANA PHOENICIA NUBIA MAKA SCYTHIA A N A T O L I A A R A B I A I N D I A L I B YA E G Y P T S I N D GEDROSIA ARACHOSIA GANDARA BACTRIA MARGIANA PARTHIA MEDIA ELAM BEYOND THE RIVER ARMENIA COLCHIS CARMANIA CHORASMIA S A K A SEISTAN ARIA ancient coastline Sagalassus 333BC Issus 333BC Gaugamela 331BC Granicus 334BC N 0 0 300 miles 400 kms 1 The Achaemenid Empire extent of the Achaemenid Empire, c.500 BC administrative centre extent of Alexander’s Empire, 323 BC Alexander’s route Alexander’s commanders’ routes major battle siege cities founded by Alexander fortifications architecture inscriptions sculpture ceramics metalwork tablets sealstones stone vessels Ss glass painting coins papyrus N--%-$ P,-($%&$!*(B?+1("$::T6:5:$;<=$ !*(B?+1("$1(&(?#(1$#'($!/'?(@(+,1$I("-,?+-$,+$:::$;<=$?#$#'($;?O*($%&$N--%-9$
  6. !"#$%&'#() *%(+,-)...) 764K2$!*(B?+1("$#'($L"(?#$<%+&"%+#-$M?",G-$NNN$?#$#'($;?O*($%&$ N--%-2$P%@?+$@%-?,/$?Q("$L"((R$%",A,+?*2$J?#($<*?--,/?*2$/9$:3S$ ;<=9$

  7. the empire to ratify official and personal documents and to

    claim ownership of commodities. They demonstrate the choice by an individual of a single artistic emblem to indicate him or herself. The most frequent depicted image in Achaemenid art (both monumental and small-scale) is the figure of a hero, often to be identified as a king, mastering beasts. In individual as well as official imperial art the image of the king exerting control over nefarious forces to maintain a balanced, symmetrical whole, was widely favoured. Art had therefore become a 78 role traditionally attributed to deities was repeated time and time again, in many different contexts throughout the empire. Drawing from different local traditions, the king is depicted as godhead on architectural and free-standing sculptures, on seal-stones and coins and on embossed metal vessels. Imperial texts make it clear that the kings saw themselves as in direct communication with the deity Ahuramazda, holding their positions because of divine favour. It is a recurrent theme both on imperial architectural sculpture and on Achaemenid seal-stones. stone and brick, glazed bricks, wall paintings on wood and stone and plaster, rock reliefs and free-standing sculpture in stone and metal. On a smaller scale, there are seals (preserved both as stone artefacts and also as impressions left on the documents they ratified), coins, jewellery, weapons, horse trappings, vessels of stone and glass and metal, personal effects such as mirrors, ornamental wood and ivory carvings and textiles. These artistic remains complement the Greek and Near Eastern texts to provide a complex image of the empire. THE ART OF KINGSHIP The concept of a harmonious world order is the central theme of the entire programme of 1 THE ACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE (c.550–330), founded by Cyrus II, centred on southwest Iran and lower Mesopotamia. Under Darius I (521–486) it reached its greatest extent, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, from Egypt to the modern Central Asian republics. When Alexander of Macedon conquered the empire in 331, he retained much of the Persian administrative system and made use of many pre-existing artistic channels to propagate his new ideology of empire. 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 70˚ 80˚ 40˚ 30˚ Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Ss Gordium Halicarnassus Kelaenae Güre Meydancikkâle Deve Hüyük Taxila Tyre Jerusalem Tarsus Damascus Samaria Sidon Jericho Ascalon Lachish Sais Bubastis Pazarlı Erzincan Aleppo Thapsacus Mari Nimrud Nineveh Kharga Oasis Ur Uruk Ashur Hasanlu Al Mina Ctesiphon Bisitun Godin Tepe Baba Jan Anshan Carchemish Altıntepe Byblos Kerkenes Dagı ˇ Bactra (Balkh) Merv Peshawar Multan Cyropolis Kabul Ai-Khanoum Samarkand Rhagae Gaza Miletus Thebes Sogdian Rock Susa Babylon Seleucia Sardis Ecbatana Persepolis Elephantine Ain Manawir Pasargadae Dascylium Larisa am Hermos Elmalı Limyra Xanthus Hacımusalar Afyon Labraunda Pasa Tepe ¸ Erzurum Köskerbaba Höyük ¸ Sinop Panticapaeum (Kerch) Memphis Priene Bayindir Magnesia ad Maeandrum Ephesus Abusir Alexandria ad Issum Alexandria Charax Alexandria (in Carmania) Alexandria Margiana Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Arachoton (Kandahar) Alexandria Oreiton Alexandria (south of Kabul) Alexandria ad Caucasum Alexandria Eschate Alexandria Oxiana Nicaea Bucephala 326BC Alexandria ad Indum Alexandria (in Egypt) Tigris N ile In dus Za radros (Sutlej) Acesines Hydaspes (Jhelum) (C henab) O xus (Syr Dar ya) A raxes Cy rus (Kura) Euphr ate s Red Sea Canal J axartes (A m u Darya) B L A C K S E A C A S P I A N S E A M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A RED SEA PER S IA N G U LF ARAL SEA A R A B I A N S E A AEGEAN SEA C A U C A S U S HIN DU KU SH ZAGROS MTS T H A R D E S E R T I R A N I A N P L A T E A U PERSIS SATTAG YDIA HYRCANI A ASSYRIA CAPPADOCIA PHRYGIA PAPHLAGONIA PISIDIA LYCIA CARIA LYDIA CYPRUS BITHYNIA DRANGIANA CILICIA SOGDIANA PHOENICIA NUBIA MAKA SCYTHIA A N A T O L I A A R A B I A I N D I A L I B YA E G Y P T S I N D GEDROSIA ARACHOSIA GANDARA BACTRIA MARGIANA PARTHIA MEDIA ELAM BEYOND THE RIVER ARMENIA COLCHIS CARMANIA CHORASMIA S A K A SEISTAN ARIA ancient coastline Sagalassus 333BC Issus 333BC Gaugamela 331BC Granicus 334BC N 0 0 300 m 400 kms 1 The Achaemenid Empire extent of the Achaemenid Empire, c.500 BC administrative centre extent of Alexander’s Empire, 323 BC Alexander’s route Alexander’s commanders’ routes major battle siege cities founded by Alexander fortifications architecture inscriptions sculpture ceramics metalwork tablets sealstones stone vessels Ss glass painting coins papyrus !*(B?+1("`-$=@C,"($ !Q("$#'($1(&(?#$%&$#'($I("-,?+-2$!*(B?+1("$-(#$',-$(>(-$%+$#'($(?-#9$
  8. None
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  13. 5-47, Lysippos. Weary Herakles. Roman copy signed by Glykon of

    Athens after bronze original of c.320 BCE. 5-46, Lysippos. Man Scraping Himself (Apoxyomenos). Roman copy, after a bronze original of c.350-325 BCE. 5-45, Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy after original of c.350 BCE.
  14. X'%*%-$?#$=C,1?G"%-2$XG"R(>2$J?#($<*?--,/?*2$:TS$;<=9$ !(",?*$I*?+$

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  16. None
  17. )(**(+,-./a$:5:6:3$;<=$ intellectual ideas everywhere, and so paved the way for

    the Roman empire. In the fifth and early fourth centuries, the Greek world was made up of autonomous city states, generally small in size and for the most part short of natural resources, ruled directly by their citizens. From the time of the Macedonian conquest of Asia, the most powerful Greek states were infinitely larger, far richer and under the control of kings. These rulers were widely regarded as divine, and generals, who established themselves as his heirs. Antigonus Monophthalmos (‘The One- eyed’) took Macedonia itself and the old European possessions; Seleucus Nicator (‘The Victorious’) seized the satrapy of Babylonia and most of the rest of Asia, while Ptolemy Soter (‘The Saviour’) established himself as Pharaoh of Egypt. Greek literature was encouraged by these rulers. For example, the ‘sister-loving’ Ptolemy II and his consort Arsinoe, established a SILVER TETRADRACHM of King Antimachus I (c.181 BC) of Bactria. This masterful portrait shows the king wearing the traditional Macedonian kausia head- dress. Although from the most easterly part of the Greek world, this coin shows the typical Hellenistic interest in physiognomy. 60˚ 45˚ 30˚ 45˚ 30˚ Tropic of Cancer Pergamum Priene Delos Miletus Cnidus Lebena Halicarnassus Ephesus Antioch Antioch Aspendos Kourion Nea Paphos Trapezus Artaxata Ecbatana Hecatompylos Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Alexandria Olbia Chersonnesus Panticapaeum Alexandria Eschate Patala Gabae Maracanda Ai Khanum Taxila Bactra Pura Carmana Zadracarta Apollonia Samothrace Cyzicus Olynthus Eretria Cos Didyma Odessus Thessalonica Pella Aegae Demetrias Lysimachea Istrus Ancyra Sinope Petra Jerusalem Jericho Apamea Dura-Europos Babylon Ptolemais Persepolis Susa Athens Delphi Epidaurus Olympia Sicyon Corinth Vergina Lefkadia Kazanluk Dilberzin Sparta Cyrene Euhesperides Alexandria Memphis Berenice Seleucia Heraclea Byzantium Tyre Sidon Nile Euphr ates O xus Jaxartes Tigris Indus M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A B L A C K S E A R E D S E A ARABIAN SEA PERSIAN GULF C A S P I A N S E A ARAL SEA AEGEAN SEA H I N D U K U S H I R A N I A N P L A T E A U C A U C A S U S Z A G R O S M T S CYPRUS RHODES LYCIA BOSPORAN KINGDOM CARIA S E L E U C I D K I N G D O M A R A B I A I N D I A GREECE MACEDON BITHYNIA GALATIA MEDIA ATROPATENE P A R T H I A MARGIANA E G Y P T CAPPADO CI A M ESO P O TA M IA BABYLO N IA P E R S I S C A R M A N I A S Y R I A G E D R O S I A D R A N G I A N A A R A C H O S I A S O G D I A N A B A C T R I A A R E I A A R M ENIA HYR CANIA PAPHLAGONIA spices silk and spices gem s and spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects to set up court studios. !*(B?+1("$1,(1$,+$:5:$;<=9$
  18. Pergamum Priene Delos Miletus Cnidus Lebena Halicarnassus Ephesus Antioch Antioch

    Aspendos Kourion Nea Paphos Chersonnesus Apollonia Samothrace Cyzicus Olynthus Eretria Cos Didyma Odessus Thessalonica Pella Aegae Demetrias Lysimachea Istrus Ancyra Sinope Apamea Athens Delphi Epidaurus Olympia Sicyon Corinth Vergina Lefkadia Kazanluk Sparta Seleucia Heraclea Byzantium Tyre Sidon M E D I T E R R A N E A N B L A C K S E A AEGEAN SEA CYPRUS RHODES LYCIA CARIA GREECE MACEDON BITHYNIA GALATIA CAPPADO CI A Y R I A PAPHLAGONIA Vergina! 62 Ptolemais Berenice Nile R E D S E A AN ULF E G Y P T S spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects to set up court studios.
  19. */(+0)1%2+3%"-) 4/)5%-#) 6(+7"829-)%&'):#3/2#-) X%@E$%&$I',*,C2$b("A,+?2$)(**(+,-./$J?#($4#'$<(+#G">$;<=$

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  23. X%@E$%&$I',*,C$YP(/%+-#"G/.%+[2$b("A,+?2$)(**(+,-./2$J?#($4#'$ <(+#G">$;<=9$

  24. V',(*1$&"%@$#'($ X%@E$%&$I',*,C2$ b("A,+?$*?#($4#'$ <(+#G">$;<=$

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  26. Pergamum Priene Delos Miletus Cnidus Lebena Halicarnassus Ephesus Antioch Antioch

    Aspendos Kourion Nea Paphos Chersonnesus Apollonia Samothrace Cyzicus Olynthus Eretria Cos Didyma Odessus Thessalonica Pella Aegae Demetrias Lysimachea Istrus Ancyra Sinope Apamea Athens Delphi Epidaurus Olympia Sicyon Corinth Vergina Lefkadia Kazanluk Sparta Seleucia Heraclea Byzantium Tyre Sidon M E D I T E R R A N E A N B L A C K S E A AEGEAN SEA CYPRUS RHODES LYCIA CARIA GREECE MACEDON BITHYNIA GALATIA CAPPADO CI A Y R I A PAPHLAGONIA 62 Ptolemais Berenice Nile R E D S E A AN ULF E G Y P T S spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects to set up court studios.
  27. U,R($%&$V?@%#'"?/(2$V?+/#G?">$%&$#'($L"(?#$L%1-2$ V?@%#'"?/(2$)(**(+,-./2$/9$3WS$;<=$$

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  29. Pergamum Priene Delos Miletus Cnidus Lebena Halicarnassus Ephesus Antioch Antioch

    Aspendos Kourion Nea Paphos Chersonnesus Apollonia Samothrace Cyzicus Olynthus Eretria Cos Didyma Odessus Thessalonica Pella Aegae Demetrias Lysimachea Istrus Ancyra Sinope Apamea Athens Delphi Epidaurus Olympia Sicyon Corinth Vergina Lefkadia Kazanluk Sparta Seleucia Heraclea Byzantium Tyre Sidon M E D I T E R R A N E A N B L A C K S E A AEGEAN SEA CYPRUS RHODES LYCIA CARIA GREECE MACEDON BITHYNIA GALATIA CAPPADO CI A Y R I A PAPHLAGONIA 62 Ptolemais Berenice Nile R E D S E A AN ULF E G Y P T S spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects to set up court studios.
  30. None
  31. L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$I("A?@%+2$XG"R(>2$ )(**(+,-./2$387637S$;<=$

  32. 767:2$L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$I("A?@%+2$Y_%1(*[$ XG"R(>2$)(**(+,-./2$387637S$;<=$

  33. 767:2$L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$I("A?@%+2$XG"R(>2$ )(**(+,-./2$387637S$;<=$

  34. 76742$$!#'(+?$dA'.+A$#'($L,?+#-2$L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$ I("A?@%+2$XG"R(>2$)(**(+,-./2$387637S$;<=$

  35. U,B$YZ[2$L"(?#$!*#?"$?#$ I("A?@%+2$XG"R(>2$)(**(+,-./2$ 387637S$;<=$

  36. None
  37. L?G*$e,**,+A$',-$0,&($?+1$),@-(*&2$ P%@?+$<%C>2$/9$55S$;<=9$

  38. 76752$M>,+A$L?G*$X"G@C(#("2$P%@?+$<%C>2$)(**(+,-./2$/9$55S$ ;<=$

  39. 76752$M>,+A$L?G*$X"G@C(#("2$P%@?+$<%C>2$)(**(+,-./2$/9$55S$;<=$

  40. 76752$M>,+A$L?G*$X"G@C(#("2$P%@?+$<%C>2$)(**(+,-./2$/9$55S$ ;<=$ DJ>-,CC?+H$

  41. P(/%+-#"G/.%+$%&$#'($_%+G@(+#$%&$ !O?*%-$N2$I("A?@%+2$/9$55S$;<=$

  42. )(**(+,-./a$:5:6:3$;<=$ way for the Roman empire. In the fifth and

    early fourth centuries, the Greek world was made up of autonomous city states, generally small in size and for the most part short of natural resources, ruled directly by their citizens. From the time of the Macedonian conquest of Asia, the most powerful Greek states were infinitely larger, far richer and under the control of kings. These rulers were widely regarded as divine, and heirs. Antigonus Monophthalmos (‘The One- eyed’) took Macedonia itself and the old European possessions; Seleucus Nicator (‘The Victorious’) seized the satrapy of Babylonia and most of the rest of Asia, while Ptolemy Soter (‘The Saviour’) established himself as Pharaoh of Egypt. Greek literature was encouraged by these rulers. For example, the ‘sister-loving’ Ptolemy II and his consort Arsinoe, established a SILVER TETRADRACHM of King Antimachus I (c.181 BC) of Bactria. This masterful portrait shows the king wearing the traditional Macedonian kausia head- dress. Although from the most easterly part of the Greek world, this coin shows the typical Hellenistic interest in physiognomy. 60˚ 45˚ 30˚ 45˚ 30˚ Tropic of Cancer Pergamum Priene Delos Miletus Cnidus Lebena Halicarnassus Ephesus Antioch Antioch Aspendos Kourion Nea Paphos Trapezus Artaxata Ecbatana Hecatompylos Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Alexandria Olbia Chersonnesus Panticapaeum Alexandria Eschate Patala Gabae Maracanda Ai Khanum Taxila Bactra Pura Carmana Zadracarta Apollonia Samothrace Cyzicus Olynthus Eretria Cos Didyma Odessus Thessalonica Pella Aegae Demetrias Lysimachea Istrus Ancyra Sinope Petra Jerusalem Jericho Apamea Dura-Europos Babylon Ptolemais Persepolis Susa Athens Delphi Epidaurus Olympia Sicyon Corinth Vergina Lefkadia Kazanluk Dilberzin Sparta Cyrene Euhesperides Alexandria Memphis Berenice Seleucia Heraclea Byzantium Tyre Sidon Nile Euphr ates O xus Jaxartes Tigris Indus M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A B L A C K S E A R E D S E A ARABIAN SEA PERSIAN GULF C A S P I A N S E A ARAL SEA AEGEAN SEA H I N D U K U S H I R A N I A N P L A T E A U C A U C A S U S Z A G R O S M T S CYPRUS RHODES LYCIA BOSPORAN KINGDOM CARIA S E L E U C I D K I N G D O M A R A B I A I N D I A GREECE MACEDON BITHYNIA GALATIA MEDIA ATROPATENE P A R T H I A MARGIANA E G Y P T CAPPADO CI A M ESO P O TA M IA BABYLO N IA P E R S I S C A R M A N I A S Y R I A G E D R O S I A D R A N G I A N A A R A C H O S I A S O G D I A N A B A C T R I A A R E I A A R M ENIA HYR CANIA PAPHLAGONIA spices silk and spices gem s and spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects to set up court studios.
  43. Lebena Kourion Petra Jerusalem Jericho Dura-Eu Ptolemais Cyrene Euhesperides Alexandria

    Memphis Berenice Tyre Sidon Nile M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A R E D S E A E G Y P T S Y R I spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects Ecbatana Hecatompylos Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Alexandria Pat Gabae Bactra Pura Carmana Zadracarta ropos Babylon Persepolis Susa Dilberzin Euphr ates Tigris In ARABIAN SEA PERSIAN GULF E A H I K I R A N I A N P L A T E A U Z A G R O S M T S S E L E U C I D K I N G D O M A R A B I A MEDIA ATROPATENE P A R T H I A MARGIANA M ESO P O TA M IA BABYLO N IA P E R S I S C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A D R A N G I A N A A R A C H O S I A S O G D I A N B A C T R I A A R E I A A R M HYR CANIA gem s and spice 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean =1&G$
  44. <%,+$^,#'$f(G-$!@@%+$ <%,+$^,#'$!*(B?+1("$?-$f(G-$!@@%+$

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  48. Lebena Kourion Petra Jerusalem Jericho Dura-Eu Ptolemais Cyrene Euhesperides Alexandria

    Memphis Berenice Tyre Sidon Nile M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A R E D S E A E G Y P T S Y R I spices ivory and slaves N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES were essentially land- based. They were connected by caravan routes and, to some extent, by rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile. Luxury goods were transported by sea through the Mediterranean. The centres of patronage in this world were often royal palaces. Fabulously rich kings were able to collect artworks from distant places or commission painters, gem-cutters and architects Ecbatana Hecatompylos Alexandria Areion Alexandria Prophthasia Alexandria Alexandria Pata Gabae Bactra Pura Carmana Zadracarta uropos Babylon Persepolis Susa Dilberzin Euphr ates Tigris Ind ARABIAN SEA PERSIAN GULF E A H I K I R A N I A N P L A T E A U Z A G R O S M T S S E L E U C I D K I N G D O M A R A B I A MEDIA ATROPATENE P A R T H I A MARGIANA M ESO P O TA M IA BABYLO N IA P E R S I S C A R M A N I A G E D R O S I A D R A N G I A N A A R A C H O S I A S O G D I A N A B A C T R I A A R E I A A R M E HYR CANIA gem s and spice 1 The Hellenistic World, c.240 BC independent Greek states Antigonid Kingdom and dependencies Ptolemaic Kingdom and dependencies Kingdom of Pergamum Hellenized non-Greek kingdoms Seleucid Kingdom and vassal states major sculpture centres wall paintings (predominantly tombs) important sanctuaries mosaic workshops Hellenistic royal palaces gold finds finds of silver plate gem source mint currents in the Mediterranean =1&G$
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