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New Kingdom Egypt

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
January 31, 2013

New Kingdom Egypt

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

January 31, 2013
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  1. Art  of  Ancient  Egypt   Reading:   Stokstad,  62-­‐79  

      Range:   1975-­‐332  BCE   Middle  Kingdom,  New  Kingdom     Terms/Concepts:   Clerestory,  Hypostyle,  Rock-­‐Cut   Tomb,  Ankh,  Amarna,  Peristyle,  Book   of  the  Dead,  Pylon,  Block  Sculpture,   conInuous  narraIve,  Aten,   monotheism,  polytheism,  canon  of   proporIons,  clerestory,     Monument  List:     3-­‐14,  Rock-­‐Cut  Tomb,  Beni  Hasan,   Middle  Kingdom,  1938-­‐1756  BCE     3-­‐20,  Hypostyle  Hall  in  the  Great   Temple  of  Amun  at  Karnak,  New   Kingdom,  1292-­‐1190  BCE     3-­‐21,  VoIve  Statue  of   Hatshepsut,  New  Kingdom,   1473-­‐1458  BCE     3-­‐26,  Akhenaten  and  his  Family,   New  Kingdom,  1353-­‐1336  BCE     3-­‐35,  Judgment  of  Hunefer  from   his  Book  of  the  Dead,  New   Kingdom,  1285  BCE  
  2. Egypt:  Chronology   •  PredynasIc  Period        

         5000-­‐2920  BCE   •  Early  DynasIc  Period  (I-­‐III)          2920-­‐2611  BCE   •  Old  Kingdom  (IV-­‐VIII)            2575-­‐2465  BCE   •  First  Intermediate  Period  (IX-­‐XI)      2134-­‐2040  BCE   •  Middle  Kingdom  (XI-­‐XIV)          2040-­‐1640  BCE   •  Second  Intermediate  Period  (XV-­‐XVII)    1640-­‐1532  BCE   •  New  Kingdom  (XVIII-­‐XX)          1550-­‐1070  BCE   •  Third  Intermediate  Period  (XXI-­‐XXV)    1070-­‐712  BCE   •  Late  Period  (XXV-­‐XXXI)            712-­‐332  BCE   •  Greco/Roman  Egypt            332  BCE-­‐359  CE  
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  5. Senusret  I  (1971-­‐1926  BCE)   Reconstruc8on   Middle  Kingdom  Temple

      Plan   This  temple  doesn’t   really  survive.  
  6. New  Kingdom  Developments:  1493-­‐1213  BCE   Thutmosis  I-­‐Ramses  II  

    I II III IV V VI 0 50 m © Sjef Willockx, 2004 The Amun temple of Karnak N The Amun temple of Karnak 0 50 m © Sjef Willockx, 2004 1/1 1/2 2/2 1/6 2/6 3/6 4/6 5/6 6/6 Hyp. T1 5th/6th Ramesses III
  7. New  Kingdom  Developments:  1493-­‐1213  BCE   Thutmosis  I  and  Thutmosis

     II  
  8. Hypostyle  Hall:    Sety  I  and  Ramses  II  (1290-­‐1213  BCE)

      II III IV V VI N 2/2 2/6 3/6 4/6 5/6 6/6 Hyp. T1 5th/6th Ramesses III Plan  
  9. II III IV V VI N 2/2 2/6 3/6 4/6

    5/6 Hyp. T1 5th/6th Plan   A  hypostyle  hall  is  a   large  hall  or  room  with   a  roof  supported  by   columns  
  10. Clerestory: The area of windows that rises above other parts

    of the roof.
  11. Clerestory: The area of windows that rises above other parts

    of the roof.
  12. The  (Re)unificaIon  of  Egypt   Papyrus  =  Lower  Egypt  

    Lotus  =  Upper  Egypt  
  13. Pylon:  Massive  gateway,  oaen  at   a  temple,  with  sloping

     walls.   Pylons  18th  Dynasty-­‐30th  Dynasty  
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  16. Sacred lake First pylon Most holy of places Hypostyle hall

  17. Hypostyle Hall Pylon I Most Holy of Places Sacred Lake

  18. False  Beard   Nemes  (Headdress)  

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  22. *Miles  away  from  her  rock-­‐cut  tomb.  

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  30. “you  are  the  man,  and   you  are  the  woman.”

     
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  35. Vulture  (Nekhbet)  Upper  Egypt   Cobra  (Ureas)  Lower  Egypt  

    +   The  UnificaIon  of  Egypt   =  
  36. The  DeclaraIon  of  Innocence:    “I  have  not  caused  pain,

     /  I  have  not   caused  tears.  /  I  have  not  killed,  /  I  have  not  ordered  to  kill,  /  I  have  not   made  anyone  to  suffer.”    This  secIon  ends  with  him  declaring  that  he  is   “pure”  and  that  “no  evil  should  befall  [him].”    
  37. The  DeclaraIon  of  the  42  Judges:    “O  Bone-­‐  smasher,

      who  comes  from  Hnes,  I  have  not  told  lies.”    
  38. The  Address  to  the  Gods:  “[I]  have  given  bread  to

     the   hungry,  /  Water  to  the  thirsty,  /  Clothes  to  the  naked,  /  A   ferryboat  to  the  boatless.”    
  39. “The  First  InterrogaIon”  The  deceased  is  tested  on  the  mysteries

     of   Osiris  and  the  gods.    When  is  knowledge  is  confirmed  by  his  answers  he   is  told,  “Come  then,  enter  the  gate  of  this  Hall  of  the  Two  Truths,  /  For   you  know  us.”    
  40. “The  Second  InterrogaIon”:  The  hall  itself  tests  the  deceased  further.

        With  each  challenge  the  deceased  must  respond  with  the  challenger’s   name.  “  ‘I  shall  not  open  for  you,’  /  Says  the  bolt-­‐clasp  of  this  gate,  /   ‘Unless  you  tell  my  name,’  /  ‘Eye-­‐of-­‐Sobk-­‐Lord-­‐of-­‐Bakhu  is  your  name.’  ”    
  41. The  Weighing  of  the  Heart   Hunefer   Anubis  

    Heart   Maat   Maat   Ammut   Thoth   Anubis   Hunefer   Horus   Osiris   Isis  and  Nephthys   Nekbhet  
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  43. CriIcal  Thinking  QuesIons   1.  How  does  the  book  of

     the  dead  funcIon  in  ancient   EgypIan  ritual?    How  are  the  themes  found  in  these   “books”  connected  to  other  arIfacts?   2.  What  is  the  Amarna  period?    How  does  it  represent   a  great  divergence  from  the  nature  of  EgypIan  art   and  religion?   3.  How  are  issues  of  gender  and  kingship  approached   on  the  statuary  of  Hatshepsut?   4.  Describe  the  development  of  tomb  architecture   from  the  Early  DynasIc  period  to  the  New  Kingdom.     How  have  pracIcal  consideraIons  impacted  how   the  EgypIans  provided  for  their  pharaoh’s  aaerlife?