Stokstad, 166-‐176 Range: 510 BCE-‐14 CE Republic and Imperial Terms/Concepts: La?um, republic, senate, verism, patrician, plebian, oligarchy, triumvirate, Augustus, princeps, ara, suovetauralia, Key Monuments: 6-‐14, Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Heads, Roman Empire, c. late 1st century BCE or early 1st century CE. 6-‐15, Portrait of Aulus Metellus (“the Orator”), Roman Republican, early 1st century BCE 6-‐19, The Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial, 1st century CE 6-‐20, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). Roman Empire 13-‐9 BCE.
Romans] dies….they place a likeness of the dead man in the most public part of the house, keeping it in a small wooden shrine. The likeness is a mask especially made for a close resemblance…And whenever a leading member of the family dies, they introduce [the wax masks], into the funeral procession, pu[ng them on men who seem most like them in height and as regards the rest of their general appearance….It is not easy for an ambi?ous and high-‐minded young man to see a ﬁner spectacle than this. For those who would not be won over at the sight of all the masks together of those men who had been extolled for virtue as if they were alive and breathing.” –Polybius (History of Rome)
and breed horses, or rears bullocks, strong for the plough, let his chief care be to choose the mold of the dams. The best-‐formed cow is ﬁerce-‐ looking, her head ugly, her neck thick, and her dewlaps hanging down from chin to legs. Moreover, her long ﬂank has no limit; all points are large, even the feet; and under the crooked horns are shaggy ears. Nor should I dislike one marked with white spots, or impa?ent of the yoke, at ?mes ﬁerce with the horn, and more like a bull in face; tall throughout, and she steps sweeping her footprints with the tail's ?p. The age to bear motherhood and lawful wedlock ends before the tenth year, and begins ader the fourth; the rest of their life is neither ﬁt for breeding nor strong for the plough. Mean?me, while lusty youth s?ll abides in the herds, let loose the males; be ﬁrst to send your caele to mate, and supply stock ader stock by breeding. Life's fairest days are ever the ﬁrst to ﬂee for hapless mortals; on creep diseases, and sad age, and suﬀering; and stern death's ruthlessness sweeps away its prey. -‐-‐Virgil, The Georgics