From Republic to Empire
510 BCE-‐14 CE
Republic and Imperial
La?um, republic, senate,
verism, patrician, plebian,
Augustus, princeps, ara,
6-‐14, Patrician Carrying Two
Portrait Heads, Roman
Empire, c. late 1st century
BCE or early 1st century CE.
6-‐15, Portrait of Aulus
Metellus (“the Orator”),
Roman Republican, early 1st
6-‐19, The Augustus
Imperial, 1st century CE
6-‐20, Ara Pacis Augustae
(Altar of Augustan Peace).
Roman Empire 13-‐9 BCE.
★Rome is known fundamentally as an urban civilization
Romans] dies….they place a likeness of the dead
man in the most public part of the house, keeping it
in a small wooden shrine. The likeness is a mask
especially made for a close resemblance…And
whenever a leading member of the family dies, they
introduce [the wax masks], into the funeral
procession, pu[ng them on men who seem most
like them in height and as regards the rest of their
general appearance….It is not easy for an ambi?ous
and high-‐minded young man to see a ﬁner spectacle
than this. For those who would not be won over at
the sight of all the masks together of those men who
had been extolled for virtue as if they were alive and
breathing.” –Polybius (History of Rome)
Jean-Léon Gérôme. The Death of Caesar. 1859-67. Oil on canvas, 2`4z x
4`11z. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Augustus of Primaporta. Copy of a bronze
original of c.20 BCE. Marble, height 6`8z.
Vatican Museums, Rome. (Stokstad 6-18)
horses, or rears bullocks, strong for the plough, let his chief care be
to choose the mold of the dams. The best-‐formed cow is ﬁerce-‐
looking, her head ugly, her neck thick, and her dewlaps hanging
down from chin to legs. Moreover, her long ﬂank has no limit; all
points are large, even the feet; and under the crooked horns are
shaggy ears. Nor should I dislike one marked with white spots, or
impa?ent of the yoke, at ?mes ﬁerce with the horn, and more like a
bull in face; tall throughout, and she steps sweeping her footprints
with the tail's ?p. The age to bear motherhood and lawful wedlock
ends before the tenth year, and begins ader the fourth; the rest of
their life is neither ﬁt for breeding nor strong for the plough.
Mean?me, while lusty youth s?ll abides in the herds, let loose the
males; be ﬁrst to send your caele to mate, and supply stock ader
stock by breeding. Life's fairest days are ever the ﬁrst to ﬂee for
hapless mortals; on creep diseases, and sad age, and suﬀering; and
stern death's ruthlessness sweeps away its prey.
-‐-‐Virgil, The Georgics