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Romanesque Art: The Basics and Monasticism

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
November 15, 2012

Romanesque Art: The Basics and Monasticism

Lecture given Tuesday November 13, 2012.

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

November 15, 2012
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  4. 2 Art and Trade border of Holy Roman Empire, c.1095

    sources of: silver copper iron lead tin trade centre for Viking sculpture (wood/stone/bone) and metalwork centres of metalwork centres of alabaster centres of ivory-working export of alabaster trade route Cu Pb 109 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Pb Pb Cu Cu Cu Limerick Cork Dublin Wexford York Durham Cammin (Kamien) Gdansk ´ ´ Lund Vejrum Lade Urnes Borbjerg Trondheim Lincoln Norwich King’s Lynn Hull London Paderborn Utrecht Hamburg Bruges Paris Tours Vienna Florence Venice Barcelona Perpignan Gerona Valencia Palma Toledo Seville Lisbon Cartagena Zurich Naples Rome Basle Milan Pavia Genoa Siena Pisa Avignon Limoges Bordeaux Fuenterrabia Aviles Morella Nantes Ecaquelon Kermaria Chatelaudren Roscoff Cologne Toulouse Montpellier Santiago de Compostela Burgos Zamora Silos Palermo Messina Catania Otok Prague Buda Kiev Novgorod Waterford Winchester Tutbury Dartmouth Bristol St Albans Poole Evreux Southampton Wolin Zuchau Gross-Grönau Ribe Kaupang Oseberg Flatalunga Dorestad Sigtuna Po Danube Dnieper Dvina Volga Rhône Loire Sein e E lbe Od er Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BAY O F B I S C AY BALT IC SEA B L A C K S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA PYRENEES A L P S HARZ MTS SICILY CORSICA SARDINIA NORWAY ICELAND SWEDEN POLAND ENGLAND FRANCE NORMANDY SCOTLAND IRISH KINGDOMS WELSH PRINCIPALITIES HUNGARY KINGDOM OF ITALY BYZANTINE EMPIRE KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF GERMANY DENMARK S E L J U K E M P I R E S FIN N O -U G RIA N S T U R K I C P E O P L E S carved wood carved wood N 0 0 250 miles 350 kms 2 THE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS was essential for art production. In Germany and in England, local stone was in good supply and was a perfect source for buildings and sculpture, while in Scandinavia patrons and artists exploited the rich timber resources. Rare materials like alabaster and metal were exploited at source and then exported to other regions. Trade, a crucial factor in the growing European economy, fuelled the arts. In turn, trade routes contributed to the dispersal of craftsmen and their methods. their newly found positions of power by patronizing the arts. They constructed castles cathedrals. The monasteries that dotted the landscape were also important centres of much of the intellectual creativity was concentrated on devotional subjects.
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    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
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  11. 50˚ 40˚ London Ghent St Omer Valenciennes Ingelheim St Quentin

    Worms Orville Lorsch Quierzy Verberie Frankfurt Soissons Koeth Compiègne Corbeny Salz Fulda Ven Kissingen St Denis Würzburg Chelles Svalafeld Remiremont Karlsgraben Geneva Ratisbon Metz Lechfeld Diedenhofen Bodman Longlien (Longlier) Speyer Seilles Brumath Herstal Schlettstadt Duren Sinfeld Eresburg Herstelle Lügde Thuringen Paderborn Brunsberg Üffeln Rehme Minden Hocheleve Oker Ohrum Schöningen Wolmirst Steinfurth Verden Hollenstedt Armagh York Canterbury St Riquier Winchester Rouen Reims St Amand 1 2 6 7 3 4 5 Cologne Echternach Aachen Bremen Hamburg Gniezno Salzburg Esztergom Magdeburg Tours Germigny Bordeaux Auch Bourges St Gall Reichenau Paris Toulouse Narbonne Aix-en-Provence Avignon Lyon Vienne Cluny Tarentaise Embrun Pisa Trivento Naples Sorrento Amalfi Aquileia Gerona Burgos Braga Santiago Barcelona Turin Genoa Milan Ravenna Florence Monte Sant’ Angelo Trani Bari Brindisi Otranto Conza Siena Rome Venice Ragusa Oporto Rhine Seine L oire Rhône Elbe Danube Vistula Po N O R T H S E A A T L A N T I C O C E A N BA LT I C S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S A R I C I S CORSICA SARDINIA B R I T TA N Y SAXONY KINGDOM OF ORKNEY SCOTLAND E N G L A N D WESSEX D E N M A R K W E S T F R A N K I S H K I N G D O M EAST FRANKISH KINGDOM P O L A N D H U N G A RY BURGUNDY L E Ó N C A L I P H AT E O F C Ó R D O B A CROATIA WELSH STATES IRISH KINGDOMS C A S T I L E N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 Western Christendom before AD 1000 places visited by Charlemagne, 768-814 palace complexes constructed/rebuilt major churches constructed by those closely associated with royal/imperial court centres of decorated book production archbishopric main Viking routes, 792-870 Ottonian lands, c.1000 borders c.1000 extent of Catholicism, c.1000 1 - Trier 2 - Kreuznath 3 - Hohensburg 4 - Lippspringe 5 - Detmold 6 - Mainz 7 - Seligenstadt
  12. London Ghent St Omer Valenciennes Ingelheim St Quentin Worms Orville

    Lorsch Quierzy Verberie Frankfurt Soissons Koeth Compiègne Corbeny Salz Fulda Ven Kissingen St Denis Würzburg Chelles Svalafeld Remiremont Karlsgraben Geneva Ratisbon Metz Lechfeld Diedenhofen Bodman Longlien (Longlier) Speyer Seilles Brumath Herstal Schlettstadt Duren Sinfeld Eresburg Herstelle Thuringen Brunsberg Rehme Wolmirst Canterbury St Riquier Rouen Reims St Amand 1 2 6 7 3 4 5 Echternach Aachen Salzburg Magdeburg Tours Germigny rdeaux uch Bourges St Gall Reichenau Paris Toulouse Narbonne Aix-en-Provence Avignon Lyon Vienne Cluny Tarentaise Embrun Pisa Aquileia Turin Genoa Milan Ravenna Florence Siena Venice Rhine Seine L oire Rhône Elbe Danube o A D R I A T I C N E E S A L P S A N Y SEX W E S T F R A N K I S H K I N G D O M EAST FRANKISH KINGDOM P O BURGUNDY CROATIA campaign of literary and artistic production, which continued into the tenth century. From the later tenth century the Roman empire ruled by a Saxon dynasty in Germany, commonly called the Ottonian dynasty, also drew scholars and artists from afar, including the Byzantine empire. For a small group, the world suddenly became much smaller, and men such as Gerbert of Aurillac took advantage of the new range of possibilities. Born and educated in southern France, he became a famous teacher at Reims in northern France, then became tutor the earliest manuscript for a d painter as the –83). Although we was made, it and y luxurious agne. n three centuries, ed under court rrent supply of y turning over ristian) ivories Rohrbach Leutmerken Tägerschen Pfäffikon Helfenschwil Willmandingen Bettighofen Dieterskirchen Oberndorf Buchheim Mengen Wolfenweiler Spaichingen Tuningen Klengen Wurmlingen Tuttlingen Löffingen Fischingen Binzen Lausheim Weizen Singen Diessenhofen Bülach Glatt Höngg Zurich Ringwil Kempraten Grabs Fischbach Constance Bermatingen Siggingen Urlau Luttolsberg Mindersdorf Bussnang Amriswil Sitterdorf Heldswil Zuzwil Lommis Aadorf Elgg Büren Zell Turbental Jonschwil Bütschwil Ulm Schörzingen Pfohren Ewattingen Goldach Steinach Durnten Wetzikon Langenargen Egringen Winterthur Wängi Rickinbach Henau Uzwil Herisau Uster Kirchen Stammheim Mönchaltorf Egg Eschenbach Schlins Leiblach Buchorn Bodman Romanshorn ST GALL ST GALL Gossau Leutkirch Wasserburg Uznach Rankweil Rhine Thur Rhine Rhine Lake Constance Lake Zurich Lake Wallen Allgäner Alpen Bregenzer Wald S w a b i a n J u r a Black Fo rest BREISGAU BERCHTOLDSBAAR SCHERRAGA U ARGENGAU AARGAU KLETTGAU ALBGAU LINZGAU NIBELGAU ZÜRICHGAU THURGAU HEGAU RAETIA CURIENSIS N 0 0 20 miles 30 kms end of the period the core of the later English and French nations had been defined. Monasteries, already important in preceding centuries, played if anything an enhanced role in the ninth and tenth. Many 2 The Abbey of St Gall sites with abbey properties places with 10 charters or more places with 5-10 charters places with 3 or 4 charters places with 2 charters campaign of literary and artistic production, which continued into the tenth century. From the later tenth century the Roman empire ruled by a Saxon dynasty in Germany, commonly called the Ottonian dynasty, also drew scholars and artists from afar, including the Byzantine empire. For a small group, the world suddenly became much smaller, and men such as Gerbert of Aurillac took advantage of the new range of possibilities. Born and educated in southern France, he became a famous teacher at Reims in northern France, then became tutor to the future Emperor Otto III, and was appointed by him Pope Sylvester II in 997. Artists similarly travelled. We know of a Carolingian painter in the employ of abbots travelling from central France to central Germany and returning, of Anglo-Saxon artists active at Fleury and probably in the Meuse region, and one famous master who worked for the Archbishop of Trier in the late tenth century probably visited Rome. Gerbert’s career exemplifies the relative insignificance of borders. Latin was the shared language of written culture and administration nearly everywhere in the West, and there was an emerging sense of a special Western Christendom, represented by the enlargement of Christendom westwards to encompass all of Scandinavia, including Iceland and Greenland, and eastwards to include Poland and Hungary. Borders were very much in flux in any event, prompted only in part by the raids and subsequent invasions of the Vikings. By the tradition, and for it was made the earliest preserved luxury illuminated manuscript for a ruler, known after its scribe and painter as the Godescalc Evangelistary (781–83). Although we do not know where that book was made, it and a group of other extraordinarily luxurious books were made for Charlemagne. After a hiatus of more than three centuries, carvings on ivory were produced under court patronage. As there was no current supply of new ivory, many were made by turning over Late Roman secular (never Christian) ivories and carving the back. Also for the court were made large-scale works in bronze, including the doors and railings for the palace chapel. How the difficult art of bronze casting was recovered remains something of a mystery, as is also the case with the wall mosaics at Aachen and at Theodulf’s chapel at Germigny, another technique revived after several centuries abeyance other than in the city of Rome. The Frankish royal courts became the first court centre of cultural and artistic patronage in the post-Roman period, and drew many creative figures from beyond the Frankish realm, including Alcuin from northern England, Theodulf from northern Spain, Paulinus of Aquileia and others from Italy, and later John the Scot Eriugena from Ireland. OTTONIAN EUROPE From the later ninth century the Frankish kingdoms were in decline, but Alfred the Great’s Wessex began a major royal-sponsored Lake Wallen end of the period the core of the later English and French nations had been defined. Monasteries, already important in preceding centuries, played if anything an enhanced role in the ninth and tenth. Many received royal support, or the support of major local aristocratic patrons, and in turn were expected to contribute to royal projects, providing not only books and teachers but also money and even soldiers. Some of the royal monasteries became major centres of artistic production, the monastery at Tours, for example, producing something like two complete bibles and a gospel book annually during the second quarter of the ninth century. The ties between state and church were especially intimate in Ottonian Germany, culminating in the eleventh century in intense conflicts. Some monasteries sought to insulate themselves from secular ties; the great monastery of Cluny (founded 919) was chartered as dependent only upon the pope, and also strengthened its independence by creating an order, an alliance of many monasteries scattered across Christendom with the Burgundian mother house at its head. The well-documented case of the abbey of St Gall, just south of Lake Constance in modern Switzerland, shows the extent of monastic involvement in land-holding patterns and also of literary and administrative culture. Monasteries were also important as the home of holy men, specialists in prayer, and of the holy men and women of the past, present through their relics, whose cult became increasingly important through the period. Relics were required in association with every altar, usually small portions of holy bodies in small but elaborately decorated reliquaries. 2 The Abbey of St Gall sites with abbey properties places with 10 charters or more places with 5-10 charters places with 3 or 4 charters places with 2 charters 000 4 court y of the theless, m had ocratic ork
  13. 14-16, Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland,

    9th Century CE.
  14. 14-16, Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland,

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  15. 14-16, Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland,

    9th Century CE.
  16. 14-16, Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland,

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  17. 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ Toulouse Périgueux Aniane Narbonne Lérins Gerona

    Poitiers Saintes St Maixent Vienne Chalon Arles Gellone Urgel Liebana Bordeaux Aix-en-Provence London Paris Fleury Milan Bobbio Monza Ratisbon Freising Mondsee Salzburg St Gall Chur Müstair Constance Verona Venice Aquileia Ravenna Lucca Nonantola Rome Monte Cassino Farfa Naples Lyon Barcelona 25 Utrecht York Cividale Lorsch Strasbourg Jarrow Whitby Bangor Nendrum Monasterboice Glendalough Clonard St Mullin’s Lindisfarne Monkwearmouth Jouarre Echternach Reims Dol Corbie Aachen Cologne Stavelot 1 2 3 9 10 8 22 14 11 12 4 Murbach 5 6 7 16 Flavigny 18 21 19 17 15 13 24 Metz Trier Lobbes Laon 20 Essen Nivelles Péronne St Vaast d’Arras 23 Basle Reichenau Dijon Luxeuil Disentis Augsburg St Wandrille Léhon Redon Le Mans Nantes Noirmoutier St Philibert-de-Grand-Lieu Landévennec Jumieges St Bertin Liège Osnabrück Münster Bremen Hamburg Verden Minden Gandersheim Hersfeld Fulda Mainz Würzburg Amorbach Melrose Ruthwell Ripon Iona Clonmacnoise Armagh Malmesbury St Denis Orléans Tours Benevento San Vincenzo Salerno Vivarium Pavia Canterbury Langres Bourges Rhône Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA A D R I A T I C S E A BA L T I C S E A A L P S PYRE N E E S B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY 2 Monasteries, Writing Centres and Artistic Work Carolingian schools/scriptoria/literary centres important monasteries founded 4th-7th century monasteries founded 6th-9th century probable centres of manuscript illumination distribution of objects decorated in the Tassilo chalice style N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1. Prüm 2. Weissenburg 3. Faremoutiers 4. Troyes 5. Chiemsee 6. Tegernsee 7. Benediktbeuern 8. St Amand 9. Meaux 10. Amiens 11. Whithorn 12. Hexham 13. Sens 14. Chelles 15. Auxerre 16. Autun 17. St Germigny-des-Prés 18. Ferrières 19. Nevers 20. Maastricht 21. St Germain-des-Prés 22. Rouen 23. St Riquier 24. Hauvillers 25. Werden 2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local with the support of local aristocraci also by missionaries, often coming f Isles. A few were large and wealthy, many small and poor ones required implements of valued materials and along with reliquaries and books. A engaged in production, but all prov for artistic works. similarly incorporated in liturgica luxury bookbindings. The Roman tradition survived and through Christianity, Rome b contemporaries not the city of Ca Augustus but of saints Peter and great churches built in late Antiq Constantine and his followers co use, but during this period only o building was converted for Christ Hadrian’s domed Pantheon was r S. Maria ad Martyres in 609. In a f new phenomenon, large painted panels representing Christ or his created and displayed in many ch sometimes carried in processions city, for example the so-called Ch kept in the Lateran chapel of the Sanctorum (‘the Holy of Holies’) at least the end of the eighth cen Greco-Roman civilization was culture in which books played a l their role was both altered and in through the emergence and trium Christianity and Islam (establishe the 8th century). Each of them ha book at its core and both develop of decorated book commonly refe ‘illuminated’. Even in late Antiquit 5"%$'632'#.*?@@@;?:@@* •  IJ-&%'2D&*!&Q",#'* $,")%4*-0&* 1&%&4236%&*_,4&,>* •  U&P*_,4&,'*L",#&4* •  /0")'$%4'*"Q* B)2C42%E'*B)2C-*$%4* ,&#"4&C&4>*
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    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
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  25. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

    Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême Lisbon Alcobaca Tomar Coimbra Oporto Ávila Sigena Santiago de Compostela Evora Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
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  28. Diagram of Romanesque portal. 97,:$#1,* South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac,

    France. c.1115 (See 15-22).
  29. Christ in Majesty, South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115

    (See 15-2). 5$`0&P* 5$,S* R)S&* a"0%* /P&%-G;L"),*IC4&,'*
  30. /,)#&$)* South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115 (See 15-22).

  31. Trumeau, South Portal Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or

    Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23) 15-23, Trumeau, South Portal, Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115
  32. 15-23, Trumeau, South Portal, Lions (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of

    Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.
  33. 15-22, South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115-1135.

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  42. 10˚ 0˚ Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St

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Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir T agus Rhône Rhine A T L A N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern 1000-120 borders border o Holy Rom cathedra with scu cathedra with no castle palace centre o illumina mural pa bronze d stained mosaics centres early Go - Poncé - Tours - Orléans - Vendôme - Dourdan - Château-Landon - Bourges - Brinay - Loches - Tavant - Montmorrillon - Nohant-Vicq - Paray-le-Monial - Berzé-la-Ville - Rocamadour - Ravello - Parma - Pianella - Bominaco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2 10˚ 0˚ 4 Jumièges Fécamp Coutances Bayeux Château Gontier Provins St Denis Huym St Hubert Rouen Gisors Reims Laon Dinant Stavelot Troyes Avesnes Valenciennes Saint-Amand Périgueux Souillac Cahors Bordeaux Moissac Limoges Conques Toulouse Angoulême a rto Ávila Sigena ompostela ra Seville Granada Córdoba Guadalajara Arévalo La Roda Oviedo León Jaca Tahull Leyre Pamplona Salamanca Zamora Ciudad Rodrigo Sahagún Las Huelgas Silos Burgos Loarre Huesca Tarragona Roda da Ribagorça Lérida Gerona Fenovillar L'Écluse Sorède Ripoll Poblet Cuxa San Pedro de Roda Avignon Carcassonne St Gilles-du-Gard Aix Marseille Arles Cluny Macon St Chef Lyon Ebreuil Lavaudieu Perrecy-les-Forges Autun Strasbourg Châlons-sur-Marne Sens Auxerre Saulieu Nevers Orbais Fontevrault Souvigny Le Puy Cressac Brioude Clermont- Ferrand Angers St André des Eaux Langeais Cîteaux Besançon Payerne Ravello Amalfi Atrani Monte Cassino Castellamare di Stabia Calvi Trani Canosa Bari Molfetta Troia Anagni Sta Elia di Nepi Palermo Caltanisetta Taormina Messina Adrano Monreale Ravenusa Cefalù Mazara Siena Sant’ Antimo Assisi Ancona Spoleto Ferentillo Marcellina Ronzano Fossascesia Rome Tivoli Tuscania Termeno Todi Lucca Borgo di S. Donnino Piacenza Turin Ferrara Pompasa Bologna Modena Genoa Spigno Verona Venice Torcello Trieste Aquileia Castel Appiano Vicenza Cremona Como Civate Milan Chiaravalle Vercelli Novara Pisa Volterra Cortona Montepulciano Gimignano Florence Pistoia Poitiers Chauvigny Niort St Savin Les Andelys Bec St Evrault Falaise Caen Mayenne Mont-Saint-Michel Syracuse Vézelay Clairvaux Cambrai Noyon Thérouanne St Bertin Arras Loire Po Eb ro Guadalquivir us Rhône Rhine N T I C O C E A N M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S KINGDOM OF GERMANY KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA KINGDOM OF ITALY KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY KINGDOM OF SICILY E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S P O R T U G A L MUSLIM KINGDOM OF MALLORCA LEÓN CASTILE PAPAL STATES CORSICA SARDINIA ARAGON FRANCE NAVARRE 1 2 3 4 23 33 34 35 26 32 36 37 31 28 29 30 27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Southern Europe, 1000-1200 borders c. 1180 border of the Holy Roman Empire cathedral/abbey with sculpture cathedral/abbey with no sculpture castle palace centre of manuscript illumination mural paintings bronze doors stained glass mosaics centres of metalwork early Gothic architecture andon illon cq Monial ille ur - Foro Claudio - Sant’ Angelo in Formis - Benevento - Le Mans - Lausanne - St Maurice d’Augaune - Paris - Pontigny - Étampes - St Loup de Naud - Preuilly - Ivry la Bataille - Mantes - Châteaudun - Chartres - Braine - Senlis - St Germer-de-Fly 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
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