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The Art of Byzantium

nichsara
October 25, 2012

The Art of Byzantium

Lecture given Thursday October 25, 2012.

nichsara

October 25, 2012
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  7. Underlying the surprising achievements of the Late Empire was an

    enormous volume of trade. For example, fifth- and sixth-century wine and oil amphorae are found in bulk throughout the Mediterranean and beyond at sites like Tintagel in Cornwall. This exchange of commodities helped to support patronage. SPLENDID SILKS AND JEWELLED METALWORK in this wall mosaic in St Vitale, Ravenna (AD 546–547) of the Emperor Justinian and his retinue emphasize luxury and eastern contacts. L ycus S E A O F M A R M A R A ( P r o p o n t i s ) G O LDE N H O RN (Chry sokeras) BOSPORUS PSAMATHIA EXOKI O NION P HANARION EXOPHILOPAT ION PHILADELPHION XEROLOPHOS DEUTERON PEMPTON BLACHERNAE STRATEGION SYCAE ACROPOLIS TRITON BLANGA Harbour of Theodosius Cistern of St Mocius Golden Gate Cistern of Aetius Gate of Charisius Church of the Mother of God Gate of Plataea Cistern of Aspar Aqueduct of Valens Harbour of Kontoskalion Hippodrome Augusteum Hagia Sophia St Irene Baths of Zeuxippus Imperial Palace Forum of Constantine Sts Sergius and Bacchus Forum of Theodosius Forum of Arcadius Church of the Holy Apostles mese mese Wall of Theodosius (AD 413) Wall of Constantine (AD 3 30) N 0 0 1 miles 1.5 kms 3 Constantinople wall cistern major building built-up area by c. AD 413 church '()*+,+:$7%+=#*+,+%9B:$ c"?G?+*BB($@%+=:@"*#:;$ S($7%+=#*+,+:$?+$11`H$ P*?B:;$*=$dC:]$E%.:He$
  8. OA:$O-.-B#-%-=$E?=:$%&$F-=,+?*+$ F-=,+?*+$Q30I23J3R$ M+$310$78/$_-=#$f<:$(:*"=$*g:"$F-=,+?*+$@*.:$ ?+#%$9%]:"/$#A:$C?D*$E:<%B#$#A":*#:+:;$#A:$ =#*S?B?#($%&$A?=$":?G+H$ 71 tradition of organized forest

    management. Underlying the surprising achievements of the Late Empire was an enormous volume of trade. For example, fifth- and sixth-century wine and oil amphorae are found in bulk throughout the Mediterranean and beyond at sites like Tintagel in Cornwall. This exchange of commodities helped to support patronage. SPLENDID SILKS AND JEWELLED METALWORK in this wall mosaic in St Vitale, Ravenna (AD 546–547) of the Emperor Justinian and his retinue emphasize luxury and eastern contacts. L ycus S E A O F M A R M A R A ( P r o p o n t i s ) G O LDE N H O RN (Chry sokeras) BOSPORUS KASHMIR PSAMATHIA EXOKI O NION P HANARION EXOPHILOPAT ION PHILADELPHION XEROLOPHOS DEUTERON XEROLOPHOS PEMPTON BLACHERNAE STRATEGION SYCAE ACROPOLIS TRITON BLANGA Harbour of Theodosius Cistern of St Mocius Golden Gate Cistern of Aetius Gate of Charisius Church of the Mother of God Gate of Plataea Cistern of Aspar Aqueduct of Valens Harbour of Kontoskalion Hippodrome Augusteum Hagia Sophia St Irene Baths of Zeuxippus Imperial Palace Forum of Constantine Sts Sergius and Bacchus Forum of Theodosius Forum of Arcadius Church of the Holy Apostles mese mese Wall of Theodosius (AD 413) Wall of Constantine (AD 3 30) N 0 0 1 miles 1.5 kms 3 Constantinople wall cistern major building built-up area by c. AD 413 church 7%+=#*+,+%9B:$
  9. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537.
  10. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. 06`$^::#$ 0I`$^::#$
  11. 5W`$^::#$ 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church

    of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. dK%B%.%+$M$A*<:$=-"9*==:;$#A::He$
  12. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Plan of Hagia

    Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. (Stokstad 7-18) 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537.
  13. K#"-@#-":=h$[%.:=$ [%.:$%+$K>-?+@A:=$ [%.:$%+$N:+;:+,<:=$ [%.:$%+$*$@(B?+;:"$

  14. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of Church

    of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. (See 7-19) •  Pendentive: A concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to circular base of a covering dome Pendentive
  15. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of Church

    of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. (See 7-19) Ribs Pendentive Pendentive
  16. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Church of

    Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Interior of Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. Aerial view of the Pantheon, Rome, c.118-125 CE. Interior of the Pantheon. Rome, c. 118-125 CE.
  17. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, c. 118-125 CE.
  18. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia

    Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. (See 7-19) d*$G%B;:+$@A*?+$&"%.$P:*<:+e$ d#A:$f".*.:+#$]A?@A$":=#=$%+$*?"e$
  19. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. dG?B;:;$#:==:"*:$&"%.$]A?@A$*$GB?U:"?+G$=#":*.$ %&$G%B;:+$"*(=$9%-"=$*S-+;*+#B($*+;$=#"?D:=$ .:+i=$:(:=$]?#A$?"":=?=,SB:$&%"@:H$$M#$?=$*=$?&$%+:$ ]:":$G*)?+G$*#$#A:$.?;;*($=-+$?+$=9"?+GHe$ dj?GA#$@%.:=$&"%.$#A:$k%%;$*+;$lB?GA#$?=$ #A:$<?=-*B$?.*G:$%&$k%;He$
  20. 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. aA%l=A*BB$=?+G$#A:$.*"SB:$.:*;%]=$G*#A:":;$ -9%+$#A:$.?GA#($]*BB=$*+;$=9":*;?+G$ 9*<:.:+#lmOA:":$?=$=#%+:n$&"%.$#A:$G"::+$ o*+D=$%&$7*"(=#-=$m*+;m$#A:$=9:@DB:;$NA"(G?*+$ =#%+:/$=%.:,.:=$"%=($.?T:;$]?#A$]A?#:/$ =%.:,.:=$GB:*.?+G$]?#A$9-"9B:$*+;$=?B<:"$ o%]:"=H$$OA:":$?=$*$]:*B#A$%&$9%"9A("($=#%+:/$ #%%/$S:=9"?+DB:;$]?#A$B?UB:$S"?GA#$=#*"=lHX%-$ .*($=::$#A:$S"?GA#$G"::+$=#%+:$%&$j*@%+?*$*+;$ GB?U:"?+G$.*"SB:$]?#A$]*<($<:?+=$&%-+;$#A:$ ;::9$G-BB?:=$%&$#A:$M*=?*+$9:*D=/$:TA?S?,+G$ =B*+,+G$=#":*D=$%&$SB%%;2":;$*+;$B?<?;$]A?#:p$ #A:$9*B:$(:BB%]$]?#A$=]?"B?+G$":;$&"%.$#A:$ j(;?*+$A:*;B*+;p$#A:$GB?U:"?+G$@"%@-=2B?D:$ G%B;:+$=#%+:$m%&$j?S(*nplHGB?U:"?+G$m7:B,@n$ SB*@D$m]?#An$A:":$*+;$#A:":$*S-+;*+@:$%&$.?BDp$ #A:$9*B:$%+(T$]?#A$GB?+#$%&$9":@?%-=$.:#*Bp$*+;$ mOA:==*B?*+$.*"SB:n$?+$9*"#=$<?<?;$G"::+$+%#$ -+B?D:$:.:"*B;lHM#$A*=$=9%#=$":=:.SB?+G$=+%]$ +:T#$#%$o*=A:=$%&$SB*@D$=%$#A*#$?+$%+:$=#%+:$ <*"?%-=$S:*-,:=$.?+GB:He$
  21. L:+$ a%.:+$ 7B:"G($ 7-19, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of

    Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. L:+$ a%.:+$ dC%$.*U:"$A%]$.-@A$#A:($@%+@:+#"*#:$#A:?"$ *U:+,%+$%+$#A?=$*+;$#A*#/$*+;$:T*.?+:$ :<:"(#A?+G$]?#A$@%+#"*@#:;$:(:S"%]=/$#A:($ *":$-+*SB:$#%$-+;:"=#*+;$#A:$@"*g=.*+=A?9$ *+;$*B]*(=$;:9*"#$&"%.$#A:":$*.*):;$S($#A:$ 9:"9B:T?+G$=9:@#*@B:He$
  22. 7-17, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of

    Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537. 7%+<:"#:;$?+#%$*$.%=>-:$*g:"$5631H$ L?+*":#$ L?+*":#$ L?+*":#$ L?+*":#$
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  24. EUROPE AD 300-600 30 30 40 20 10 0 30

    Paris Troyes Trier Córdoba Cologne Genova Pisae Narbonne Bordeaux Saragossa Tarragona Cádiz Toledo Marseille Mediolanum Caralis Lyon Lisbon Besançon Leptis Magna Memphis Cyrene Sinope London York St Albans Arles Geneva Aquileia Ravenna Rome Naples Ephesus Antioch St Catherine’s Monastery Carthage Sabratha Nicopolis Athens Alexandria Philippi Thessalonica Trapezus Damascus Caesarea Bethlehem Jerusalem Mosul Constantinople Nicomedia S L A V S P I C T S C E L T S BASQUES B E R B E R S F I N N O - U G R I A N S S L A V S IRISH BRITONS IRISH A F R I C A SCANDINAVIA BRITAIN I B E R I A ITALY GREECE E G Y P T GAUL ASIA MINOR CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY CRETE CYPRUS BA LEARIC IS A L P S A T L A S M T S PYRENEES CAUCASUS S A H A R A ARABIAN DESERT Mt Sinai Dnieper D niester Rhône Loire Tagus Elbe Oder N ile Danube N O R T H S E A BALTIC SEA M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A ENGLISH CHA N N EL A T L A N T I C O C E A N B L A C K S E A RED S EA 370 376 455 410 439 418 406 452 N 0 0 300 miles 450 kms 1 The Disintegration of the Roman Empire important churches Huns Vandals, Alans, Sueves Visigoths Burgundians Ostrogoths Angles, Saxons, Jutes Lombards Franks Empire of Justinian, AD 565 successor kingdoms: East Roman Empire Kingdom of the Vandals Kingdom of the Visigoths Burgundian Kingdom Kingdom of the Ostrogoths Sasanian Empire Kingdom of the Sueves Frankish Kingdom 1 THREATENED BY BARBARIANS through the fourth century and especially in the fifth century, the western empire collapsed, though many elements of its culture survived. The eastern empire was eventually able to deflect its enemies. Mainly of Germanic origin, the barbarians were forced westwards by pressure from the nomads of central Asia. OA:$7%+>-:=#$%&$#A:$a:=#$ '()*+,+:$8.9?":$ d!+$*SB:$k%#A$]*+#=$#%$S:$B?D:$*$E%.*+p$%+B($*$ 9%%"$E%.*+$]%-B;$]*+#$#%$S:$B?D:$*$k%#AHe$ $qOA:%;%"?@/$r?+G$%&$#A:$V?=?G%#A=$
  25. F-=,+?*+$*+;$#A:$'()*+,+:$8.9?":$ F-=,+?*+$Q30I23J3R$ da:$S:B?:<:$#A*#$#A:$f"=#$*+;$G":*#:=#$SB:==?+G$&%"$*BB$.*+D?+;$ ?=$#A:$@%+&:==?%+$%&$#A:$7A"?=,*+$&*?#Al#%$#A:$:+;$#A*#$?#$.*($ S:$-+?<:"=*BB($:=#*SB?=A:;l]:$A*<:$;::.:;$?#$%-"$=*@":;$;-#($ #%$*;.%+?=A$*+($%s:+;:"=He$

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  28. F-=,+?*+$*=$;:&:+;:"$%&$#A:$&*?#A/$ Q'*"S:"?+?$M<%"(R/$.?;2=?T#A$@:+#-"($ 78H$ d!#$#A:$=-..?#$%&$#A:$@%B-.+$=#*+;=$*$ A-G:$S"%+):$A%"=$#-"+:;$#%]*";=$#A:$ :*=#/$*$.%=#$+%#:]%"#A($=?GA#lHZ9%+$#A?=$ A%"=:$?=$.%-+#:;$*$S"%+):$?.*G:$%&$#A:$ 8.9:"%"$B?D:$*$@%B%==-=lHP:$]:*"=$*$ @-?"*==$?+$A:"%?@$&*=A?%+$*+;$A?=$A:*;$?=$ @%<:":;$]?#A$*$A:B.:#l*+;$*$D?+;$

    "*;?*+@:$o*=A:=$&%"#A$&"%.$#A:":lHP:$ G*):=$#%]*";=$#A:$"?=?+G$=-+/$=#::"?+G$A?=$ @%-"=:/$M$=-99%=:/$*G*?+=#$#A:$N:"=?*+=H$$ M+$A?=$B:g$A*+;$A:$A%B;=$*$GB%S:/$S($]A?@A$ #A:$=@-B9#%"$A*=$=?G+?f:;$#A*#$#A:$]A%B:$ :*"#A$*+;$=:*$]:":$=-S_:@#$#%$A?./$(:#$A:$ @*""?:=$+:?#A:"$=]%";$+%$=9:*"$+%"$*+($ %#A:"$]:*9%+/$S-#$*$@"%==$=-".%-+#=$A?=$ GB%S:/$S($<?"#-:$%&$]A?@A$*B%+:$A:$A*=$ ]%+$#A:$D?+G=A?9$*+;$<?@#%"($?+$]*"H$$ K#":#@A?+G$&%"#A$A?=$"?GA#$A*+;$#%]*";=$ #A:$":G?%+=$%&$#A:$8*=#$*+;$=9":*;?+G$%-#$ A?=$f+G:"=/$A:$@%..*+;=$#A:$S*"S*"?*+=$ #A*#$;]:BB$#A:":$#%$":.*?+$*#$A%.:$*+;$ +%#$#%$*;<*+@:$*+($&-"#A:"He$
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  34. F-=,+?*+$*=$#A:$ [:&:+;:"$%&$#A:$^*?#A Q'*"S*"?+?$M<%"(R/$.?;2 =?T#A$@:+#-"($78H$ L?B?#*"($%t@:"$ 9":=:+,+G$*$ #"%9A($#%$ F-=,+?*+H$

  35. F-=,+?*+$*=$#A:$ [:&:+;:"$%&$#A:$^*?#A Q'*"S*"?+?$M<%"(R/$.?;2 =?T#A$@:+#-"($78H$ 7A"?=#$'B:==?+G$ F-=,+?*+$

  36. F-=,+?*+$*+;$#A:$'()*+,+:$8.9?":$ F-=,+?*+$Q30I23J3R$ '($336/$F-=,+?*+$A*;$":@B*?.:;$B*+;=$9":<?%-=B($A:B;$S($#A:$ S*"S*"?*+$#"?S:=H$$

  37. K*+$V?#*B:$

  38. Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547. (See

    7-20)
  39. 7-20, Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547

  40. 7-20, Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547.

    7-20, Plan of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c.520-547. 7:+#"*B$ [%.:;$ !":*$ C*"#A:T$
  41. Interior of San Vitale, as seen from apse, Ravenna, Italy,

    c.520-547. NB*+$
  42. Interior of San Vitale, as seen towards apse. Ravenna, Italy.

    c.520-547. (See 7-21)
  43. 7-21, Apse of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547. NB*+$

  44. 7-21, Apse of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 520-547.

  45. 7-22, Christ with angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Apse

    of San Vitale, Mosaic Ravenna, Italy, c.546-548.
  46. 7-22, Christ with angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Apse

    of San Vitale, Mosaic Ravenna, Italy, c.546-548. K*?+#$V?#*B?=$9":=:+#:;$]?#A$ #A:$@"%]+$%&$.*"#(";%.$
  47. 7-22, Christ with angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Apse

    of San Vitale, Mosaic Ravenna, Italy, c.546-548. '?=A%9$8@@B:=?-=$9":=:+,+G$K*+$ V?#*B:$#%$7A"?=#$
  48. Paradise had four rivers, which are depicted beneath Christ. 7-22,

    Christ with angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Apse of San Vitale, Mosaic Ravenna, Italy, c.546-548.
  49. 7-22, Christ with angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Apse

    of San Vitale, Mosaic Ravenna, Italy, c.546-548.
  50. 7-23, Emperor Justinian and his Attendants. North wall of apse.

    c. 546-548. 7-24, Empress Theodora and her Attendants. Mosaic. South Wall of Apse, c.546-548. bOA:$.%=*?@=$*":$B%@*#:;$]A:":$#A:$8-@A*"?=#$ ]%-B;$A*<:$S::+$9":9*":;$*+;$G?<:+H$
  51. 7-24, Empress Theodora and her Attendants, South wall of apse,

    Mosaic, c. 546-548.
  52. 7-23, Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, North wall of apse.

    Mosaic, c.546-548.
  53. 7-23, Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, North wall of apse.

    Mosaic, c.546-548. 7A?2EA%$
  54. 7-23, Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, North wall of apse.

    Mosaic, c.546-548.
  55. 7"?,@*B$OA?+D?+G$u-:=,%+=$ 5H  P%]$;%:=$'()*+,+:$*"#$A*<:$%+:$&%%#$?+$#A:$ E%.*+$]%"B;$*+;$%+:$&%%#$?+$#A:$L:;?:<*B$ ]%"B;v$ 0H  aA*#$"%B:$;%:=$B-.?+%=?#($9B*($?+$#A:$ *"@A?#:@#-":$*+;$;:@%"*,%+$%&$#A:$P*G?*$ K%9A?*v$ 1H 

    P%]$?=$S%#A$"%(*B$*+;$@A-"@A$9*#"%+*G:$=A%]+$ ?+$#A:$.%=*?@=$%&$K*+$V?#*B:$?+$E*<:++*v$ 6H  aA*#$?=$*$.*"#("v$P%]$*":$#A:$?.9%"#*+#$fG-":=$ ?+$#A:$@A-"@Av$