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Treasuring the Word

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
November 02, 2013

Treasuring the Word

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

November 02, 2013
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  1. Treasuring  the  Word:     The  Medieval  and  Islamic  Book

      Reading:   Michelle  P.  Brown,  “The  Book  as   Sacred  Space”     Range:   500-­‐1400  CE   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  Carolingian,  Gothic     Terms/Concepts:   scriptorium,  parchment,  vellum,   manuscript,  carpet  page,  incipit   page,  gospel  page,  marginalia,     Monument  List:   Ø  Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon,  660-­‐680.  Lindisfarne     Ø  Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.   Ø  Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,   9th  Century  CE.     Ø  Gelasian  Sacramentary,   Merovingian,  8th  century.   Ø  Saint  MaWhew,  Folio  15,     Corona7on  Gospels,  from   Aachen,  9th  century  (c. 800-­‐810).       Ø  Jean  Pucelle,  Book  of  Hours  of   Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  2. Byzan_ne  Empire   “An  able  Goth  wants  to  be  like

     a  Roman;  only  a   poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”    –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  
  3. DANES (c. 960) NORSE (c. 970-1025) Areas Christianized, 900-1100

  4. A  Medieval  Riddle…   “[Who  am  I?]  An  enemy  ended

     my  life,  deprived  me  of   my  physical  strength:  then  he  dipped  me  in  water  and   drew  me  out  again,  and  put  me  in  the  sun  where  I  soon   shed  all  my  hair.    Aher  that,  the  knife’s  sharp  edge  bit   into  me  and  all  my  blemishes  were  scraped  away;  fingers   folded  me  and  the  bird’s  feather  ohen  moved  over  my   brown  surface,  sprinkling  meaningful  marks;  it  swallowed   more  wood  dye  and  again  travelled  over  me  leaving  black   tracks.    Then  a  man  bound  me,  he  stretched  skin  over  me   and  adorned  me  with  gold;  thus  I  am  enriched  by  the   wondrous  work  of  smiths,  wound  about  with  shining   metal.”     “I  am  a  Gospel  book,  illuminated  and  wri6en  on  prepared   vellum  leaves  and  bound  in  fine  golden  cover!”  
  5. Parchment: Lambskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting.

    Vellum: Calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting. The  Medieval  Manuscript  
  6. Preparation of parchment •  Placed on a stretcher •  Then

    it was scraped
  7. In some instances, the animal’s skin is then sanded.

  8. Purple  Dye  =  Murex  Shell   Blue  =  Lapis  Lazuli

      Green  =  Verdigris   Gold  Leaf  
  9. Genesis   Captain  Marvel  Origin  Story,   1973.   Rebecca

     at  the  Well,  Vienna  Genesis,  6th  Century  CE.  
  10. Pentateuch   Story  of  Adam  and  Eve,  from  the  Ashburnham

      Pentateuch,  6th  Century  CE.   Abel  tending  his  flock   Cain  working  the  land   Cain  Murdering  Abel  
  11. Gospels   Ascension,  Rabbula  Gospels,  6th  century  CE.   MaWhew,

     the  Man   Luke,  the  Ox   Mark,  the  Lion   John,  the  Eagle  
  12. 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ Toulouse Périgueux Aniane Narbonne Lérins Gerona

    Poitiers Saintes St Maixent Vienne Chalon Arles Gellone Urgel Liebana Bordeaux Aix-en-Provence London Paris Fleury Milan Bobbio Monza Ratisbon Freising Mondsee Salzburg St Gall Chur Müstair Constance Verona Venice Aquileia Ravenna Lucca Nonantola Rome Monte Cassino Farfa Naples Lyon Barcelona 25 Utrecht York Cividale Lorsch Strasbourg Jarrow Whitby Bangor Nendrum Monasterboice Glendalough Clonard St Mullin’s Lindisfarne Monkwearmouth Jouarre Echternach Reims Dol Corbie Aachen Cologne Stavelot 1 2 3 9 10 8 22 14 11 12 4 Murbach 5 6 7 16 Flavigny 18 21 19 17 15 13 24 Metz Trier Lobbes Laon 20 Essen Nivelles Péronne St Vaast d’Arras 23 Basle Reichenau Dijon Luxeuil Disentis Augsburg St Wandrille Léhon Redon Le Mans Nantes Noirmoutier St Philibert-de-Grand-Lieu Landévennec Jumieges St Bertin Liège Osnabrück Münster Bremen Hamburg Verden Minden Gandersheim Hersfeld Fulda Mainz Würzburg Amorbach Melrose Ruthwell Ripon Iona Clonmacnoise Armagh Malmesbury St Denis Orléans Tours Benevento San Vincenzo Salerno Vivarium Pavia Canterbury Langres Bourges Rhône Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A MEDITERRANEAN SEA A D R I A T I C S E A BA L T I C S E A A L P S PYRE N E E S B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY 2 Monasteries, Writing Centres and Artistic Work Carolingian schools/scriptoria/literary centres important monasteries founded 4th-7th century monasteries founded 6th-9th century probable centres of manuscript illumination distribution of objects decorated in the Tassilo chalice style N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1. Prüm 2. Weissenburg 3. Faremoutiers 4. Troyes 5. Chiemsee 6. Tegernsee 7. Benediktbeuern 8. St Amand 9. Meaux 10. Amiens 11. Whithorn 12. Hexham 13. Sens 14. Chelles 15. Auxerre 16. Autun 17. St Germigny-des-Prés 18. Ferrières 19. Nevers 20. Maastricht 21. St Germain-des-Prés 22. Rouen 23. St Riquier 24. Hauvillers 25. Werden 2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local sain with the support of local aristocracies, also by missionaries, often coming from Isles. A few were large and wealthy, bu many small and poor ones required litu implements of valued materials and wo along with reliquaries and books. A few engaged in production, but all provide for artistic works. similarly incorporated in liturgical c luxury bookbindings. The Roman tradition survived ch and through Christianity, Rome beco contemporaries not the city of Caesa Augustus but of saints Peter and Pa great churches built in late Antiquity Constantine and his followers contin use, but during this period only one building was converted for Christian Hadrian’s domed Pantheon was rede S. Maria ad Martyres in 609. In a fun new phenomenon, large painted wo panels representing Christ or his mo created and displayed in many churc sometimes carried in processions th city, for example the so-called Chris kept in the Lateran chapel of the San Sanctorum (‘the Holy of Holies’) in R at least the end of the eighth centur Greco-Roman civilization was a culture in which books played a larg their role was both altered and inten through the emergence and triumph Christianity and Islam (established i the 8th century). Each of them had a book at its core and both developed of decorated book commonly referre ‘illuminated’. Even in late Antiquity a triumph of Christianity, from the fifth EUROPE 600–800 60˚ Melrose Iona N O R T H S E A 0 200 miles 1. Prüm 2. Weissenburg 3. Faremoutiers 4. Troyes 5. Chiemsee 6. Tegernsee 7. Benediktbeuern 8. St Amand 9. Meaux 10. Amiens 11. Whithorn 12. Hexham 13. Sens 14. Chelles 15. Auxerre 16. Autun 17. St Germigny-des-Prés 18. Ferrières 19. Nevers 20. Maastricht 21. St Germain-des-Prés 22. Rouen 23. St Riquier 24. Hauvillers 25. Werden 2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local saints, often with the support of local aristocracies, sometimes also by missionaries, often coming from the British Isles. A few were large and wealthy, but even the many small and poor ones required liturgical implements of valued materials and workmanship, along with reliquaries and books. A few were engaged in production, but all provided a market for artistic works. London York Jarrow Whitby Bangor Nendrum Monasterboice Glendalough Clonard St Mullin’s Lindisfarne Monkwearmouth Corbie 11 12 Péron Melrose Ruthwell Ripon Iona Clonmacnoise Armagh Malmesbury Canterbury N 200 miles 0 kms
  13. Durrow The  Bri_sh  Isles   Carpet  Page,  Book  of  Durrow,

     Hiberno-­‐Saxon   600-­‐660  CE   Iona
  14. Monastery  at  Iona  

  15. Gospel  Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page   Book

     of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,   660-­‐680.  
  16. Man (symbol of St. Matthew) Eagle (symbol of St. John)

    Ox (symbol of St. Luke) Lion (symbol of St. Mark) Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,   660-­‐680.  
  17. St.  MaWhew  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,   Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680

      Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  
  18. St.  MaWhew  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,   Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680

      Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,   Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  
  19. St.  John  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,   Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680

     .   Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,  Anglo-­‐ Saxon,  7th  century.  
  20. Mirror,  Desborough,  Anglo-­‐Saxon,  1st   century  BCE   Carpet  Page,

     Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon   600-­‐660  CE  .  
  21. Book  of  Durrow,   Hiberno-­‐Saxon,   660-­‐680.  

  22. Lindesfarne The  Bri_sh  Isles   Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  

    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
  23. Lindisfarne  Monastery,  Scotland.  

  24. Lindisfarne  Castle,  Scotland.  

  25. Lindisfarne  Monastery,  Scotland.  

  26. Gospel  Pages,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.   Gospel

     Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page  
  27. MaWhew   Luke   Mark   John   Gospel  Pages,

     Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
  28. The  Evangelist  MaWhew,   Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.

      Ezra  Repairing  the  Gospels,  Codex   Amia_nus,  680-­‐715.  
  29. Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne   Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

  30. Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE  (See  430-­‐31).

      Gold  Belt  Buckle,  SuWon  Hoo,  Mound  1,  7th   century  CE.  
  31. Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne   Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

  32. Gold  Belt  Buckle,  SuWon  Hoo,   Mound  1,  7th  century

     CE.   Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
  33. Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,   Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.   Engraved

     Mirror,  from   Desborough,  50  BCE-­‐50  CE.   “They  came  to  another  island  and  a   wall  of  stone  around  it.  And  when   they  came  near,  a  great  beast  leaped   up  and  went  racing  about  the  island,   and  it  seemed  to  Maelduin  to  be   going  quicker  than  the  wind.    And  it   went  then  to  the  high  part  of  the   island,  and  it  did  the  straightening-­‐of-­‐ the-­‐body  feat,  that  is,  its  head  below,   its  feet  above…it  turned  in  its  skin,   the  flesh  and  the  bones  going  around   the  skin  outside  without  moving.    And   at  another  _me  the  skin  outside   would  turn  like  a  mill,  and  the  flesh   and  the  bones  not  s_rring.”  
  34. The  Bri_sh  Isles   Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  9th

      Century  CE.   Iona
  35. Gospel  Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page   Book

     of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  Century   CE.    
  36. St.  MaWhew,  Book  of   Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th   Century.

     
  37. Carpet  Page,  Book  of  Kells,   Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  Century  

    CE.    
  38. Beginning  of  MaWhew,  Book   of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  

    Century  CE.    
  39. Chi-­‐Rho,  San  Vitale  Ravenna,  547  CE   Chi  Rho  Iota

     Page,  Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon,  9th  Century  CE.    
  40. Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of   Kells,  9th  Century  CE.  

    Two  Cats  Catching  Mice   Wafer  
  41. Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  9th   Century  CE.  

    Engraved  Mirror,  from   Desborough,  50  BCE-­‐50  CE.  
  42. 0˚ 10˚ 40˚ 50˚ 10˚ 20˚ 711 714 670 697

    711 Kairouan Carthage Tulaytulah (Toledo) Mérida Oviedo (c.790) Tangier Saragossa Ceuta Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Rome Naples Taranto Athens Thessalonica Adrianople Varna Constantinople Smyrna Bari Spalatum Palermo Messina Lyon Marseille Barshilunah (Barcelona) Tarrakunah (Tarragona) Cartagena Algiers Qurtubah (Córdoba) Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Hedeby York Scone Winchester Glastonbury Cividale Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Jarrow (684) Monkwearmouth (674) Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) Escomb (670s) Hexham Ripon (670s) Yeavering St Denis Benevento (c.770) Tempio di Clitunno San Vincenzo al Volturno Pavia Lomello San Pedro della Nave São Gião de Navaré São Frutuoso de Montelios San Juan de Baños Santa Comba de Bande Santianes de Pravia Santa María de Melque Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Tagus Ebro Danube Elbe Oder Vistula A T L A N T I C O C E A N N O R T H S E A BA LT I C S E A BLACK SEA M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A A D R I A T I C S E A A L P S P Y R E N E E S BALTIC PEO P LES S L A V S S L A V S NO RTHM E N (SCA NDINAV I A N S ) SAXO N S F R I S I A N S BRETONS BASQUES B ALEARIC IS CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY MALTA CRETE BAVARIA AQUITAINE ASTURIAS KINGDOM OF THE PICTS SCOTTISH KINGDOMS IRISH KINGDOMS STRATH- CLYDE EAST ANGLIA KENT WELSH STATES WEST WALES NORTHUMBRIA MERCIA AVAR EMPIRE BULGARIA B Y Z A N T I N E E M P I R E U M A Y Y A D C A L I P H A T E KIN G DO M OF THE LOMBARDS FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms Centres and Distribution of Luxury Goods c.730 Muslim Umayyad Caliphate date of Muslim conquest Byzantine Empire Frankish Kingdom Kingdom of the Lombards mints represented in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) provenance of objects found in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) distribution of marble sarcophagi and capitals quarried/carved in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C ecclesiastical structures of which significant remains survive secular (mostly royal) sites with substantial surviving fragments or known from literary sources trade route 670 1
  43. 714 do 90) Saragossa Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo

    Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Lyon Marseille Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Winchester Glastonbury Civida Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) St Denis Tempio d Clitunno Pavia Lomello o e Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Ebro A A L P S P Y R E N E E S SAXO BRETONS BASQUES CORSICA BAVARIA AQUITAINE TURIAS KENT WEST WALES KIN G DO M OF TH FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX 714 Saragossa Toulouse Poitiers Turones London Sutton Hoo Hamwih Paris Geneva Milan Ratisbon Turin Verona Bononia Florence Genoa Venice Ravenna Rome Adrianople Varna Constantinople Spalatum Lyon Marseille Barshilunah (Barcelona) Cologne Nijmegen Dorestad Paderborn (776) Hedeby York Scone Winchester Glastonbury Cividale Quintanilla de las Viñas Lorsch (after 764) St Maurice d’Agaune Jarrow (684) Monkwearmouth (674) Reculver (669) Grenoble Germigny -des-Prés (c.800) Jouarre (670s) Ingelheim Centula (790s) Aachen (795) Escomb (670s) Hexham Ripon (670s) Yeavering St Denis Tempio di Clitunno San Vincenzo al Volturno Pavia Lomello Canterbury (after 597) Seine Rhine Ebro Danube Elbe Oder Vistula N O R T H S E A BA LT I C S E A BLACK SEA A D R I A T I C S A L P S P Y R E N E E S BALTIC PEO P LES S L A V S S L A V S NO RTHM E N (SCA NDINAV I A N S ) SAXO N S F R I S I A N S BRETONS BASQUES CORSICA BAVARIA AQUITAINE RIAS KINGDOM OF THE PICTS SCOTTISH KINGDOMS H OMS STRATH- CLYDE EAST ANGLIA KENT WELSH STATES WEST WALES NORTHUMBRIA MERCIA AVAR EMPIRE BULGARIA KIN G DO M OF THE FRANKISH KINGDOM WESSEX s Centres and Distribution of Luxury Goods c.730 Muslim Umayyad Caliphate date of Muslim conquest Byzantine Empire Frankish Kingdom Kingdom of the Lombards mints represented in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) provenance of objects found in the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630) distribution of marble sarcophagi and capitals quarried/carved in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C ecclesiastical structures of which significant remains survive secular (mostly royal) sites with substantial surviving fragments or known from literary sources trade route 670 1
  44. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century   Alpha   Omega  

    The  beginning  and  the   end.  
  45. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century   Fish  =  Ichthus  

    Iesous   Christos   Theou   Uios   Sotor  
  46. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century   Visigothic  Eagle  Fibulae,  Spain,

      5-­‐6th  century  CE  
  47. Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III

    in 800 Rome Aachen Leo III: “To Charles, the most pious Augustus, crowned by God, the great peace-giving Emperor, life and victory!”
  48. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century

    (c. 800-810).
  49. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century

    (c. 800-810). Saint  MaWhew,  Book  of   Durrow,  660-­‐680.  
  50. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century

    (c. 800-810). St. Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels, from Lindisfarne, England, c.715- 720.
  51. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century

    (c. 800-810). Portrait of Terentius Neo and his wife, from Pompeii, 1st century CE.
  52. Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers. 9th century.

  53. Saint Matthew. Folio 15. Coronation Gospels, from Aachen. 9th (c.800-810).

    Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers, 9th century.
  54. St. Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels, from Lindisfarne, England,

    c.715- 720. Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers, c. 816-835.
  55. Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers, 9th century.

    St. Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels, from Lindisfarne, England, c.715- 720.
  56. Lindisfarne Gospels, c.715- 720. Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-835. Corona7on  Gospels,

     c. 800-­‐810.       Book  of  Durrow,   660-­‐680.  
  57. None
  58. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  59. Jean  Pucelle,  the  Book  of  Hours  of   Jeanne  d’Evreux,

     1325-­‐1328.   “Mary  of  Burgundy  at  Prayer,”  Book  of  Hours  of  Mary  of  Burgundy,  by   the  Master  of  Mary  of  Burgundy,  Belgium,  ca.  1480.  Tempera  on   Parchment,  225  x  165  mm.  Courtesy  of  Vienna,  Österreichische   Na_onalbibliothek,  Codex  Vindobonensis,  1857,  f.  14v.  
  60. Angelina  Jolie  with  her  Children.   Paris  Hilton  with  her

     dog.  
  61. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  62. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  63. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  64. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.   Jous_ng  Scene   Marginalia  
  65. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.   Marginalia   Children  playing  
  66. Islam  and  the  Word  

  67. Muhammad's  Call  to  Prophecy  and  The  First   Revela_on:  Folio

     from  a  manuscript  of  the   Majma'  al-­‐Tawarikh  (Compendium  of   Histories),  Herat,  Afghanistan,  About  1425   CE.  
  68. None
  69. Parchment  leaf  from  a  Koran  wriWen   in  Hijazi,  Hijaz

     Province,  the  Arabian   Peninsula,  or  Syria;  2nd  half  of  7th   century  
  70. Page  from  the  Qu’ran,  Syria,  9th  Century.  

  71. None
  72. Page  from  the  Shahmenah,  Iran,  c.  1540.  

  73. None
  74. None
  75. None
  76. None
  77. None
  78. None
  79. None
  80. None
  81. None
  82. None
  83. None