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Treasuring the Word

nichsara
November 02, 2013

Treasuring the Word

nichsara

November 02, 2013
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  1. Treasuring  the  Word:    
    The  Medieval  and  Islamic  Book  
    Reading:  
    Michelle  P.  Brown,  “The  Book  as  
    Sacred  Space”  
     
    Range:  
    500-­‐1400  CE  
    Anglo-­‐Saxon,  Carolingian,  Gothic  
     
    Terms/Concepts:  
    scriptorium,  parchment,  vellum,  
    manuscript,  carpet  page,  incipit  
    page,  gospel  page,  marginalia,    
    Monument  List:  
    Ø  Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐
    Saxon,  660-­‐680.  Lindisfarne    
    Ø  Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
    Ø  Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  
    9th  Century  CE.    
    Ø  Gelasian  Sacramentary,  
    Merovingian,  8th  century.  
    Ø  Saint  MaWhew,  Folio  15,    
    Corona7on  Gospels,  from  
    Aachen,  9th  century  (c.
    800-­‐810).      
    Ø  Jean  Pucelle,  Book  of  Hours  of  
    Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  

    View Slide

  2. Byzan_ne  Empire  
    “An  able  Goth  wants  to  be  like  a  Roman;  only  a  
    poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”  
     –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  

    View Slide

  3. DANES

    (c. 960)

    NORSE

    (c. 970-1025)

    Areas Christianized, 900-1100

    View Slide

  4. A  Medieval  Riddle…  
    “[Who  am  I?]  An  enemy  ended  my  life,  deprived  me  of  
    my  physical  strength:  then  he  dipped  me  in  water  and  
    drew  me  out  again,  and  put  me  in  the  sun  where  I  soon  
    shed  all  my  hair.    Aher  that,  the  knife’s  sharp  edge  bit  
    into  me  and  all  my  blemishes  were  scraped  away;  fingers  
    folded  me  and  the  bird’s  feather  ohen  moved  over  my  
    brown  surface,  sprinkling  meaningful  marks;  it  swallowed  
    more  wood  dye  and  again  travelled  over  me  leaving  black  
    tracks.    Then  a  man  bound  me,  he  stretched  skin  over  me  
    and  adorned  me  with  gold;  thus  I  am  enriched  by  the  
    wondrous  work  of  smiths,  wound  about  with  shining  
    metal.”    
    “I  am  a  Gospel  book,  illuminated  and  wri6en  on  prepared  
    vellum  leaves  and  bound  in  fine  golden  cover!”  

    View Slide

  5. Parchment: Lambskin prepared as
    a surface for writing or painting.
    Vellum: Calfskin prepared as a
    surface for writing or painting.
    The  Medieval  Manuscript  

    View Slide

  6. Preparation of parchment
    •  Placed on a stretcher
    •  Then it was scraped

    View Slide

  7. In some instances, the animal’s skin is then sanded.

    View Slide

  8. Purple  Dye  =  Murex  Shell  
    Blue  =  Lapis  Lazuli  
    Green  =  Verdigris  
    Gold  Leaf  

    View Slide

  9. Genesis  
    Captain  Marvel  Origin  Story,  
    1973.  
    Rebecca  at  the  Well,  Vienna  Genesis,  6th  Century  CE.  

    View Slide

  10. Pentateuch  
    Story  of  Adam  and  Eve,  from  the  Ashburnham  
    Pentateuch,  6th  Century  CE.  
    Abel  tending  his  flock  
    Cain  working  the  land  
    Cain  Murdering  Abel  

    View Slide

  11. Gospels  
    Ascension,  Rabbula  Gospels,  6th  century  CE.  
    MaWhew,  the  Man  
    Luke,  the  Ox  
    Mark,  the  Lion   John,  the  Eagle  

    View Slide

  12. 10˚
    40˚
    50˚
    60˚
    Toulouse
    Périgueux
    Aniane
    Narbonne Lérins
    Gerona
    Poitiers
    Saintes
    St Maixent
    Vienne
    Chalon
    Arles
    Gellone
    Urgel
    Liebana
    Bordeaux
    Aix-en-Provence
    London
    Paris
    Fleury
    Milan
    Bobbio
    Monza
    Ratisbon
    Freising
    Mondsee
    Salzburg
    St Gall
    Chur
    Müstair
    Constance
    Verona
    Venice
    Aquileia
    Ravenna
    Lucca
    Nonantola
    Rome
    Monte Cassino
    Farfa
    Naples
    Lyon
    Barcelona
    25
    Utrecht
    York
    Cividale
    Lorsch
    Strasbourg
    Jarrow
    Whitby
    Bangor
    Nendrum
    Monasterboice
    Glendalough
    Clonard
    St Mullin’s
    Lindisfarne
    Monkwearmouth
    Jouarre
    Echternach
    Reims
    Dol
    Corbie
    Aachen
    Cologne
    Stavelot
    1
    2
    3
    9
    10
    8
    22
    14
    11 12
    4
    Murbach
    5
    6
    7
    16
    Flavigny
    18
    21
    19
    17 15
    13
    24 Metz
    Trier
    Lobbes
    Laon
    20
    Essen
    Nivelles
    Péronne
    St Vaast d’Arras
    23
    Basle
    Reichenau
    Dijon
    Luxeuil
    Disentis
    Augsburg
    St Wandrille
    Léhon
    Redon Le Mans
    Nantes
    Noirmoutier
    St Philibert-de-Grand-Lieu
    Landévennec
    Jumieges
    St Bertin
    Liège
    Osnabrück
    Münster
    Bremen
    Hamburg
    Verden
    Minden
    Gandersheim
    Hersfeld
    Fulda
    Mainz
    Würzburg
    Amorbach
    Melrose
    Ruthwell
    Ripon
    Iona
    Clonmacnoise
    Armagh
    Malmesbury
    St Denis
    Orléans
    Tours
    Benevento
    San Vincenzo
    Salerno
    Vivarium
    Pavia
    Canterbury
    Langres
    Bourges
    Rhône
    Tagus
    Ebro
    Danube
    Elbe Vistula
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    N O R T H
    S E A
    MEDITERRANEAN SEA
    A
    D
    R
    I A
    T I C
    S E A
    BA
    L
    T
    I C
    S E A
    A L P S
    PYRE N E E S
    B
    ALEARIC IS
    CORSICA
    SARDINIA
    SICILY
    2 Monasteries, Writing Centres and Artistic Work
    Carolingian schools/scriptoria/literary centres
    important monasteries founded 4th-7th century
    monasteries founded 6th-9th century
    probable centres of manuscript illumination
    distribution of objects decorated in the Tassilo chalice style
    N
    0
    0
    200 miles
    300 kms
    1. Prüm
    2. Weissenburg
    3. Faremoutiers
    4. Troyes
    5. Chiemsee
    6. Tegernsee
    7. Benediktbeuern
    8. St Amand
    9. Meaux
    10. Amiens
    11. Whithorn
    12. Hexham
    13. Sens
    14. Chelles
    15. Auxerre
    16. Autun
    17. St Germigny-des-Prés
    18. Ferrières
    19. Nevers
    20. Maastricht
    21. St Germain-des-Prés
    22. Rouen
    23. St Riquier
    24. Hauvillers
    25. Werden
    2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local sain
    with the support of local aristocracies,
    also by missionaries, often coming from
    Isles. A few were large and wealthy, bu
    many small and poor ones required litu
    implements of valued materials and wo
    along with reliquaries and books. A few
    engaged in production, but all provide
    for artistic works.
    similarly incorporated in liturgical c
    luxury bookbindings.
    The Roman tradition survived ch
    and through Christianity, Rome beco
    contemporaries not the city of Caesa
    Augustus but of saints Peter and Pa
    great churches built in late Antiquity
    Constantine and his followers contin
    use, but during this period only one
    building was converted for Christian
    Hadrian’s domed Pantheon was rede
    S. Maria ad Martyres in 609. In a fun
    new phenomenon, large painted wo
    panels representing Christ or his mo
    created and displayed in many churc
    sometimes carried in processions th
    city, for example the so-called Chris
    kept in the Lateran chapel of the San
    Sanctorum (‘the Holy of Holies’) in R
    at least the end of the eighth centur
    Greco-Roman civilization was a
    culture in which books played a larg
    their role was both altered and inten
    through the emergence and triumph
    Christianity and Islam (established i
    the 8th century). Each of them had a
    book at its core and both developed
    of decorated book commonly referre
    ‘illuminated’. Even in late Antiquity a
    triumph of Christianity, from the fifth
    EUROPE 600–800
    60˚
    Melrose
    Iona
    N O R T H
    S E A
    0 200 miles
    1. Prüm
    2. Weissenburg
    3. Faremoutiers
    4. Troyes
    5. Chiemsee
    6. Tegernsee
    7. Benediktbeuern
    8. St Amand
    9. Meaux
    10. Amiens
    11. Whithorn
    12. Hexham
    13. Sens
    14. Chelles
    15. Auxerre
    16. Autun
    17. St Germigny-des-Prés
    18. Ferrières
    19. Nevers
    20. Maastricht
    21. St Germain-des-Prés
    22. Rouen
    23. St Riquier
    24. Hauvillers
    25. Werden
    2 MONASTERIES WERE FOUNDED by local saints, often
    with the support of local aristocracies, sometimes
    also by missionaries, often coming from the British
    Isles. A few were large and wealthy, but even the
    many small and poor ones required liturgical
    implements of valued materials and workmanship,
    along with reliquaries and books. A few were
    engaged in production, but all provided a market
    for artistic works.
    London
    York
    Jarrow
    Whitby
    Bangor
    Nendrum
    Monasterboice
    Glendalough
    Clonard
    St Mullin’s
    Lindisfarne
    Monkwearmouth
    Corbie
    11 12
    Péron
    Melrose
    Ruthwell
    Ripon
    Iona
    Clonmacnoise
    Armagh
    Malmesbury
    Canterbury
    N
    200 miles
    0 kms

    View Slide

  13. Durrow
    The  Bri_sh  Isles  
    Carpet  Page,  Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon  
    600-­‐660  CE  
    Iona

    View Slide

  14. Monastery  at  Iona  

    View Slide

  15. Gospel  Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page  
    Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  
    660-­‐680.  

    View Slide

  16. Man (symbol of
    St. Matthew)
    Eagle (symbol
    of St. John)
    Ox (symbol of
    St. Luke)
    Lion (symbol of
    St. Mark)
    Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  
    660-­‐680.  

    View Slide

  17. St.  MaWhew  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,  
    Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680  
    Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,  
    Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  

    View Slide

  18. St.  MaWhew  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,  
    Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680  
    Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,  
    Anglo-­‐Saxon,  7th  century.  

    View Slide

  19. St.  John  from  the  Book  of  Durrow,  
    Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  660-­‐680  .  
    Detail  from  the  Purse  Cover,  SuWon  Hoo,  Anglo-­‐
    Saxon,  7th  century.  

    View Slide

  20. Mirror,  Desborough,  Anglo-­‐Saxon,  1st  
    century  BCE  
    Carpet  Page,  Book  of  Durrow,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon  
    600-­‐660  CE  .  

    View Slide

  21. Book  of  Durrow,  
    Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  
    660-­‐680.  

    View Slide

  22. Lindesfarne
    The  Bri_sh  Isles  
    Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

    View Slide

  23. Lindisfarne  Monastery,  Scotland.  

    View Slide

  24. Lindisfarne  Castle,  Scotland.  

    View Slide

  25. Lindisfarne  Monastery,  Scotland.  

    View Slide

  26. Gospel  Pages,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
    Gospel  Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page  

    View Slide

  27. MaWhew   Luke  
    Mark   John  
    Gospel  Pages,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

    View Slide

  28. The  Evangelist  MaWhew,  
    Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
    Ezra  Repairing  the  Gospels,  Codex  
    Amia_nus,  680-­‐715.  

    View Slide

  29. Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne  
    Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

    View Slide

  30. Carpet  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE  (See  430-­‐31).  
    Gold  Belt  Buckle,  SuWon  Hoo,  Mound  1,  7th  
    century  CE.  

    View Slide

  31. Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne  
    Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

    View Slide

  32. Gold  Belt  Buckle,  SuWon  Hoo,  
    Mound  1,  7th  century  CE.  
    Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  

    View Slide

  33. Incipit  Page,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  
    Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.  
    Engraved  Mirror,  from  
    Desborough,  50  BCE-­‐50  CE.  
    “They  came  to  another  island  and  a  
    wall  of  stone  around  it.  And  when  
    they  came  near,  a  great  beast  leaped  
    up  and  went  racing  about  the  island,  
    and  it  seemed  to  Maelduin  to  be  
    going  quicker  than  the  wind.    And  it  
    went  then  to  the  high  part  of  the  
    island,  and  it  did  the  straightening-­‐of-­‐
    the-­‐body  feat,  that  is,  its  head  below,  
    its  feet  above…it  turned  in  its  skin,  
    the  flesh  and  the  bones  going  around  
    the  skin  outside  without  moving.    And  
    at  another  _me  the  skin  outside  
    would  turn  like  a  mill,  and  the  flesh  
    and  the  bones  not  s_rring.”  

    View Slide

  34. The  Bri_sh  Isles  
    Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  9th  
    Century  CE.  
    Iona

    View Slide

  35. Gospel  Page   Carpet  Page   Incipit  Page  
    Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  Century  
    CE.    

    View Slide

  36. St.  MaWhew,  Book  of  
    Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  
    Century.  

    View Slide

  37. Carpet  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  
    Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  Century  
    CE.    

    View Slide

  38. Beginning  of  MaWhew,  Book  
    of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐Saxon,  9th  
    Century  CE.    

    View Slide

  39. Chi-­‐Rho,  San  Vitale  Ravenna,  547  CE  
    Chi  Rho  Iota  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐
    Saxon,  9th  Century  CE.    

    View Slide

  40. Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of  
    Kells,  9th  Century  CE.  
    Two  Cats  Catching  Mice  
    Wafer  

    View Slide

  41. Chi-­‐Rho  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  9th  
    Century  CE.  
    Engraved  Mirror,  from  
    Desborough,  50  BCE-­‐50  CE.  

    View Slide


  42. 10˚
    40˚
    50˚
    10˚ 20˚
    711
    714
    670
    697
    711
    Kairouan
    Carthage
    Tulaytulah (Toledo)
    Mérida
    Oviedo
    (c.790)
    Tangier
    Saragossa
    Ceuta
    Toulouse
    Poitiers
    Turones
    London
    Sutton Hoo
    Hamwih
    Paris
    Geneva
    Milan
    Ratisbon
    Turin
    Verona
    Bononia
    Florence
    Genoa
    Venice
    Ravenna
    Rome
    Naples
    Taranto
    Athens
    Thessalonica
    Adrianople
    Varna
    Constantinople
    Smyrna
    Bari
    Spalatum
    Palermo Messina
    Lyon
    Marseille
    Barshilunah (Barcelona)
    Tarrakunah (Tarragona)
    Cartagena
    Algiers
    Qurtubah (Córdoba)
    Cologne
    Nijmegen
    Dorestad Paderborn
    (776)
    Hedeby
    York
    Scone
    Winchester
    Glastonbury
    Cividale
    Quintanilla
    de las Viñas
    Lorsch
    (after 764)
    St Maurice
    d’Agaune
    Jarrow (684)
    Monkwearmouth (674)
    Reculver (669)
    Grenoble
    Germigny
    -des-Prés
    (c.800)
    Jouarre
    (670s)
    Ingelheim
    Centula (790s)
    Aachen
    (795)
    Escomb
    (670s) Hexham
    Ripon (670s)
    Yeavering
    St Denis
    Benevento
    (c.770)
    Tempio di
    Clitunno
    San Vincenzo al Volturno
    Pavia
    Lomello
    San Pedro
    della Nave
    São Gião
    de Navaré
    São Frutuoso
    de Montelios
    San Juan
    de Baños
    Santa Comba
    de Bande
    Santianes
    de Pravia
    Santa María
    de Melque
    Canterbury
    (after 597)
    Seine
    Rhine
    Tagus
    Ebro
    Danube
    Elbe
    Oder
    Vistula
    A T L A N T I C
    O C E A N
    N O R T H
    S E A
    BA LT I C
    S E A
    BLACK
    SEA
    M E D I T E R
    R
    A
    N
    E A N S E A
    A
    D
    R
    I A
    T I C
    S E A
    A L P S
    P
    Y
    R E N E E S
    BALTIC
    PEO
    P
    LES
    S L A
    V
    S
    S
    L
    A
    V
    S
    NO
    RTHM
    E N
    (SCA
    NDINAV I A N S )
    SAXO N S
    F R I S I A N
    S
    BRETONS
    BASQUES
    B
    ALEARIC IS
    CORSICA
    SARDINIA
    SICILY
    MALTA CRETE
    BAVARIA
    AQUITAINE
    ASTURIAS
    KINGDOM OF
    THE PICTS
    SCOTTISH
    KINGDOMS
    IRISH
    KINGDOMS
    STRATH-
    CLYDE
    EAST
    ANGLIA
    KENT
    WELSH
    STATES
    WEST
    WALES
    NORTHUMBRIA
    MERCIA
    AVAR
    EMPIRE
    BULGARIA
    B
    Y
    Z
    A
    N
    T I N E E M P I R E
    U
    M
    A
    Y
    Y
    A
    D
    C
    A
    L I P H A T E
    KIN
    G
    DO
    M
    OF THE LOMBARDS
    FRANKISH KINGDOM
    WESSEX
    N
    0
    0
    200 miles
    300 kms
    Centres and Distribution
    of Luxury Goods c.730
    Muslim Umayyad Caliphate
    date of Muslim conquest
    Byzantine Empire
    Frankish Kingdom
    Kingdom of the Lombards
    mints represented in the
    Sutton Hoo burial (c.630)
    provenance of objects found in
    the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630)
    distribution of marble sarcophagi
    and capitals quarried/carved
    in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C
    ecclesiastical structures of which
    significant remains survive
    secular (mostly royal) sites with
    substantial surviving fragments
    or known from literary sources
    trade route
    670
    1

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  43. 714
    do
    90)
    Saragossa
    Toulouse
    Poitiers
    Turones
    London
    Sutton Hoo
    Hamwih
    Paris
    Geneva
    Milan
    Ratisbon
    Turin
    Verona
    Bononia
    Florence
    Genoa
    Venice
    Ravenna
    Lyon
    Marseille
    Cologne
    Nijmegen
    Dorestad Paderborn
    (776)
    Winchester
    Glastonbury
    Civida
    Quintanilla
    de las Viñas
    Lorsch
    (after 764)
    St Maurice
    d’Agaune
    Reculver (669)
    Grenoble
    Germigny
    -des-Prés
    (c.800)
    Jouarre
    (670s)
    Ingelheim
    Centula (790s)
    Aachen
    (795)
    St Denis
    Tempio d
    Clitunno
    Pavia
    Lomello
    o
    e
    Canterbury
    (after 597)
    Seine
    Rhine
    Ebro
    A
    A L P S
    P
    Y
    R E N E E S
    SAXO
    BRETONS
    BASQUES
    CORSICA
    BAVARIA
    AQUITAINE
    TURIAS
    KENT
    WEST
    WALES
    KIN
    G
    DO
    M
    OF TH
    FRANKISH KINGDOM
    WESSEX
    714
    Saragossa
    Toulouse
    Poitiers
    Turones
    London
    Sutton Hoo
    Hamwih
    Paris
    Geneva
    Milan
    Ratisbon
    Turin
    Verona
    Bononia
    Florence
    Genoa
    Venice
    Ravenna
    Rome
    Adrianople
    Varna
    Constantinople
    Spalatum
    Lyon
    Marseille
    Barshilunah (Barcelona)
    Cologne
    Nijmegen
    Dorestad Paderborn
    (776)
    Hedeby
    York
    Scone
    Winchester
    Glastonbury
    Cividale
    Quintanilla
    de las Viñas
    Lorsch
    (after 764)
    St Maurice
    d’Agaune
    Jarrow (684)
    Monkwearmouth (674)
    Reculver (669)
    Grenoble
    Germigny
    -des-Prés
    (c.800)
    Jouarre
    (670s)
    Ingelheim
    Centula (790s)
    Aachen
    (795)
    Escomb
    (670s) Hexham
    Ripon (670s)
    Yeavering
    St Denis
    Tempio di
    Clitunno
    San Vincenzo al Volturno
    Pavia
    Lomello
    Canterbury
    (after 597)
    Seine
    Rhine
    Ebro
    Danube
    Elbe
    Oder
    Vistula
    N O R T H
    S E A
    BA LT I C
    S E A
    BLACK
    SEA
    A
    D
    R
    I A
    T I C
    S
    A L P S
    P
    Y
    R E N E E S
    BALTIC
    PEO
    P
    LES
    S L A
    V
    S
    S
    L
    A
    V
    S
    NO
    RTHM
    E N
    (SCA
    NDINAV I A N S )
    SAXO N S
    F R I S I A N
    S
    BRETONS
    BASQUES
    CORSICA
    BAVARIA
    AQUITAINE
    RIAS
    KINGDOM OF
    THE PICTS
    SCOTTISH
    KINGDOMS
    H
    OMS
    STRATH-
    CLYDE
    EAST
    ANGLIA
    KENT
    WELSH
    STATES
    WEST
    WALES
    NORTHUMBRIA
    MERCIA
    AVAR
    EMPIRE
    BULGARIA
    KIN
    G
    DO
    M
    OF THE
    FRANKISH KINGDOM
    WESSEX
    s
    Centres and Distribution
    of Luxury Goods c.730
    Muslim Umayyad Caliphate
    date of Muslim conquest
    Byzantine Empire
    Frankish Kingdom
    Kingdom of the Lombards
    mints represented in the
    Sutton Hoo burial (c.630)
    provenance of objects found in
    the Sutton Hoo burial (c.630)
    distribution of marble sarcophagi
    and capitals quarried/carved
    in Toulouse region, 6th-7th C
    ecclesiastical structures of which
    significant remains survive
    secular (mostly royal) sites with
    substantial surviving fragments
    or known from literary sources
    trade route
    670
    1

    View Slide

  44. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century  
    Alpha   Omega  
    The  beginning  and  the  
    end.  

    View Slide

  45. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century  
    Fish  =  Ichthus  
    Iesous  
    Christos  
    Theou  
    Uios  
    Sotor  

    View Slide

  46. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century  
    Visigothic  Eagle  Fibulae,  Spain,  
    5-­‐6th  century  CE  

    View Slide

  47. Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope
    Leo III in 800
    Rome
    Aachen
    Leo III: “To Charles, the most pious Augustus, crowned by
    God, the great peace-giving Emperor, life and victory!”

    View Slide

  48. Saint Matthew, Folio 15,
    Coronation Gospels, from
    Aachen, 9th century (c.
    800-810).

    View Slide

  49. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation
    Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century (c.
    800-810).
    Saint  MaWhew,  Book  of  
    Durrow,  660-­‐680.  

    View Slide

  50. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation
    Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century (c.
    800-810).
    St. Matthew Writing His Gospel,
    Lindisfarne Gospels, from
    Lindisfarne, England, c.715- 720.

    View Slide

  51. Saint Matthew, Folio 15, Coronation
    Gospels, from Aachen, 9th century (c.
    800-810).
    Portrait of Terentius Neo and his
    wife, from Pompeii, 1st century CE.

    View Slide

  52. Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo
    Gospels, from Hautevillers. 9th
    century.

    View Slide

  53. Saint Matthew. Folio 15. Coronation
    Gospels, from Aachen. 9th (c.800-810).
    Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo
    Gospels, from Hautevillers, 9th
    century.

    View Slide

  54. St. Matthew Writing His Gospel,
    Lindisfarne Gospels, from Lindisfarne,
    England, c.715- 720.
    Saint Matthew, Folio 18, Ebbo
    Gospels, from Hautevillers, c. 816-835.

    View Slide

  55. Saint Matthew, Folio 18,
    Ebbo Gospels, from
    Hautevillers, 9th century.
    St. Matthew Writing His Gospel,
    Lindisfarne Gospels, from
    Lindisfarne, England, c.715- 720.

    View Slide

  56. Lindisfarne Gospels,
    c.715- 720.
    Ebbo Gospels, c.
    816-835.
    Corona7on  Gospels,  c.
    800-­‐810.      
    Book  of  Durrow,  
    660-­‐680.  

    View Slide

  57. View Slide

  58. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  

    View Slide

  59. Jean  Pucelle,  the  Book  of  Hours  of  
    Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
    “Mary  of  Burgundy  at  Prayer,”  Book  of  Hours  of  Mary  of  Burgundy,  by  
    the  Master  of  Mary  of  Burgundy,  Belgium,  ca.  1480.  Tempera  on  
    Parchment,  225  x  165  mm.  Courtesy  of  Vienna,  Österreichische  
    Na_onalbibliothek,  Codex  Vindobonensis,  1857,  f.  14v.  

    View Slide

  60. Angelina  Jolie  with  her  Children.   Paris  Hilton  with  her  dog.  

    View Slide

  61. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  

    View Slide

  62. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  

    View Slide

  63. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  

    View Slide

  64. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
    Jous_ng  Scene  
    Marginalia  

    View Slide

  65. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia_on,  
    the  Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
    Marginalia  
    Children  playing  

    View Slide

  66. Islam  and  the  Word  

    View Slide

  67. Muhammad's  Call  to  Prophecy  and  The  First  
    Revela_on:  Folio  from  a  manuscript  of  the  
    Majma'  al-­‐Tawarikh  (Compendium  of  
    Histories),  Herat,  Afghanistan,  About  1425  
    CE.  

    View Slide

  68. View Slide

  69. Parchment  leaf  from  a  Koran  wriWen  
    in  Hijazi,  Hijaz  Province,  the  Arabian  
    Peninsula,  or  Syria;  2nd  half  of  7th  
    century  

    View Slide

  70. Page  from  the  Qu’ran,  Syria,  9th  Century.  

    View Slide

  71. View Slide

  72. Page  from  the  Shahmenah,  Iran,  c.  1540.  

    View Slide

  73. View Slide

  74. View Slide

  75. View Slide

  76. View Slide

  77. View Slide

  78. View Slide

  79. View Slide

  80. View Slide

  81. View Slide

  82. View Slide

  83. View Slide