Going Mobile

Going Mobile

A high level overview of the available solutions for going your business mobile.

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Stratos Pavlakis

January 15, 2014
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Transcript

  1. Going Mobile the well grounded mobile developer

  2. Newsroom Smartphone market drives 600% growth in mobile web usage

    eBay global mobile sales generated nearly $2 billion in 2010 The average smartphone user visits up to 24 websites a day and the top 50% of websites only account for 40% of all mobile visits Mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common web access devices worldwide by 2013 PayPal is seeing up to $10 million in mobile payment volume per day
  3. 2013 shipments by Segment 2012 2013 2014 PC + Notebooks

    341,273 303,100 281,568 Ultramobile 9,787 18,598 39,896 Tablet 120,203 184,431 263,229 Mobile Phone 1,746,177 1,810,304 1,905,030 2,217,440 2,316,433 2,489,723 Source: Gartner (October 2013)
  4. 2013 shipments by OS 2012 2013 2014 Android 505,509 879,910

    1,115,289 Windows 346,468 331,559 363,803 iOS/MacOS 212,875 271,949 338,106 RIM 34,584 23,103 19,297 Others 1,118,004 809,912 653,228 2,217,440 2,316,433 2,489,723 Source: Gartner (October 2013)
  5. Thinking Mobile

  6. • about shrinking things • about fitting things • a

    movable desktop • just another interface Mobile is not
  7. • to focus on what truly matters • to make

    sure that what stays on the screen is the most important set of features • to emphasize content (over navigation) • to know your business & customers • about obtaining new abilities Mobile is
  8. None
  9. Mobile Usage Patterns

  10. James Pearce “The fact that the user has a small

    screen in their hand is one thing - the fact that it is in their hand at all is another. The fact that the user may be walking, driving, or lounging is yet another. In fact, it’s quite likely that they really deserve different content and services altogether - or, at least, a differently prioritized version of the default desktop experience.”
  11. Luke Wroblewski “I like to imagine people as one eyeball

    and one thumb.”
  12. • micro tasking (repetitive now) • I am local (urgent

    now) • I am bored (bored now) Mobile Behaviours
  13. Mobile Interaction Types Lookup/Find I need an answer to something

    now - frequently related to my current location in the world. Explore/Play I have some time to kill and just want a few idle time distractions. Check In/Status Something important to me, keeps changing or updating and I want to stay on top of it. Edit/Create I need to get something done now that can’t wait. urgent/local bored/local repeat/micro-tasking urgent/micro-tasking
  14. Mobile is about embracing constraints & new capabilities

  15. • screen size • low or unstable bandwidth • battery

    life • performance* • different behaviour/actions? Constraints
  16. • camera • mic • gps • gyroscope • accelerometer

    • light awareness • different behaviour/actions? New Capabilities
  17. show us the way

  18. Native vs Hybrid vs Web

  19. Native Specific to a given mobile platform, using the development

    tools and language that the respective platform supports
  20. • Multi touch • Fast graphics API • Fluid animation

    • Built-in components • Ease of use • Full Device Capabilities A Native App
  21. Hybrid Embed HTML5 apps inside a thin native container, combining

    the best & worst elements of native and HTML5
  22. • runs inside a native container • uses the device’s

    browser engine [WebView] but not the browser • has access to device capabilities that are not accessible in Mobile Web applications through a web-to-native abstraction layer A Hybrid App
  23. Local Hybrid Package HTML and JavaScript code inside the mobile

    application binary, in a manner similar to the structure of a native application. In this scenario you use REST APIs to move data back and forth between the device and the cloud.
  24. Server Hybrid Implement the full web application on the server

    (with optional caching for better performance), simply using the container as a thin shell over the UIWebview.
  25. Sencha Touch Allows your web apps to look and feel

    like native apps. Beautiful user interface components and rich data management, all powered by the latest HTML5 and CSS3 web standards. Keep them web-based or wrap them for distribution on mobile app stores.
  26. PhoneGap Allows your web apps to look and feel like

    native apps. Beautiful user interface components and rich data management, all powered by the latest HTML5 and CSS3 web standards. Keep them web-based or wrap them for distribution on mobile app stores.
  27. Web Create sophisticated apps with HTML5 and JavaScript alone, while

    several limitations remain like secure offline storage and access to native device functionality
  28. Jason Grigsby “Web links don’t open apps, they go to

    web pages.”
  29. • device optimized website (subdomain per device) • responsive design

    • responsive design + server side components (RESS) Web Strategies
  30. Device Optimized

  31. • each desktop URL has an equivalent different mobile URL

    • only send what a client needs • optimized source order • optimized URL structure • relies on user agent redirects to device-specific code templates • templates per device class • high duplication of code the Strategy
  32. Example Basecamp

  33. Example Twitter

  34. Example Facebook

  35. Example Flow

  36. Responsive Design

  37. Ethan Marcotte “Rather than creating disconnected designs, each tailored to

    a particular device or browser, we should instead treat them as facets of the same experience. In short, we need to practice responsive web design.”
  38. You can benefit from serving one document up to multiple

    contexts or devices You want to support the largest growing market of Internet users You want the cleanest, fastest, and most maintainable code base You understand that experience can and should be subtly different across different browsers You require the design to look identical across all browsers, including IE 8 and lower versions 70 percent or more of the current or expected visitors to the site likely to use Internet Explorer 8 or lower versions When to Use
  39. • A flexible, grid-based layout • Flexible images and media

    • CSS3 Media queries Ingredients
  40. Flexible Layout & Media

  41. 1. The browser is your new canvas 2. DIY with

    “target / context = result” 3. Fluid grid system (columnal, semantic, skeleton) 4. Typography - percentages & custom fonts 5. Images & Videos (max-width & different resolutions) 6. Iframes (Youtube/Vimeo) need JS The Flexible Grid
  42. CSS3 Media Queries

  43. Viewport 980px wide by default

  44. Viewport defacto <meta name="viewport" content="width=320" /> <meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, width=device-width"

    />
  45. Media Queries <link rel="stylesheet" media="screen (min-width: 320px)" href="mobile.css" /> @import

    url("phone.css") screen and (max-width:360px); @media screen and (max-width: 320px) { body { background-color: green; } }
  46. Queried Features width The width of the display area height

    The height of the display area device-width The width of the device’s rendering surface device-height The height of the device’s rendering surface orientation Accepts portrait or landscape values aspect-ratio Ratio of the display area’s width over its height. For example: on a desktop, you’d be able to query if the browser window is at a 16:9 aspect ratio device-aspect-ratio Ratio of the device’s rendering surface width over its height. For example: on a desktop, you’d be able to query if the screen is at a 16:9 aspect ratio
  47. Queried Features color The number of bits per color component

    of the device. For example, an 8-bit color device would successfully pass a query of (color: 8) color-index The number of entries in the color lookup table of the output device. For example, @media screen and (min-color- index: 256) monochrome Similar to color, the monochrome feature lets us test the number of bits per pixel in a monochrome device resolution Tests the density of the pixels in the device, such as screen and (resolution: 72dpi) or screen and (max-resolution: 300dpi) scan For tv based browsing. progressive or scan grid Tests whether the device is a grid-based display, like feature phones with one fixed-width font
  48. Identifying Breakpoints

  49. Device Based 320 pixels For small screen devices, like phones,

    held in portrait mode 480 pixels For small screen devices, like phones, held in landscape mode or ultra phones 600 pixels Smaller tables like Amazon Kindle 768 pixels Tech-inch tables like iPad, iPad mini & Nexus 1024 pixels iPad in landscape mode 1200 pixels Widescreen displays, primarily laptop and desktop browsers
  50. Stephen Greig “Remove yourself from the device based breakpoints mindset.

    And get into the design based breakpoints mindset.”
  51. Stephen Greig “Pull your browser window out and see when

    the design starts to break – that’s your first breakpoint.”
  52. Build for the future

  53. CSS3 is your friend • Custom Typography • Hover state

    animations • Multiple background images • Rounded corners • Text shadows • Gradients • Animations/Transitions
  54. CSS3 is your friend • Economy on low bandwidth •

    Progressive Enhancement
  55. the Strategy • 1 hyperlink = great experience across devices

    • content adapted on the browser • single URL structure • single source order • flexible media performance challenge
  56. Example Treehouse

  57. Example Adioso

  58. Example Skroutz

  59. RESS Best of Both Worlds. Combine adaptive layouts with server

    side component (not full page) optimization
  60. the Strategy • consistent URLs • one set of basic

    HTML markup • layout covered by flexible grids & media queries • optimized media • optimized source order • optimized application design • optimization happens on the server <body> {{>header}} [...document content...] {{>footer}} </body> header.html mobile_header.html footer.html mobile_footer.html
  61. HTML 5

  62. Why HTML 5? • Lighter codebase with better W3C validated

    semantic markup => Smaller footprint on low bandwidth devices • APIs to use the exciting new abilities of mobile devices
  63. Semantic Markup • HTML5 outline algorithm • Sectioning content •

    Sectioning roots • Text level semantics • Don’t be lazy, use Basic ARIA (i.e. landmark roles)
  64. HTML 5 APIs WebStorage Recommendation Offline Cache Working Draft Geolocation

    Candidate Recommendation Device Orientation and Motion Working Draft File & FileReader Working Draft getUserMedia/Stream API Working Draft Canvas Candidate Recommendation Video/Audio Working Draft Page Visibility Recommendation Web Workers Candidate Recommendation
  65. Native HTML5 Hybrid Features Graphics Native APIs HTML, Canvas, SVG

    HTML, Canvas, SVG Performance Fast Slow Slow Native look and feel Native Emulated Emulated Distribution Appstore Web Appstore Device Access Camera Yes No Yes Notifications Yes No Yes Contacts, calendar Yes No Yes Offline storage Secure file storage Shared SQL Secure file system, shared SQL Geolocation Yes Yes Yes Gestures Swipe Yes Yes Yes Pinch, spread Yes No Yes Connectivity Online and offline Mostly online Online and offline Development skills ObjectiveC, Java HTML5, CSS, Javascript HTML5, CSS, Javascript Synopsis
  66. Ben Frain “Always be best to start a design thinking

    about the mobile/small screen experience and building up from there. Until then, it's likely you'll need to take existing desktop designs and retro-fit them to work responsively.”
  67. Mobile with Rails

  68. • create a new mobile app :) • RESS ◦

    add custom MIME type ◦ add alternative views path ◦ use Rails 4.1 action pack variants options@rails
  69. Custom MIME type • before_filter • request.user_agent =~ /Mobile|webOS/ •

    Mime::Type.register_alias "text/html", :mobile • Separate Views views/projects/show.html.erb views/projects/show.phone.erb views/projects/show.tablet.erb *cannot share between types
  70. Alt view path • before_filter • request.user_agent =~ /Mobile|webOS/ •

    Separate directory i.e ‘phone_views’ • prepend_view_path Rails.root + 'app' + 'mobile_views' views/projects/show.html.erb phone_views/projects/show.html.erb tablet_views/projects/show.html.erb
  71. Action Pack Variants • before_filter • request.variant = :tablet if

    request.user_agent =~ /iPad/ views/projects/show.html.erb views/projects/show.html+tablet.erb views/projects/show.html+phone.erb
  72. Best Practices in UI

  73. • Prioritize content over navigation • Optimize for touch •

    Make user input as easy as possible Three basic ideas
  74. Content over Navigation

  75. Content over navigation • No need for multiple navigation bars

    • Show navigation only when user needs it • No back buttons needed • Be careful with fixed toolbars • Focus at one task at a time
  76. Show navigation when needed

  77. Fixed toolbar on top

  78. Focus on one task

  79. Optimize for Touch

  80. Optimize for touch • Big tappable actions • Destructive actions

    outside of user comfort zone • Most reliable touch gestures: tap, drag, swipe • Hover is obsolete, kill it with fire
  81. Apple HIG: 44x44 pts

  82. Microsoft 9mm touch targets, 7mm minimum size 2mm minimum spacing

    between actions
  83. User tap comfort zone (for right-handed users)

  84. Common Gestures tap, drag & swipe

  85. Luke Wroblewski “On-hover menus on the web have also become

    dumping grounds for actions not deemed important enough to be on the screen but still important enough to reveal on hover. ”
  86. • Show info on screen if it’s important enough •

    Show info on tap/swipe if it doesn’t introduce an extra step • Show info on a separate screen if content is excessive • Kill it with fire to simplify, you know? How to deal with hovers
  87. Facilitate User Input

  88. Luke Wroblewski “We need to stop assuming that users won't

    do something because they're on their mobile phones.”
  89. Forms & Limited Space • No room for left- or

    right- aligned labels • Top aligned labels are the way to go • Even better: labels inside input fields • Utilize the different input types (url, email etc) for even easier input
  90. Labels in Inputs • Help text should never be a

    part of answer • Styling should be distinguishable • Keep in screen when user focus is on field
  91. Alternative Input Types • Alternative keyboards make entering a URL/email

    address much easier • Avoid multiple select menus (tap-intensive) • Provide alternative controls (e.g. spinners) • Use smart defaults
  92. Tools

  93. • Besides enabling HTML5 structural elements for IE, it also

    provides the ability to conditionally load further polyfills, CSS files, and additional JavaScript files based on a number of feature tests. • Makes it easy for you to write conditional JavaScript and CSS to handle each situation, whether a browser supports a feature or not Modernizr
  94. • css3-mediaqueries.js • respond.js • matchMedia.js • modernizr • html5-shiv

    • picturefill Polyfills
  95. Compass & Susy • Replace Bootstrap bloat • Only include

    the parts we need • Lots of useful extensions available • Susy makes creating flexible & fixed grids a (relative) breeze
  96. Icon Font (or SVG) • No more sprite sheets •

    Easier to update • Flexible - one glyph, different states • Browser support
  97. References

  98. Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski Responsive Web Design by Ethan

    Marcotte Responsive Web Design with HTML5 & CSS3 by Ben Frain Books
  99. • http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/sections.html#outline • www.alistapart.com/articles/responsive-web-design/ • http://wiki.developerforce.com/page/Native,_HTML5,_or_Hybrid: _Understanding_Your_Mobile_Application_Development_Options • https://developers.google.com/webmasters/smartphone-sites/details •

    http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1390 • http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1392 • http://www.icenium.com/blog/icenium-team-blog/2012/06/14/what-is-a-hybrid-mobile-app- • http://venturebeat.com/2013/11/20/html5-vs-native-vs-hybrid-mobile-apps-3500-developers-say-all- three-please/ Web
  100. • http://37signals.com/svn/posts/3257-backstage-basecamp-for-mobile • http://www.theguardian.com/info/developer-blog/2013/oct/14/mobile-first-responsive-ie8 • http://alistapart.com/article/smartphone-browser-landscape • http://bradfrostweb.com/blog/web/mobile-first-responsive-web-design/ • http://yiibu.com/about/site/

    • http://globalmoxie.com/blog/mobile-web-responsive-design.shtml • http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1071 Web