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The Kukui Cup and Open Power Quality: Creating Smart Consumers for the Smart Grid

The Kukui Cup and Open Power Quality: Creating Smart Consumers for the Smart Grid

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Philip Johnson

August 17, 2014
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  1. (1) The Kukui Cup and Open Power Quality: Creating Smart

    Consumers for the Smart Grid Philip Johnson Collaborative Software Development Laboratory Information and Computer Sciences University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI USA
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  5. (5) Who Am I?  I am a small island chain...

     ... with a small, isolated electrical grid...  ... importing oil/coal for over 80% of my energy...  ... an economic outflow equal to 10% of my GDP...  ... despite significant local renewable resources...
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  7. (7) In 1965

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  13. (13) Hawaii 2014 = Iceland 1965  A small island chain...

     .. with a small, isolated electrical grid...  ... importing oil/coal for over 80% of its energy...  ... an expense equivalent to 10% of its GDP...  ... despite significant renewable resources...
  14. (14) How do we engage people with energy issues and

    change societal behavior?
  15. (15) The Kukui Cup Open Power Quality  Two approaches

  16. (16) The original energy user interface Not enough to support

    behavioral change
  17. (17) Is this enough? behavior feedback

  18. (18) How about this? behavior feedback prizes!

  19. (19) The Kukui Cup approach behavior feedback education experiences prizes

    GAMIFICATION
  20. (20) Six Kukui Cups (2011-present) Univ. of Hawaii Manoa Smart

    meters 2011-12 3 week challenge 2012-13 9 month challenge 2013-14 2 week challenge Hawaii Pacific Univ. Smart meters 2012-13 3 week challenge 2013-14 3 week challenge East-West Center No smart meters 2012-13 2 week challenge Approximately 4,000 students invited; over 1500 active players
  21. (21) Video

  22. (22) Example: 2011 Kukui Cup 3 weeks, 3 rounds, 24

    events 418 players, 850 hours (4,094 unique visits, 170,000 hits)
  23. (23) Game Play: In the real world Engage Educate Change

    energy behaviors
  24. (24) Game Play: Kickoff Party

  25. (25) Game Play: Posters

  26. (26) Game Play: Flyers

  27. (27) Game Play: Swag

  28. (28) Game Play: Activities

  29. (29) Game Play: Excursions

  30. (30) Game Play: Prizes

  31. (31) Game Play: Online Educate Provide feedback on behavior Compare

    Compete
  32. (32) Game Play: The App

  33. (33) Game Mechanic: Real time feedback

  34. (34) Game Mechanic: Smart Grid Game

  35. (35) Game Mechanic: Daily Energy Goal

  36. (36) Game Mechanic: Top Score Game

  37. (37) Game Mechanic: Raffle Game

  38. (38) Game Mechanic: Social Bonus

  39. (39) Game Mechanic: Referral Bonus

  40. (40) Game Mechanic: Badges

  41. (41) The Goal: Creating a virtuous circle Game mechanics connect

    real world to online world Education Behavior Feedback
  42. (42) So how did it work? Did the students learn?

    Did they reduce energy consumption?
  43. (43) Kukui Cup can have positive impact on energy knowledge

    0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 11" 12" 13" 14" 15" 16" 17" 18" 19" Pre/compe44on" Post/compe44on" Number'of'correct'answers' Non/par4cipant" Par4cipant"
  44. (44) Kukui Cup can have (short term) positive impact on

    consumption
  45. (45) Unanticipated behavioral changes  Participation in sustainability groups  Interest in

    sustainability & STEM courses  Change in major to STEM discipline!
  46. (46) Kukui Cup appears to generate "diffusion"  You don't have

    to play the game to be influenced by it.
  47. (47) So how did it work? Did the game mechanics

    incentivize the right behaviors?
  48. (48) Visualizing game mechanics  40 floors, 27 players/floor -> 1080

    possible players
  49. (49) What it means  Each arc is one roommate  A

    circle of circles is a floor  Green fill: played today  Energy Goals achieved  Total points achieved  Grey lines are in-game social interactions  Color indicates participation level
  50. (50) End of day 1

  51. (51) End of day 20

  52. (52) End of day 27

  53. (53) Game mechanic result: winning floor had highest participation, social

    interaction
  54. (54) Game mechanic result: winning "lounge" had most energy goals

  55. (55) Game mechanic result: Winning individual had high external social

    interactions
  56. (56) Conclusion: Mechanics incentivized desired behaviors

  57. (57) DIY Kukui Cup

  58. (58) WattDepot and Makahiki

  59. (59) What if energy consumption isn't the only energy problem?

  60. (60) “Hawaii is a globally important case study. The kinds

    of governance, system planning, and technical quagmires Hawaii finds itself in as it negotiates the transition to clean energy are the same challenges the mainland will face on a larger scale.” -Mackay Miller, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
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  62. (62) When you read: “interconnection study”, “grid stability”, “circuit penetration”

    think: Power Quality
  63. (63) Centralized Grid A fundamental architectural change in the grid

    may require a fundamental change to power quality Why are renewables difficult? Distributed Grid
  64. (64) Our approach: Distributed Crowd-sourced Power Quality Monitoring

  65. (65) Our Special Sauce Reduce price of power quality monitors

    by 5x (from $250 to $50) Crowd source power quality data collection Open source hardware, software, and data
  66. (66) OPQ User Communities Utilities Energy Geeks Military Green Economy

  67. (67) OPQ technology: Generation 1 OPQBox + OPQHub

  68. (68) OPQBox (Generation 1)  TI MSP430 IC: 4 KSPS 16Bit

    ADC (not enough!)  Raspberry PI: WiFi + signal processing (not enough!)  120->12V wall wart transformer: (not enough!)  NTP synchronization (maybe enough!)
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  70. (70) OPQHub (Generation 1)  Two tier web application (not enough!)

     Play framework  MySQL repository (not enough!)  Web sockets for “heartbeat” communication and to avoid proxy/firewall issues.
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  75. (75) Generation 1 Pilot Study  3 OPQBoxes produced, distributed to

    three locations on Oahu  1 OPQHub installed to collect OPQBox data  4 weeks of data collection  8,000 Voltage, 16 Frequency events detected  2 events outside the ITIC “acceptable” range
  76. (76) Results: Solar vs. PV (local)

  77. (77) Solar vs. PV (grid)

  78. (78) Solar vs. PV (hurricane)

  79. (79) Results: Grid-wide event

  80. (80) Generation 2  OPQBox improvements: •  Resister divider for direct

    sensing (no wall wart) •  50 KSPS 16Bit ADC (allows IEEE standards of 256 samples per waveform and locking to 60 cycles) •  Event recording on power outage via FRAM  OPQHub improvements: •  Scalability •  UI/UX improvements
  81. (81) Next Step: Pilot Study 2  Starting in Q1, 2015

     Goals: •  10 second generation OPQBoxes •  Comparison to commercial PQ monitor •  IEEE compliant power measurements •  Assess NTP synchronization  Looking for project partners!
  82. (82) For more information

  83. (83) In summary  We need smart consumers for the smart

    grid.  We must be smart about our consumption.  We must be smart about the state of the grid and our impact on it.  Both forms of "smart" inevitably lead to social (if not political) action!
  84. (84) Thank you!

  85. (85)